H177 Midterm Liu


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H177 Midterm Liu

  1. 1. Cerebroconditioning: Mental Training for Individual and Societal Development Rebecca Liu Psychobiology
  2. 2. Abstract Brain mapping holds unlimited potential for understanding the organ that is perhaps most integral to man’s existence. The practical applications that may stem from being able to localize various mental and physical functions are manifold: pinpointing the base “pleasure” center or centers would lend itself to the elimination of destructive behaviors and unhealthy thoughts through artificial electrical stimulation and psychological conditioning. Of course, the realization of this proposal would require strict governmental regulation, due to the possibilities for misuse of such powerful techniques, such as mass brain washing and even complete control.
  3. 3. Concept Explored in this proposal are experimental procedures used to determine the structural details and functional qualities of the brain. These include computerized tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG). Also integral to the concept presented are Pavlovian (or classical) conditioning and operant conditioning, which help form the fundamental principles of learning psychology. Such procedures are employed for the acquisition of new responses and behaviors in humans and other species. The application of these brain imaging techniques to psychological conditioning procedures is the basis of the project proposal.
  4. 4. Context & Precedents Several techniques for brain imaging are currently in use. EEGs were developed early in the 20th century to examine cerebral functioning by measuring the electrical activity of neurons. PETs were first used in the late 1950s to study metabolic processes in the brain with gamma rays. CTs and MRIs came about in the 1970s, allowing visualization of the structure of the brain using, respectively, x-rays and electromagnetic fields. fMRIs were developed in the early 1990s to study function through changes in blood flow, correlated with neuronal activity.1 There are two main types of psychological conditioning originating in the early 20th century: Pavlovian, which consists of pairing stimuli to train a response to one stimulus, and operant, which involves pairing a behavior with a consequence to train the same or a different behavior.2 Brain stimulation has been used in the past, with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for pain and movement disorders, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression.34
  5. 5. Project Proposal (I) Individualized brain maps with localized emotions will be constructed from the combination of results from several types of brain imaging. Since With specific people are so unique, these will allow for the areas pinpointed tailoring of treatments to individuals. as “pleasure,” “disgust,” etc., 3D structures, based on functions, may be formulated.
  6. 6. Project Proposal (II) Artistic matching of the natural activity in the brain, due to genuinely experienced emotions, and induced activity in the same specific regions, from electrode stimulation, will allow the recreation of feelings in artificial settings on command. This region-specific stimulation will be used with psychological conditioning by individuals to enforce in themselves those behaviors that they mentally realize are beneficial to themselves, but cannot bring themselves to do, and extinguish harmful tendencies.
  7. 7. Project Proposal (III) Ethical quagmires abound in this proposal: the misuse of brain manipulation techniques could veritably lead to a worldwide brainwashing, or some other 1984-inspired plot. This, then calls for strict regulation by governmental agencies, such that these powerful techniques not be so misused. Of course, the likelihood of the formation of such perfect public policy is not large, but with such dramatic scientific advances always come significant problems.
  8. 8. Conclusion The proliferation of fast food and unhealthy junk foods in modern society, particularly wealthy, industrialized countries, has called for a strong and permanent solution before lethargy entirely overtakes the growing generation of young Americans. Long have techniques for viewing the structures and functions of the human brain been used in attempts to localize various abilities and emotions, which govern our wellbeing and enhance or limit our physical and intellectual capabilities. Furthering such studies will hopefully allow scientists to map the brain's true pleasure center or centers; doing so may then lead to the implantation of electrodes in said areas of the brain, which can then be used to "train," in as non-totalitarian a manner as possible, those of future generations to enjoy those activities that would benefit themselves, mentally and physically.
  9. 9. References 1. Andreasen, Nancy C. "Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry." Science 239 (1988): 1381-1388. Print. 2. Bouton, Mark E. Learning and Behavior. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 2007. Print. 3. "Deep Brain Stimulation." NeurosurgeryToday.org. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). April 2007. Web. 10 February 2010. 4. "Factsheet: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)." Mental Health America. Mental Health America. Web. 10 February 2010.
  10. 10.  Text Sources Bibliography  "Deep Brain Stimulation." NeurosurgeryToday.org. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). April 2007. Web. 10 February 2010.  "Factsheet: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)." Mental Health America. Mental Health America. Web. 10 February 2010.  "Study Shows Brain's Pleasure Response - And How It Can Go Wrong." Scientific Blogging. 24 June 2007. Web. 10 February 2010.  Andreasen, Nancy C. "Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry." Science 239 (1988): 1381-1388. Print.  Bouton, Mark E. Learning and Behavior. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 2007. Print.  Buxton, Richard B. Introduction to Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles and Techniques. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.  Cohn, Simon. "Petty Cash and the Neuroscientific Mapping of Pleasure." BioSocieties 3 (2008): 151-163. Print.  Colavita, Francis B., and Frank Szeligo. "Classical Conditioning with Brain Stimulation at One Site Serving as Both CS and US." Physiology and Behavior 6 (1971): 41-44. Print.  Costa, Vincent D., Peter J. Lang, Dean Sabatinelli, Francesco Versace, and Margaret M. Bradley. "Emotional Imagery: Assessing Pleasure and Arousal in the Brain's Reward Circuitry." Human Brain Mapping 0.0 (2010): n. pag. Web. 10 February 2010.  Dawson, Geraldine. "Frontal Electroencephalographic Correlates of Individual Differences in Emotion Expression in Infants: A Brain Systems Perspective on Emotion." Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 59.2/3 (1994): 135-151. Print.  Institute of Medicine. Mapping the Brain and Its Functions: Integrating Enabling Technologies into Neuroscience Research. National Academies Press, 1991. Print.  Kringelbach, Morten L., and Kent C. Berridge. "Towards a Functional Neuroanatomy of Pleasure and Happiness." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13.11 (2009): 479-487. Print.  Light, Sharee N., James A. Coan, Corrina Frye, H. Hill Goldsmith, and Richard J. Davidson. "Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity." Developmental Psychology 45.2 (2009): 525-533. Print.  McLean, John, David Brennan, David Wyper, Barrie Condon, Donald Hadley, and Jonathan Cavanagh. "Localisation of Regions of Intense Pleasure Response Evoked by Soccer Goals." Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 171.1 (2009): 33-43.  RadiologyInfo. The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Web. 10 February 2010.  Small, Dana M., Robert J. Zatorre, Alain Dagher, Alan C. Evans, and Marilyn Jones-Gotman. "Changes in Brain Activity Related to Eating Chocolate: From Pleasure to Aversion." Brain 124 (2001): 1720-1733. Print.  Waldstein, Shari R., Willem J. Kop, Louis A. Schmidt, Amy J. Haufler, David S. Krantz, and Nathan A. Fox. "Frontal Electrocortical and Cardiovascular Reactivity During Happiness and Anger." Biological Psychology 55 (2000): 3-23. Print.  Wyrwicka, Wanda, and Michael H. Chase. "Conditioning of Brain Stimulation-Induced Presleep Behavior." Physiology & Behavior 56:5 (1994): 883-889. Print.  Images  http://www.icsroscher.de/Bilder/EEG.gif  http://azahar.wordpress.com/2009/10/14/mapping-of-cat-brain/  http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/d/da/20060904231838!Head_CT_scan.jpg  http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2000/11/brain/composite_2.jpg  http://schlicken.blogsome.com/images/mapofbrain.jpg
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