On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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We have established that the effects of poverty on the brain can be devastating.
The good news is that being in poverty is not a sentence for a substandard life.
Brains are designed to reflect the environment they are in.
If we want our students to change we must change ourselves and the environment students spend time in everyday.
Brains Can Change Neuroplasticity and Gene Expression
Brains are designed to change and we have learned we can intentionally change the brain structure and organization.
Neuroplasticity is the quality that allow regions and specific changes to occur in the brain as a result of experience and environment.
Music Activity Using Music to Increase Intelligence
Music & Gene Expression
Learning to play music may cause changes in several sensory, motor, and higher order association areas that result in improved attention, sequencing, and processing(Stewart,2008)
Gene expression refers to the translation of information encoded in a gene into Protein or RNA.
Music & Gene Expression
This process switches or activate the gene.
Genes can be active (expressed) or silent (not expressed).
99 percent of humans share the same genes, yet the shared gene may be expressed in one person and not in the other.
Changing IQ … There’s good news.
Intelligence (as measured by IQ test), although highly inheritable is not 100 percent genetically determined.
Twin studies show us that a whopping 60 percent of the variance in IQ is attributable to epigenetic factors ,such as socioeconomics status (Turkheimer, Haley, Waldron,D’Onofrio,&Gottesman,2003).
Changing IQ Research shows that IQ may also be affected by such factors as:
Home environment and living conditions(Tong,Baghurst,Vimpani,&McMichael,2007).
Early childhood experiences and early educational intervention(Chaudhari et al.,2005).
Quality of nutrition(Isaacs et al.,2008).
These and other data indicate that IQ is not fixed but variable, and we can influence many of the factors influencing it.
Does Environmental Changes Raises IQ Scores?
Considered mentally retarded and unsuitable for adoption
Infant orphans not considered retarded
Scores in Low-SES Students
Environment Clearly Matters
Affectionate caregiver and aunts
IQ gains 29 points
Infant orphans not considered retarded
Dependent on others
Average loss of 26 IQ points
Related Socioeconomic Status
(Ramey, Brooks-Gunn et al., 1994) Socioeconomic status disadvantage students who participate in early invention programs have the potential of increasing their IQ as well.
Now what’s Your Opinion?
Fluid Intelligence is the student ability to rapidly adjust their strategies and thought processes from one context to another.
Fluid intelligence encompasses problem solving skills, as well as the ability to draw inferences and understand the relationships of concepts outside the formal, specific instruction and practice related to those concepts.
The good news is that it can be taught: in fact more hours of training that students receive, the greater the effects are (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides, & Perrig, 2008).
Fluid Intelligence Can Be Taught
We Can Change the Brain for the Better
A statistical strategy called multivariate analysis has helped us find that genetic influences within and among academic domains overlap a great deal (Kovas et al.,2007).
This analysis show that many of the same genes correlated with reading difficulties were also correlated with math difficulties such as the ability to sort, sequence, and process data.
We Can Change the Brain for the Better
Behavioral geneticist Robert Plomins studies are of particular interest to those who want to change students lives. His DNA research suggests the likelihood of generalist genes that serve multiple learning functions (Plomin & Kovas,2005).
The Brain’s Operating System Attentional Skills SequencingSkills Ability to Defer Gratification and Make a Sustained Effort Processing Skills Champion’s Mind-Set Short-Term and Working Memory
Educational Intervention and Long-Term Enrichment To maximize educational gains focus on early education (children under the age of 5). From birth to the age of 5 the brain is more receptive to major rewiring. Well-run, high-quality, early education programs can narrow or eliminate the socioeconomic performance gap (Brooks-Gunn, 1994; Barnett, 1998). Many improvements take four to six years (Campbell & Ramey, 1994).
Results of Individual, Early Childhood, or School-Based Enrichment Intervention Programs Improved language fluency, IQ, and other cognitive processes. Reduced school problems and academic failure in both elementary and high school. Improved social, academic, and emotional intelligence when implemented in early childhood. Displayed fewer risk behaviors, have fewer legal problems, are less likely to drop out of school, and are less dependent on welfare.
Practical Intelligence Intervention of Middle School Students (Williams, 2002).
The Boys & Girls Clubs of America After-School Enrichment Program (Schinle, Cole, & Poulin, 2000).
The Abecedarian Project at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Ramey & Campbell, 1991).
The Head Start Progam.
Practical Intelligence Intervention of Middle School Students Practical intelligence is intelligence that is directly actionable in everyday life…self-assessing and self-correcting during the learning process, instead of afterward. This intervention was applied to middle school students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in Connecticut and Massachusetts.
Practical Intelligence Intervention of Middle School Students This intervention boosted achievement in four skill areas: reading, writing, homework, and test taking. Results indicate that thinking skills can be taught to enhance academic success. The program emphasized five sources of metacognition: Knowing Why, Knowing Self, Knowing Differences, Knowing Process, and Revisiting.
The Boys & Girls Clubs of America After-School Enrichment Program Designed to help low-SES students living in public housing. The program was set up outside school, close to kids’ homes, provided transportation, and met parental cost , time, and curriculum wishes.
The Boys & Girls Clubs of America After-School Enrichment ProgramThe Resulting Data Showed Improved reading, verbal, writing, and tutoring skills. Better overall school performance. Stronger interest in class material. Higher school grades than those of the control group. Improved school attendance.
The Abecedarian Project at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill A carefully controlled study that randomly selected 57 low-SES infants to receive early intervention in a high-quality child care setting up to age 5. Sixteen years after the end of the intervention, when subjects were 21, the treated students, on average, attained higher scores on both cognitive and academic tests. Some critics point out that IQ gains in the experimental group initially rose then leveled off. True, yet in the area of life-skill intelligences the did very well.
Academic Benefits of Abecedarian
The Abecedarian Project at The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillThose Receiving The Enrichment Treatment Earned higher cognitive test scores through age 21. Demonstrated enhanced language skills. Earned consistently higher reading achievement scores. Demonstrated moderate effect sizes in mathematics achievement. Were more likely to still be in school at age 21 (40% vs. 20%). Were likely to attend a four-year college (35% vs. 14%). Were less likely to have experienced trouble with the legal system.
The Head Start Program Federally funded program provides economically deprived preschoolers with educational, nutritional, medical, and social services at special centers based in schools and community settings throughout the United States. Participating students demonstrate a higher educational outcomes and lower occurrences of criminal activities in later years (Love, 2005; Oden, Schweinhart, & Weikart, 2000).
Action Steps Change staff members’ mind-sets. Invest in staff. Support ongoing collaboration. Encourage staff dialogue. Gather quality data.
The Enrichment Mind-Set What Does Not Work! Focusing only on the basics (drill and kill). Maintaining order through a show of force. Eliminating or reducing time for arts, sports, and physical education. Increasing and intensifying classroom discipline. Decreasing interaction among students. Installing metal detectors. Delivering more heavy-handed top-down lectures. Pity kids raised in poverty. Assume that a background of poverty dooms them to failure.
You Can Win! Or Can You Win? The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. To increase a child’s ability to learn early intervention is… Not important. The sky is green and brown. I am really good looking. Very important. The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. What strategy works to increase a child’s intellectual ability? Pity children in poverty. Increase time in music, art, & PE. Focusing on drill and kill basics. Decrease student interaction. The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Well-run, high-quality, early education programs can … A. be unproductive. B. hurt children in poverty. C. narrow or eliminate the socioeconomic performance gap. D. be intimidating for wealthy families. The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Fluid Intelligence generally encompasses problem solving, pattern recognition, abstract thinking, ability to draw inferences and … A. not paying attention skills B. not prepared skills C. reasoning skills D. tardy skills The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Brains are designed to reflect the ________ students spend time in everyday. A. Six Flags B. McDonalds C. Environment D. Movies The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Some brains changes have positive impact due quality nutrition, exercise, and ______. A. boredom B. drug abuse C. LEARNING D. skipping School The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Learning to play music may cause changes in several sensory, motor & higher thinking order areas of the ________. A. hair B. brain C. stomach D. foot The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Genes correlated with reading difficulties were also correlated with math difficulties such as the ability to sort data, sequence data, and ________. A. sleep B. play video games C. process data D. go to the movies The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!
You Can Win!OrCan You Win? Answer the following question correctly to win. Research shows that IQ may also be affected positively by a good home environment, positive early childhood experiences, and _________. A. dropping out of school. B. attending school daily ready to learn. C. tardy to school daily. D. not bringing supplies to school. The Game Show You Love To Hate or Hate To Love!