Chemistry of solutions
Formation of solutions
• When a solvent dissolves a solute.
– Solvent: component present in higher
proportion.
– Solute: c...
solubility
• For solid + liquid solutions
– Higher Temperature, higher solubility.
• For gas + liquid solutions
– Higher t...
Solution concentration
• Concentration: measure of the proportion of
solute present in a solution.
– It can be measured in...
Measuring concentration
• % volume; % mass (% solute from the
solution)
• In terms of moles:
– Molarity: M=moles of solute...
Making dilutions
• Principle: number of moles is kept constant.
• From Molarity= moles solute/L solution…
• Moles solute =...
Colligative properties
• Properties related to the concentration of a
solution.
• Increase in boiling point.
• Decrease in...
Colligative Properties
If the change in boiling/freezing point is:
DTb = Kb*m*i
DTf = Kf*m*i
(i: number of dissolved parti...
Concentration of solutions
• How many grams of potassium sulfate must
be added with enough water to make 1.5L of a
1.2M so...
Concentration of solutions
• A solution of water and ethyl alcohol (C2H6O)
is prepared by mixing 2 kg of water and 950 g
o...
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Chemistry of solutions

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Chemistry of solutions

  1. 1. Chemistry of solutions
  2. 2. Formation of solutions • When a solvent dissolves a solute. – Solvent: component present in higher proportion. – Solute: component present in less proportion. • Solvent  dissolves a solute through the process of: solvation. • Each solute has a limit of how much can be dissolved in a particular solvent.  this is very dependent of temperature (and pressure in the case of gases). Agitation is also a factor that influences the rate of solvation. • Solubility (physical property) the amount of solute that can be dissolved in a particular solvent (at given conditions). It is highly dependent on temperature (and pressure for gases).
  3. 3. solubility • For solid + liquid solutions – Higher Temperature, higher solubility. • For gas + liquid solutions – Higher temperature, lower solubility. – Higher pressure, higher solubility.
  4. 4. Solution concentration • Concentration: measure of the proportion of solute present in a solution. – It can be measured in terms of the solute. – It can be measured in terms of the solution. • For example: – A solution made with 70% water, 30% alcohol. – 1L of solution made with 10 mL aclohol.
  5. 5. Measuring concentration • % volume; % mass (% solute from the solution) • In terms of moles: – Molarity: M=moles of solute/L solution; 0.1M H2SO4 read: a sulfuric acid 0.1 molar solution. – molality: m = moles of solute/kg of solvent; – Normality: N = (moles of solute*n.eq.)/L solution; • Number of equivalents: related to particles that separate when in solution.
  6. 6. Making dilutions • Principle: number of moles is kept constant. • From Molarity= moles solute/L solution… • Moles solute = Molarity * L solution… • Therefore, moles = M*V • Since moles1 = moles2 M1*V1 = M2*V2 • Then, you may calculate volume changes to dilute/concentrate solutions.
  7. 7. Colligative properties • Properties related to the concentration of a solution. • Increase in boiling point. • Decrease in freezing point. • Decrease in vapor pressure. • Etc.
  8. 8. Colligative Properties If the change in boiling/freezing point is: DTb = Kb*m*i DTf = Kf*m*i (i: number of dissolved particles) Therefore, the boiling/freezing points of a solution: Tb = Tb o + DTb Tf = Tf o - DTf
  9. 9. Concentration of solutions • How many grams of potassium sulfate must be added with enough water to make 1.5L of a 1.2M solution?
  10. 10. Concentration of solutions • A solution of water and ethyl alcohol (C2H6O) is prepared by mixing 2 kg of water and 950 g of alcohol. What is the freezing and boiling points of the mixture? (Kf=1.86 °C/m ; Kb=0.512 °C/m)

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