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Tourism Concepts &Applications©Ramakrishna Kongalla
Indian literatureClassical Sanskrit Literature• Classical Sanskrit literature includes the Kavyas (epic poetry), theNataka...
• The Mricchakatika (the clay-cart) by Sudraka (248 A.D.)• The 13 plays of Bhasa (4th century B.C.-2nd century A.D,Swapnav...
• Literature in Pali and Prakrit• lord Buddha (500 B.C.) used Pali to give his sermons.• All the Buddhist canonical litera...
• Early Dravidian Literature• Early classical Tamil literature is known as Sangam literature meaning‘fraternity’, indicati...
• The twin epics, Silappadhikaram (the story of the anklet), written by Ilango-Adigal,• and Manimekalai (the story of Mani...
• Medieval Literature• Around 1000 A.D. local differences in Prakrit grew more and morepronounced, which later came to be ...
• Kabir (Hindi) says that Sanskrit is like water of a well stagnant,Bhasa like flowing water.• A seventh century Shaiva Ta...
• And then it is Gujarati in the 12th century. Gujarati poets like Narsi Mehta andPremananda occupy a prominent place in t...
• Surdas, Tulsidas and Meera Bai (15th to 16th Century A.D.)point to the great heights of Vaishnavite lyricism achievedby ...
• Women Poets of Bhakti• Women writers like Ghosha, Lopamudra, Gargi, Maitreyi,Apala, Romasha Brahmavadini, etc., right fr...
• The Literature of Nationalism, Reformism and Revivalism• Rangalal in Bengali, Mirza Ghalib in Urdu and BharatenduHarishc...
Role of Tourism• As an instrument for employment generation,poverty alleviation and sustainable humandevelopment• Promotes...
Different disciplines to Tourismsociological approach• provided much of the foundationfor leisure research• three major th...
Economic approach• looks at the economic valuation ofdifferent kinds of recreational andleisure facilities, such as outdoo...
Historical approach• looks at historical trendsin leisure and tourism,particularly in the U.S.,Canada, and Europe.Anthropo...
Tourism demand• Tourism demand is the ‘totalnumber of persons who travelor wish to travel, to use touristfacilities and se...
Cooper classification of demandLife cycle determinantsDomestic Age Adolescence/youngadult Marriage RetirementAttitude ...
Other determinants oftourism demand and travelpropensityLevel of urbanizationEconomic developmentPolitical FactorsTechnolo...
Economic determinants influencing Tourism• Per capita income• Economical status• Social – cultural factors• Levels of infr...
Importance of Tourism in Mountain areas• Tourism revenues have become aprimary source of income for manymountain communiti...
Development of Tourism in Himalayas• The Himalaya has for centuries caughtthe imagination of travelers• known for its brea...
Branding of Hotels• Brand named hotels fare betterthan independently operatedproperties in economicdownturns• during both ...
MNCs in Tourism and scenario• wide network of branchesand subsidiaries spreadover a number of countries• their worldwide a...
The negative role• lower domestic savings andinvestment rates by stiflingcompetition• often fail to reinvest much oftheir ...
Role of private in Domestic air transportation• Of a total number of 454 airportsand airstrips in India, 16 aredesignated ...
Role of National Tourism organizations• Ministry of Tourism• Indian Institute of Tourism andTravel Management• National Co...
• overseas offices are in constantcontact with tourists, travelintermediaries and media topromote tourism in India• field ...
Guidelines of ITDCTravel Agency• encourage quality standard and service• recognition granted by the Ministry of Tourism(MO...
Incredible India BrandBACKGROUND• Nation branding is an important and vital concept intoday’s era of global village.• Coun...
Experiencing the brand to experience India• The brand was projected in an aesthetic andpleasing manner so that every visit...
Effective marketing of Eventsultimate event promotionstrategy is to find “astarving crowd.”– 1. Create Your MarketingPlan ...
IUOTO (International Union of Official Travel Organisation)• In 1925, the International Corporation in tourism development...
Tourism Finance corporation of India• The Government of India had,pursuant to the recommendationsof the National Committee...
• ObjectiveTFCI provides financial assistance to enterprises for setting up and/or development of tourism-related projects...
Promoters Contribution• The minimum promoters contribution for the projects is 30%. Relaxation may, however, be allowed in...
Hotel meal plan• The American Plan (also listed as“AP”) means that the quoted rateincludes three meals a day, i.e.breakfas...
The Importance Of Hotels And Accommodation In Promoting Tourism• In the modern times, the way people spend their vacations...
INDIA LAND ENTRY POSTSfrom Nepal (from North part/North Border)– The border crossings are(India/Nepal side)Sunauli/Bhairaw...
• Time variationbetween twoLongitudes– 360/24 hours =15 degrees– 60min/15degrees= 4minutes• ACCULTURATION– Acculturation i...
• Xenophobia is defined as"an unreasonable fear offoreigners or strangers or ofthat which is foreign orstrange".• Xenophil...
Scientific Management• Scientific management, also called Taylorism,• was a theory of management that analyzed and synthes...
Profitability index (PI),• also known as profit investment ratio (PIR)and value investment ratio (VIR), is the ratio ofpay...
• Dvaita• also known as Bheda-vāda, Tattva-vāda and Bimba-pratibimba-vāda) is aschool of Vedanta founded byShriMadhvachary...
Nimbarka• for propagating the VaishnavaTheologyof Dvaitadvaita, duality in unity.• According to scholars headed by Prof. R...
South Indian Dynasties• There were several significant rulers and dynasties insouthern Indian history. Dynasties such as– ...
Voluntary Initiatives for Sustainability in Tourism• Mission Statement“To promote and support sustainable tourism developm...
Volunteer travel• Volunteer travel, volunteervacations, voluntourism, or vacanteerism• is travel which includes volunteeri...
Marketing Plan for Airlines•Situation AnalysisMarket SummarySWOT AnalysisCompetitionProduct OfferingKeys to SuccessCritica...
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• Concepts of Tourism and TouristsWhy people travelreal or perceived need to escape from the routine situations of home, w...
• Tourist InversionsDimension: EnvironmentContinua: Winter vs. Summer, cold vs. warmth, crowds vs. isolation, modern vs. a...
• Push-Pull EffectIso-Ahola’s model of the social psychology of tourismEscape from routine environments (Push)Rewards from...
• Tourism Typologiesmany tendencies exist simultaneouslytypes of tourist however show that some tend to occur togetherallo...
• The Grand Tour• was a circuit of Europe undertaken bythe wealthy, for reasons whichincluded culture, education, health a...
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Relationship Marketing• Relationship marketing is not about having a "buddy-buddy" relationshipwith your customers. Custom...
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Semantic barriers of communication for Tourism• Lack of common language• Poor vocabulary• Use of jargons• Poor grammar, pu...
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Negative impacts of mass tourism• Resources scarcity• Depletion of tourism attractions• Sexual abuse• Displacement• Erosio...
National Rail Museum isa museum in Chanakyapuri, NewDelhi which focuses on the railheritage of India it opened on the 1Feb...
Acid-Test Ratio•A stringent indicator that determines whether a firm has enough short-term assets to cover itsimmediate li...
Green Triangle• covers three majordestinations of North EastIndia - Kaziranga NationalPark in Assam, Guwahati -the capital...
PassportTypes of passports• Regular passport (Deep Blue/Black cover) - Issuedfor ordinary travel, such as vacations and bu...
Types• A rough standardization exists in types of passports throughout the world, although passport types,number of pages ...
different visa types• The Tourist Visa is a multiple entry visa valid for a periodof 180 days, granted for the purpose of ...
CORAL REEFS DISTRIBUTION IN INDIAGulf of Kutch• The reefs here are also of fringing type around achain of islands from Jod...
• Table dhôte is a French loanphrase which literally means "hoststable". It is used as restaurantterminology to indicate a...
The Popularisation of Up-Selling• Up-selling is probably used most inFood & Beverage outlets such as fast-food restaurants...
Leakage effect• The leakage effect is a concept within the studyof tourism. The term refers to the way in whichrevenue gen...
• Transfer pricing• Many foreign companies manipulate theirpricing to reduce taxes and other duties. Insmaller or less dev...
• Effect• As a result of the leakage effect,tourism industries in developedcountries often are much moreprofitable per dol...
Tourism Multiplier Effect• Tourism not only creates jobs in the tertiary sector,it also encourages growth in the primary a...
Grant of L-1 Licence• Every year Government of NCT of Delhi formulates the Excise Policy andapproves Terms & Conditions fo...
ABC analysis• The ABC analysis is a business term used to define an inventory categorizationtechnique often used in materi...
Johari window• The Johari window is a technique created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955 in the United States,used ...
• An empty Johari window, with the "Rooms" arranged clockwise, starting with Room 1 at the top leftRtist@Tourism,Pondicher...
• Tourist arrivals data is the mostcommonly used measure of tourismdemand, followed by tourist expenditureand tourist nigh...
• 1873 Thomas Cook & Son opens its newhead office at Ludgate Circus, London• In 1881, Thomas Cook started its Indiaoperati...
Tourism Concepts
Tourism Concepts
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Tourism Concepts
Tourism Concepts
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  1. 1. Tourism Concepts &Applications©Ramakrishna Kongalla
  2. 2. Indian literatureClassical Sanskrit Literature• Classical Sanskrit literature includes the Kavyas (epic poetry), theNataka (drama), lyric poetry, romance, popular tales, didactic fables,gnomic poetry, scientific literature on grammar, medicine, law,astronomy, mathematics, etc.• Classical Sanskrit literature is on the whole secular in character.• During the classical period, language was regulated by the rigid rulesof Panini, one of the greatest Sanskrit grammarians.•Kalidasa (between A.D. 380-A.D. 415). Kumarasambhava (the birth ofKumar), and Raghuvamsa (the dynasty of the Raghus).• Bharavi (550 A.D.) - Kiratarjuniyam (Kirat and Arjun)• Magha (65-700 A.D.) wrote Sishupalavadha (the killing of Shishupal).• Natyashastra, by Bharata (1st century B.C.-1st century A.D.).• Kalidasa - three plays Malavikagnimitra (Malavika and Agnimitra),Vikramorvasiya (Vikram and Urvasi) and Abhigyana Shakuntala (therecognition of Shakuntala)Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 2
  3. 3. • The Mricchakatika (the clay-cart) by Sudraka (248 A.D.)• The 13 plays of Bhasa (4th century B.C.-2nd century A.D,Swapnavasavadatta (Vasavadatta in dream),• Bhavabhuti (700 A.D.), Uttara-Ramacharitam (the later lifeof Rama),• Jayadeva (12 century A.D.) Gitagovinda (the song ofGovinda)• Panchatantra (five chapters), by Vishnu Sharma,• the Hitopadesha by Narayan Pandit• the great epic Buddhacharita by Aswaghosha (78 A.D.).• Jain literature is available in Sanskrit too, like theUpamitibhava Prapancha Katha of Siddharasi (906 A.D.)Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 3
  4. 4. • Literature in Pali and Prakrit• lord Buddha (500 B.C.) used Pali to give his sermons.• All the Buddhist canonical literature is in Pali which includes Tipitaka(threefold basket).• The first basket, Vinaya Pitaka, contains the monastic rules of the Orderof Buddhist monks. The second basket, Sutta Pitaka, is the collection ofthe speeches and dialogues of the Buddha. The third basket, theAbhidhamma Pitaka,• The jataka Kathas are non-canonical Buddhist literature in which storiesrelating to the former births of the Buddha (Bodhi-sattva or the would-be Buddha) are narrated.• lexicography and grammar by Hemachandra (1088 A.D.-?), is wellknown.• Gathasaptashati (700 verses) by Hala (300 A.D.), the best example oferotic literature. It is a compilation of 700 verses along with his owncontribution of 44 poems. It is interesting to note that quite a fewpoetesses like Pahai, Mahavi, Reva, Roha and Sasippaha are included inthe anthology.• The vast Katha (story) literature of Prakrit, written with a conspicuousreligious overtone, even by Jain saints, is full of erotic elements.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 4
  5. 5. • Early Dravidian Literature• Early classical Tamil literature is known as Sangam literature meaning‘fraternity’, indicating mainly two schools of poets, aham (subjectivelove poems), and puram (objective, public poetry and heroic). Ahamdeals purely with the subjective emotions of the lover, and puram withall kinds of emotions, mainly the valour and glory of kings, and aboutgood and evil.• The Sangam classics, consisting of 18 works (eight anthologies of lyricsand ten long poems), are well known for their directness of expression.• These were written by 473 poets, among whom 30 were women, thefamous poetess Avvaiyar being one of them.• In the case of 102 poems, the authors are unknown. Most of theseanthologies are of the 3rd century B.C.• During this time, a Tamil grammar Tolkappiyam, was written, tounderstand early Tamil poetry.• Tolkappiyam indicates five landscapes or types of love, and outlinestheir symbolic conventions. Critics say that Sangam literature is not justthe earliest evidence of the Tamil genius.• The famous Thirukkural by Thiruvalluvar, in the 6th century A.D., servesas a manual of precepts to guide one to noble living. It expounds asecular, moral and practical attitude towards life.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 5
  6. 6. • The twin epics, Silappadhikaram (the story of the anklet), written by Ilango-Adigal,• and Manimekalai (the story of Manimekalai) by Chattanar, were written sometimes inA.D. 200-300 and give vivid accounts of Tamil society during that period.• In Manimekalai there is an elaborate exposition of the doctrines of Buddhism.• If Tamil reveals a triumph of Brahmanic and Buddhist knowledge, Kannada shows Jainascendency in its ancient phase.• Malayalam absorbed a rich treasure contained in the Sanskrit language.• Nannaya (A.D.1100) was the first Telugu poet. In ancient times, Tamil and Telugu spreadto distant places.• Tamil literature, the obvious choice would be Vaishnava (pertaining to Vishnu) bhakti(devotional) literature.• In Vaishnava bhakti poetry, God descends on this earth as a human being, to share withus our suffereing and turmoil, our happiness and prosperity.• Vaishanava bhakti literature was an all-India phenomenon, which started in the 6th-7thcentury A.D. in the Tamil-speaking region of South India, with twelve Alvar (oneimmersed in God) saint-poets, who wrote devotional songs.• The religion of Alvar poets, which included a woman peot, Andal, was devotion to Godthrough love (bhakti),• Devotional songs in praise of the Hindu god Shiva (the worship of Shiva and Vishnuforms the basis of the broad division of Hindus into Shaiva and Vaishnava sects) werealso written by Tamil saint poet Nayanar (leader, master) in the 6th-8th Century A.D.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 6
  7. 7. • Medieval Literature• Around 1000 A.D. local differences in Prakrit grew more and morepronounced, which later came to be known as Apabhramsa, and this led tothe modern Indian languages taking shape and being born.• These languages, conditioned by the regional, linguistic and ethnicenvironment, assumed different linguistic characteristics. Constitutionallyrecognised modern Indian languages and Konkani, Marathi, Sindhi, Gujarati(Western); Manipuri, Bengali, Oriya and Assamese (Eastern); Tamil, Telugu,Malayalam and Kannada (Southern) and Hindi, Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri, Punjabi,Maithali, Nepali and Sanskrit (Northern).• Two tribal languages, Bodo and Santhali are also recognised by theConstitution. Out of these 22 languages,• Tamil is the oldest modern Indian language maintaining its linguistic characterwith little change for about 2000 years.• Urdu is the youngest of the modern Indian languages, taking its shape in the14th century A.D., deriving its script from an Arabic-Persian origin, butvocabulary from Indo-Aryan sources, i.e. Persian and Hindi.• Sanskrit, though the oldest classical language, is still very much in use, andhence is included in the list of modern Indian languages by the Constitution ofIndia.• The most powerful trend of medieval Indian literature between 1000 and1800 A.D. is devotional (bhakti) poetry which dominates almost all the majorlanguages of the country.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 7
  8. 8. • Kabir (Hindi) says that Sanskrit is like water of a well stagnant,Bhasa like flowing water.• A seventh century Shaiva Tamil writer Manikkarvachakar hassomething similar to say about in his book of poetryThiruvachakam.• Devotional literature in Kannada, the Vachanas (sayings) of thevarious saints of the Krishna, Rama and Shiva cults, is wellknown.• Basavanna was a famous Kannada poet, a Shiva devotee and agreat social reformer. Allama Prabhu (Kannada) wrote greatpoetry under the garb of religion.• Chronologically, Marathi, the close successor of Kannada,became the next venue for bhakti. Gyaneswar (1275 A.D.) isthe first and foremost bhakti poet in Marathi. In his teens (hedied at the age of 21) he became famous for his poeticcontribution to bhakti for Vithal (Vishnu). Eknath wrote hisshort poetic narratives and devotional abhangas (a literaryform), and after him it was Tukarram (1608-1649 A.D.) whosesongs cast a spell all over Maharasthra.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 8
  9. 9. • And then it is Gujarati in the 12th century. Gujarati poets like Narsi Mehta andPremananda occupy a prominent place in the galaxy of the Vaishnava poets.Afterwards, the sequential order is as follows:• Kashmiri, Bengali, Assamese, Manipuri, Oriya, Maithili, Braj, Avadhi (the last threelanguages come under the umbrella language, Hindi) and other languages of India.• Chandidas, a Bengali poet, is acclaimed as a great genius for the lucidity and sweetnessof his poems. Similarly, Vidyapati in Maithili created a new poetic language.• Lal Ded, a Kashmiri Muslim poetess, gave a new dimension to mystical bhakti. Jayadeva,a Sanskrit lyric poet of the 12th century, influenced a large number of devotionalBengali poets like Govinda Das (16th century), Balaram Das and others.• Sri Chaitanya (1486-1533), a great Bengali saint, helped Vaishnavism to turn into areligious and literary movement, made it a living faith and became a source of never-ending inspiration to a host of Bengali poets, including Jiva Goswami.• Sankardev (1449-1568), an Assamese devotional poet, used plays (Ankiya-Nat) andKirtan (devotional songs) to propagate Vaishnavism and became a legend.• Jagannath Das is a legendary devotional poet in Oriya who wrote Bhagavat (the story ofKrishna), which has spiritually united all the people of Orissa and created a livingconsciousness.• Kabir (Hindi) is the foremost among the poets of the sant tradition (faith in oneomnipresent god and not in many gods like Rama and Krishna). Kabir’s poetry touchesupon the various aspects of devotion, mysticism and social reforms.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 9
  10. 10. • Surdas, Tulsidas and Meera Bai (15th to 16th Century A.D.)point to the great heights of Vaishnavite lyricism achievedby Hindi.• Tulsidas (1532 A.D.) was the greatest of the Rama-bhaktipoets who wrote his famous epic, the Ramacharit Manas(the lake of the deeds of Rama).• In fact, epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharatareceived a rebirth in the new languages.• Kamban in Tamil,• Krittibasa Ojha in Bengali,• sarala Das in Oriya,• Ezhuttacchan in Malayalam,• Tulsidas in Hindi and• Nannaya in Telugu.• The poetry of the Sikh Gurus is collected in the GuruGranth Sahib (the Revered BookRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 10
  11. 11. • Women Poets of Bhakti• Women writers like Ghosha, Lopamudra, Gargi, Maitreyi,Apala, Romasha Brahmavadini, etc., right from the days of theVedas (6000 B.C. – 4000 B.C.), focused on the image of womenin mainstream Sanskrit literature.• The songs of Buddhist nuns (6th century B.C.) like Mutta andUbbiri and Mettika in Pali express the torment of feelings forthe life left behind.• The Alwar women poets (6th century A.D.), like Andal andothers, gave expression to their love for the divine.• Lal Ded (1320-1384), the Muslim poetess from Kashmir Lalded& Habba Khatun, represented the sant tradition of bhakti andwrote Vakhs (maxims), which are peerless gems of spiritualexperience.• Meera Bai, in Gujarati, Rajasthani and Hindi (she wrote inthree languages),• Avvayyar, in Tamil, and Akkamahadevi in Kannada,Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 11
  12. 12. • The Literature of Nationalism, Reformism and Revivalism• Rangalal in Bengali, Mirza Ghalib in Urdu and BharatenduHarishchandra in Hindi expressed themselves as the patriotic voice ofthat era.• Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869) wrote ghazals in Urdu• Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824-73) wrote the first modern epic in anIndian language, and naturalised blank verse in Bengali.• Subramania Bharati (1882-1921) was the great Tamil patriot-poet, whorevolutionized the poetic tradition in Tamil.• Maithili Saran Gupta (Hindi, 1886-1964), Bhai Vir Singh (Punjabi, 1872-1957), and others, with the express purpose of fulfilling the needs ofthe patriotic reader.• The first Tamil novel, Pratap Mudaliyar Charitram (1879) by Samuel V.Pillai,• the first Telugu novel, Sri Ranga Raja Charitra (1872) by KrishnammaChetty,• and the first Malayalam novel, Indu Lekha (1889) by Chandu Menon• Bengali novel, Phulmani O Karunar Bibaran (1852), by anEnglishwoman, H. Catherine Mullens, or the Hindi novel, Pariksha Guru(1882) by Lala Sriniwas Das,Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 12
  13. 13. Role of Tourism• As an instrument for employment generation,poverty alleviation and sustainable humandevelopment• Promotes national integration and internationalunderstanding and gives support to localhandicrafts and cultural activities• Foreign exchange earnings• Domestic tourism plays a vital role in achievingthe national objectives of promoting social andcultural cohesion and national integration• Contribution to generation of employment is veryhighRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 13
  14. 14. Different disciplines to Tourismsociological approach• provided much of the foundationfor leisure research• three major thrusts– social surveys(quantitativeapproach, based on using statisticsand mathematical models of humanbehavior to make predictions abouthuman behavior. This is sometimescalled the "surveys and modelingapproach)– the way people negotiate theirleisure participation in light of theirrelationships of different types -from personal and socialrelationships to their relationshipswith their community and networksat work– critical approach (neo-Marxistapproach – act freely, feministperspective - women response toleisure, postmodernism- role ofelectronic communicationsgeographic approach,• have been especially interestedin the way spaces and landscapesaffect peoples behavior and theirperception of those spaces andlandscapes, especially in makingchoices about their travelbehavior.• Geographers also look at the waypeople use different kinds ofleisure facilities, such as nationalparks, gardens, playgrounds, andsports facilities.14Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  15. 15. Economic approach• looks at the economic valuation ofdifferent kinds of recreational andleisure facilities, such as outdoorrecreation areas and arts facilities.• One way researchers using theeconomic approach have measuredresults is by doing a cost-benefitsanalysis to examine the costs andbenefits of particular facilities andprograms to the public.• Then, too, these researchers haveexamined the way pricing differentleisure activities has affecteddemand, and the researchers havedone demand forecasting studies intourism to examine how muchconsumers are likely to spend onleisure activities in a particularlocation.Psychology approach• looks at the satisfactions peopleobtain from their leisure, theirmotivations leading them toparticipate in a particular form ofleisure, how their relationships withothers influences theirparticipation, and how theirperceptions affect theirinvolvement in leisure activities.• In particular, these researchers doresearch in four main areas:motivation and needs, satisfactions,the leisure state of mind, and theway personal characteristics, suchas gender, age, culture, andpersonality affect leisureparticipation.• They typically use self-completionquestionnaires to survey subjects,such as tourists and students15Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  16. 16. Historical approach• looks at historical trendsin leisure and tourism,particularly in the U.S.,Canada, and Europe.Anthropological approach• has primarily looked atthe effect of tourism onindigenous cultures.Political science approach• involves examining thepolitics of makingdecisions about leisureactivities in a particularlocale.• This approach has alsoconsidered the waytourism affects politicalbehavior.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 16
  17. 17. Tourism demand• Tourism demand is the ‘totalnumber of persons who travelor wish to travel, to use touristfacilities and services at placesaway from their places of workand residence.’• The demand for engaging intourism depends on differentfactors from his/her personalside or from the supply side.The person may be motivatedto travel, but the ability to do sowill depend on various factors.Such factors can be called asdeterminants of demand fortourism and they are present inthe living environment of theperson and also present in thedestination environment.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 17
  18. 18. Cooper classification of demandLife cycle determinantsDomestic Age Adolescence/youngadult Marriage RetirementAttitude Perception Images MotivatorsWanderlustSun lustStatus/prestige andpeople• Life style determinants IncomeGross incomeDisposable incomeDiscretionary income Employment Paid-holidayentitlement Other factorsEducationTechnologyMobilityRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 18
  19. 19. Other determinants oftourism demand and travelpropensityLevel of urbanizationEconomic developmentPolitical FactorsTechnological factorsThe importance ofmeasurement of demand.To assess the contribution oftourism to the localeconomyTo assist area developmentpolicies & planningFor marketing and PromotionFor understanding the trends• MEASURING DEMANDFOR TOURISM– The visitor arrival figures,– Visitor days/nights and– The amounts spent.• Tourism is anunobtainable luxury formajority - 5 majorreasons– Expense of travel– Lack of time– Physical limitations– Family circumstances– Lack of interestRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 19
  20. 20. Economic determinants influencing Tourism• Per capita income• Economical status• Social – cultural factors• Levels of infrastructure• Human Capital• Development of Technology• Commodity Prices• Political InstabilityRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 20
  21. 21. Importance of Tourism in Mountain areas• Tourism revenues have become aprimary source of income for manymountain communities• Lack of other sources like agriculture,Industries etc• 50 million people visit mountains eachyear• many forms of recreation available inmountainous terrain• The clean, cool air and awe-inspiringscenery of mountain areas, combinedwith the unique customs, arts, craftsand culinary traditions of thecommunities that live there, make tripsto the mountains attractive holidayoptions• Sport-based tourism in particular hasboomed in mountain regions• tourism boom has undoubtedlybrought benefits to many of the world’smountain regions• economically disadvantaged, can aspireto greatly improved living standards• Mountain tourism has given young menand women the option of building afuture in their home community,instead of becoming part of the ruralexodus to cities.• The influx of visitors has also created amarket for products made by localcrafts workers, as well as for producefrom the land.• will help communities gain a niche in anincreasingly competitive market• Ecotourism can help reduce povertyand hunger, a key issue in mountainareas where a high proportion of theworld’s poor and food-insecure live. Italso has considerable potential forstrengthening communities and forprotecting mountain ecosystemsRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 21
  22. 22. Development of Tourism in Himalayas• The Himalaya has for centuries caughtthe imagination of travelers• known for its breathtaking naturalbeauty and is in habited by 210 millionpeople with a uniquely rich culturaldiversity• it is also one of the poorest regions inthe world.• tourism is one of the more promisingstrategies to address these seriouspoverty concerns, creating innovativelivelihood options• Poverty is even a more pronouncedproblem in mountain areas, because ofparticular mountain ‘specifities’ such aspoor accessibility, fragility, marginalityand a relative sparse population• population in the Himalaya lives inpoverty (between 47% and 83%), withbetween 17% and 36% living in absolutepoverty• In South Asia alone, more than 75% ofmountain women fall below the povertyline• giving birth to for instance the popularIndian tourism state of Uttarakhand andits tourism• Himalaya region are facing frequentnatural hazards, degradation ofresources, malnutrition, or foodinsecurity• First of all, tourism demand is growingexplosively.• Secondly, tourism, if developed right –that is to say: with a responsible, pro-poor and equitable approach, has anobvious poverty reduction• yield high levels of employment andincome• relatively powerful consumers toSouthern countries• tourism industry has a higher multiplierand positive spillover effect than othereconomic sectorsRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 22
  23. 23. Branding of Hotels• Brand named hotels fare betterthan independently operatedproperties in economicdownturns• during both economic recessionsbrand named hotels are moreprofitable than independenthotels under all economicconditions• a hotels average occupancypercentage, the average pricepaid for a room, revenue peravailable room and netoperating income -- thatmeasure the financialperformance of hotel is more inBranded hotel• There is always 5-7% differencebetween the branded hotels andindependent hotels• Net operating income of brandedhotels is always is very high• one area where independenthotels outperform brandedhotels is in the revenue peravailable room category• large marketing campaigns, theglobal distribution systems ofhotel chains offer centralizedreservation systems, guest loyaltyprograms and access throughonline travel agencies, such asExpedia.com and Travelocity.com• dependable service andexperience• "In bad economic times, peoplereturn to the security of brands."Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 23
  24. 24. MNCs in Tourism and scenario• wide network of branchesand subsidiaries spreadover a number of countries• their worldwide activitiesare centrally controlled bythe parent companies• may enter into jointventure with a company inanother country• cover not only theadvanced countries butalso the LDCs• great impact on thedevelopment process ofthe UnderdevelopedcountriesThe positive role• 1. Filling Savings Gap• 2. Filling Trade Gap• 3. Filling Revenue Gap• 4. FillingManagement/TechnologicalGap• 5.Other Beneficial Roles– domestic labour – high wages– consumers benefits –lowprices– induce more domesticinvestment– expenditures on research anddevelopment(R&D)Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 24
  25. 25. The negative role• lower domestic savings andinvestment rates by stiflingcompetition• often fail to reinvest much oftheir profits• long-run impact may reduceforeign exchange earnings onboth current and capitalaccounts• contribution to tax is lessbecause of liberal taxconcessions, excessiveinvestment allowances,subsidies and tariff protection• management, entrepreneurialskills, technology, and overseascontacts provided by the MNCsmay have little impact ondeveloping local skills andresources• tend to promote the interests ofsome few modern-sectorworkers only• Production is done with capital-intensive technique which is notuseful for labour surpluseconomies. This wouldaggravate the unemploymentproblem in the host country• they do not engage in R & Dactivities in underdevelopedcountries• often use their economic powerto influence government policiesin directions unfavorable todevelopment• damage the host countries bysuppressing domesticentrepreneurship• inhibit the emergence of small-scale enterprises.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 25
  26. 26. Role of private in Domestic air transportation• Of a total number of 454 airportsand airstrips in India, 16 aredesignated as international airports.• The Airports Authority of India (AAI)owns and operates 97 airports. Arecent report by Centre for AsiaPacific Aviation (CAPA), Over thenext 12 years, Indias Civil AviationMinistry aims at 500 operationalairports.• The Government aims to attractprivate investment in aviationinfrastructure.• India has been witnessing a verystrong phase of development in thepast few months.• Many domestic as well asinternational players are showinginterest in the growth anddevelopment of the aviation sectorwith immense focus on thedevelopment of the airports.• Indian private airlines Jet, Sahara,Kingfisher, Deccan, Spicejet -account for around 60% of thedomestic passenger traffic.• Some have now startedinternational flights. For the nextyears to come India is poised withstrong focus on the development ofits airport to meet the internationalstandards.• The government is planningmodernization of the airports toestablish a standard. The newlydeveloped airports will helpreleasing pressure on the existingairport in the country.• policy of open skies paved way forprivate airlines that started to flyinternationally• High demand for investments inaviation infrastructureRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 26
  27. 27. Role of National Tourism organizations• Ministry of Tourism• Indian Institute of Tourism andTravel Management• National Council for HotelManagement and CateringTechnology• India Tourism DevelopmentCorporation Limited• Indian Institute of Skiing andMountaineering• National Institute of WaterSports• formulation and implementationof policies and programmes forthe development of tourism• for attracting foreign tourists toIndia by way of developingtourism infrastructure, publicityand promotion, dissemination ofinformation, co-ordination andsupervision of activities ofvarious segments of industrysuch as hotels, travel agencies,tour operators, etc• 20 field offices of the Ministry ofTourism in India and 13 in othercountries to undertake bothdevelopmental and promotionalactivitiesRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 27
  28. 28. • overseas offices are in constantcontact with tourists, travelintermediaries and media topromote tourism in India• field offices in India providefacilitation services to tourists andco-ordinate with the StateGovernments on tourisminfrastructural development• The main objectives of the overseastourist offices are to position India inthe tourism generating markets as apreferred tourism destination, topromote various Indian tourismproducts vis-a-vis competition facedfrom various destinations and toincrease Indias share of the globaltourism market• These objectives are met through anintegrated marketing strategy andsynergised promotional activitiesundertaken in association with theTravel Trade and State• Ashok International Trade Divisionof ITDC offers world class duty freeshopping facilities to internationaltravellers at its 38 outlets, earningcrucial foreign exchange for thecountry and showcasing Indianproducts to the world• The Ashok Travels and Tours (ATT)• The Ashok Reservation andMarketing Services (ARMS)• The Ashok Institute of Hospitality &Tourism Management (AIH&TM)Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 28
  29. 29. Guidelines of ITDCTravel Agency• encourage quality standard and service• recognition granted by the Ministry of Tourism(MOT)• renewal / extension, thereafter, shall be grantedfor five years after Inspection conducted by aCommittee comprising the concerned RD and amember of TAAI• documents scrutiny in all respects would beacknowledged by the Travel Trade Division (TTDivision) in the MOT in respect of first approval• minimum Paid up Capital or (Capital employed)of Rs.3.00 lakh duly supported by the AuditedBalance Sheet / Certificate of Statutory Auditorof the firm• approved by International Air TransportAssociation (IATA) or should be General SalesAgent (GSA) / Passenger Sales Agent (PSA) of anIATA• been in operation for a minimum period of oneyear before the date of application.• minimum office space should be at least 150 sq.ft for rest of India and 100 sq. ft for hilly areaswhich are above 1000 meters from sea level• TA should be under the charge of the Owner or afull time member• minimum of four qualified staff out of whichat least one should have Diploma / Degree inTourism & Travel Management from arecognized University• North – Eastern region, remote and rural areas,there should be a minimum of two staff out ofwhich one should be a qualified employee• TA should be an income-tax assessee• monuments protected under the AncientMonuments and Archaeological Sites &Remains Act, 1958• For outsourcing approving is needed• pay a non-refundable fee of Rs.3, 000/- whileapplying for the recognition and renewal ofHead Office as well as each Branch Office• Code of Conduct for “Safe & HonourableTourism”• recognition / renewal would be granted to theHead Office of the TA• mandatory for an approved TA to prominentlydisplay the Certificate of approval ofrecognition / renewal or extension given byMOT• inbound tour operations only during thepreceding financial year or calendar yearshould be a minimum of Rs. 25.00 lakh for restof India and Rs. 5.00 lakh for the North –Eastern regionRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 29
  30. 30. Incredible India BrandBACKGROUND• Nation branding is an important and vital concept intoday’s era of global village.• Countries compete with each other to attract theattention, respect and trust of tourists, investors, donors,business delegates, media, and the governments of othernations.• Prior to 2002, the promotion of India as a brand used to bemanaged in a fragmented manner by various forums anddelegates at Indian tourist offices located globally.• The campaigns lacked consistency, and required a single,unified strategy to promote India as a brand.• Against this backdrop, the Tourism Department of Indiaengaged different agencies to create an internationalcampaign.• For the print campaign Ogilvy & Mather (O&M); fortelevision commercials and for handling the media accountEnterprise Nexus; for creating an Internet presence WPPGroup’s Maximize India; and for Web site creation GreyInteractive, were roped in.• The Incredible India campaign was launched with a lot offanfare in September 2002 with the intention of promotingIndian tourism globally.• The Experience India Society (an association of hoteliers,tour operators and officials of Ministry of Tourism) and theGovernment of India jointly funded the first phase of thecampaign spanning an initial three months.• Global attention was captured by telecasting thecampaign over CNN, the BBC and other popular televisionchannels across the world.• The focus of the campaign was on showcasingcharacteristic Indian features such as Ayurveda, yoga,wildlife and the Himalayas, through print and web media.BRAND MISSIONTo project India as a unique opportunity for physicalinvigoration, mental rejuvenation, cultural enrichment andspiritual elevation, along with other developments thatmake India a modern state with a state-of-the-artinfrastructure.BRAND—INCREDIBLE INDIA!The three distinctive aspects of the campaign were:– Showcasing India as an incredible mix of diversity, culture,beautiful people and great destinations.– Communicating the spiritual flavour that India offers, and thatno other country can.– Educating the rest of the world about the history of India,where one of the great civilizations originated.BRAND COMMUNICATION• Television commercials as well as print advertisementsdirected every prospective tourist to the Web sitewww.incredibleindia.org. The final decision taken bytourists is not an impulsive one. They generally take time,weighing different options, and then choose a destination.Hence, the site had to be an attractive one and moreover,a functional Web site, where tourists could plan their trips,book tickets and hotels, and check out the differentavailable programmes.• The Web site which had catered to Indian tourism earlier,www.tourismofindia.com, was attractive at first glance, butwith hastily collected information that, by no stretch ofimagination, could be considered concise. It had no mediaroom, a video segment that did not workRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 30
  31. 31. Experiencing the brand to experience India• The brand was projected in an aesthetic andpleasing manner so that every visitor to the Website would want to experience the thrill and magicof visiting India.• Beautiful images of various parts of the country,people engaged in different activities, colourfullocal festivals, were projected to arouse in visitorsa deep desire to have a hands-on experience ofIndia.INCEPTION OF THE CAMPAIGN• Travel and tourism is the most online researchedproduct. Hence, the Ministry of Tourism conducteda thorough review before creating and launchingthe Incredible India campaign. The researchfocused on identifying the information needs ofthe traveller—the various online tools used toobtain information; the times of the year whentravellers come to India from different parts of theworld; and the duration of the time spent in India.• The brand strategy was devised in order tomaximize the results of the campaign. The onlinepath was chosen for this brand. Hence, leadingtravel portals, travel sections in newspapers andmagazines, online and offline travel agents, andleading search engines were identified. Followingthis research, the brand ‘Incredible India’ waslaunched in March 2002.• Journey of the brand by different packages on thewebsite• Online 360’ approach and adding features like planyour trip• Other Innovations– Image gallery– Destination of the month– Innovative dynamic HTML (DHTML) creatives– Association with cricket (cricket-related sites likewww.cricinfo.com were also used for advertising.• ISSUES– Every country needs a ‘personality’ with which itcan be associated, a ‘branding’ that can help itcompete successfully for international business.So we have the crisis management strategy of‘Singapore Roars’, ‘Malaysia Truly Asia’, ‘100%Pure New Zealand’, ‘Amazing Thailand’, and ourvery own ‘God’s Own Country’ and ‘IncredibleIndia’.– A branding programme should address manymore issues that go beyond a good logo and agreat campaign with haunting music.– It is the culmination of everything you do thatwill impress in the mind of your customer animage of who you are and what it is that sets youapart.– Branding does not stop at a creative campaignthat can go on forever, particularly with cash-strapped tourism budgets like ours.– Branding has to deliver what it sets out to do—get more revenues through visitors from thesegment that it was aimed at, consistently over asustained period.– Thus, as a tourism brand, should India bearrogant enough to assume it is ‘incredible’Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 31
  32. 32. Effective marketing of Eventsultimate event promotionstrategy is to find “astarving crowd.”– 1. Create Your MarketingPlan & Follow It• Mail• Newsletter• Telephone• E-mail• Live announcements• Companywide voicemail• ƒVerbal meetingannouncement• Fax– 2. Secure an AccurateProspect List– 3. Create a WinningMarketing Piece• remember to truly followthese three key marketingelements,– your event will be“destinedfor greatness.”– Remember…stay organized,– maximize your contacts,create a winning marketingpiece– and follow your plan!Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 32
  33. 33. IUOTO (International Union of Official Travel Organisation)• In 1925, the International Corporation in tourism development had its beginning. The conference tookplace in London in Oct, 1946 and in 1947. IUOTO was founded. This organisation represented over 100National tourist offices of various countries as full members and 88 National & International membersas associates. IUOTO was only organisation which grouped together the Governmental/private touristorganizations all over the world.Organizational Structure• General Assembly, Executive Committee, Regional Commission, Technical Committee for Program &Coordination, Africa Sub Committee for facilitation, America Sub Committee of Finance, South AsiaEuropeMiddle EastPacific and East AsiaSecretariat GeneralThe general Committee: - These are consists of full and associate members. It met once a year. Itelected President and Vice-President of the IUOTO.Executive Committee: - The Executive committee consists of 18 full members representing variousgeographical areas.Technical Committees: - It had following committees:1. Committee on elimination of travel barriers.2. Research committee to study international travel statistics.3. Committee on travel department offered to members.4. Transport committee in the field of rail, road, and sea and air transportation.Secretariat General: - It was located in Geneva. It maintains contact with other continentalorganisation produces various IUOTO publications and functioning of Tourism DevelopmentCommittees.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 33
  34. 34. Tourism Finance corporation of India• The Government of India had,pursuant to the recommendationsof the National Committee onTourism viz Yunus Committee setup under the aegis of PlanningCommission, decided in 1988, topromote a separate All-IndiaFinancial Institution for providingfinancial assistance to tourism-related activities/projects. Inaccordance with the abovedecision, the IFCI Ltd. along withother All-IndiaFinancial/Investment Institutionsand Nationalised Banks promoteda Public Limited Company underthe name of "Tourism FinanceCorporation of India Ltd. (TFCI)" tofunction as a specialised All-IndiaDevelopment Financial Institutionto cater to the financial needs oftourism industry.TFCI was incorporated as a PublicLimited Company under theCompanies Act, 1956 on 27thJanuary 1989 and becameoperational with effect from 1stFebruary 1989 on receipt ofCertificate of the Commencementof Business from the Registrar ofCompanies. TFCI has been notifiedas a Public Financial Institutionunder section 4A of the CompaniesAct, 1956, vide Notification No S.O7(E) dated the 3rd January 1990issued by the Ministry of Industry,Department of Company Affairs.TFCIs Registered office is situatedat 13th Floor, IFCI Tower, 61, NehruPlace, New Delhi - 110 019.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 34
  35. 35. • ObjectiveTFCI provides financial assistance to enterprises for setting up and/or development of tourism-related projects, facilities and services, such as:• Hotels, Restaurants, Holiday Resorts, Amusement Parks, Multiplexes and Entertainment Centers,Education and Sports, Safari Parks, Rope-ways, Cultural Centers, Convention Halls, Transport, Traveland Tour Operating Agencies, Air Service, Tourism Emporia, Sports Facilities etc.• Forms of Financial AssistanceRupee Loan , Underwriting of public issues of shares/debentures and direct subscription to suchsecurities, Guarantee of deferred payments and credit raised abroad., Equipment Finance,Equipment Leasing, Assistance under Suppliers Credit. Working-Capital Financing, TakeoverFinancing, Advances Against Credit-Card Receivables• Eligibility for AssistanceTFCI provides financial assistance to projects with capital cost of Rs. 3 croreand above. In respect of projects costing between Rs. 1 crore and Rs. 3 crore, TFCI will considerfinancial assistance to the extent of unavoidable gap, if any, remaining after taking into accountassistance from State Level Institutions/Banks. Unique projects, which are important from thetourism point of view and for which assistance from State Level institutions/ Banks is not available,may be considered on exceptional basis even though their capital cost is below Rs. 1 crore.Financial assistance is considered on similar lines for heritage and restaurant projects. Projectswith high capital cost may be financed along with other All-India Financial/Investment Institutions.TFCI considers assistance even if the total cost is less than Rs. 3 crore for existing concerns withsatisfactory performance for renovation/upgradation etc.track record of atleast 3 years and assisted concerns of TFCI with satisfactory credit record. Theworking capital limit would be calculated based on the turnover method as may be consideredappropriate.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 35
  36. 36. Promoters Contribution• The minimum promoters contribution for the projects is 30%. Relaxation may, however, be allowed inrespect of large projects involving capital cost exceeding Rs. 50 crore.Debt Equity Ratio• TFCI extends term-loan assistance based on debt-equity ratio not exceeding 1.5:1. However, in case ofhotels in seasonal locations/ multiplexes/ entertainment centers, amusement parks and other tourism-related projects, the debt-equity ratio would be stipulated in the range of 1:1 to 1.25:1.Rate of Interest• Interest on loan is flexible and linked to the PLR of TFCI which is presently 12.5% p.a. (since 1st August2008). TFCI, while considering loans to the borrowers, evaluates each concern individually on variousparameters such as Industry/ Business Risk, Environmental Risk, Project Risk, Management Risk, Securityavailable, Income value to TFCI, etc. and accords rating ranging from AAA to B category. Loan is pricedaccording to the prevalent PLR and the rating so achieved by the individual client within a spread rangingfrom PLR to PLR+1.5% per annum. High Risk Projects are charged interest at PLR+3% per annum. Interestis levied on monthly rests. In case of consortium/ multiple funding, if higher rate is charged by any otherinstitution than the same rate is applicable to TFCI loan also. Besides, TFCI also charges appraisal-cum-up front fee @ 1% of the loan amount sanctioned as one time charge.Security• First charge on movable and immovable fixed assets. Personal Guarantees of the Promoters andCorporate guarantee of the group concern, if necessary. Pledge of promoters share-holding.Repayment Schedule• This would depend on the period required for completion of the project and stabilisation of operationsas also the projected cash-flows available for debt-servicing. The general norm of repayment is 8 yearsallowing moratorium of 2 years after full commercial operations. In case of multiplexes/ entertainmentcenters the cash-flows in the initial years are satisfactory; as such, the repayment of the loans to thissector could be made in 6-7 years allowing moratorium of 1-1½ years after full commercial operations.Norms for Takeover Financing• TFCI may consider financing well-established, assisted concerns having over 3 years satisfactory trackrecord for takeover of tourism-related project/company.Norms for Working-Capital Financing• The Working Capital assistance would be provided to concerns in the tourism sector with provenRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 36
  37. 37. Hotel meal plan• The American Plan (also listed as“AP”) means that the quoted rateincludes three meals a day, i.e.breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Themeals are provided by the hotelkitchen. Mostly, hotels in a remotelocation where there are not manyrestaurants — or none at all —need to stay at a hotel that offersan American plan.• The Modified American Plan (alsolisted as “MAP”) means that thequoted rate includes two meals aday, including breakfast and eitherlunch or dinner. Travelers choosinga hotel in a remote location wherethere are not many restaurants —or none at all — need to stay at ahotel that offers at least a ModifiedAmerican plan.• The Continental Plan (also listed as“CP”), means that the quoted rateincludes a continental breakfast,which is consists of coffee or tea,juice, and bread. Travelers can havedifferent options of bread like loaf,croissants, scones, and muffins. Thebreakfast does not include cookedfoods, such as pancakes or eggs.Breakfast is self-serve and a waiterwill be available to pour and refillbeverages.• The European Plan (also listed as“EP”), means that the quoted ratedoes not include any meals and isstrictly for lodging and. The propertyowner will charge for the foodseparately. The advantage is thattravelers is free to try a variety ofrestaurant experiences, and canoften save money by eating atestablishments that charge less.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 37
  38. 38. The Importance Of Hotels And Accommodation In Promoting Tourism• In the modern times, the way people spend their vacations has undergone a great change. People liketo spend good times with family and friend while at the same time exploring various tourist placesacross the globe.• As a result the tourism industry across the globe has seen an unprecedented growth which in turn hasalso resulted in tremendous growth in the hotel and accommodation facilities.• Comfortable hotels and accommodation facilities play a very important role in popularizing any touristdestination. If a person, who is quite far away from home, gets to enjoy the same facilities and comfortsas he enjoys at his home, then he is bound to become attached to the place.• On the other hand if the tourist ends up at a place where the hotels and accommodation facilities arenot satisfactory, it is quite likely that he might never return to that place.Perhaps that is why, hotels and accommodation facilities being made available at different touristsspots, have shifted focus on providing maximum comfort to tourists at reasonable rates.• It is also vital to provide comfortable accommodation to people from diverse economical backgrounds.While five star hotels can cater to the needs of affluent visitors, small and medium range hotels andlodging houses are available for use by a middle class traveler.•Blog reviews are also vital that information about all the hotels and accommodation facilities availablein a particular tourism spot is available to people quite easily.• For this there can be no better option than internet, as most tourist gain information about the hotelsand accommodation facilities through this medium only.• The other ways are by making booklets containing information about the hotels and accommodationfacilities available at train and bus stations.• The information provided to the tourists should be detailed and correct. It should contain theinformation related to room rentals, types of rooms, catering services, check out times, pick and dropfacilities etc.• Additional information about the significant tourist spots in the area can also be provided both on thenet as well as the booklets, to promote not only the hotel but the tourist spot as well.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 38
  39. 39. INDIA LAND ENTRY POSTSfrom Nepal (from North part/North Border)– The border crossings are(India/Nepal side)Sunauli/Bhairawa from Varanasi,Raxaul/Birganj from Kolkata,Kakarbhitta from Darjeeling, andMahendrenagar-Banbassa fromDelhi.– Now direct deluxe bus services isavailable from Pokhara Nepal.from Bhutan– The Royal Bhutanese Governmentruns a service to/fromPhuentsholing.from Pakistan– From Pakistan the only landcrossing is from Lahore toAmritsar via the Attari/Wagahborder crossing.from Bangladesh– The most common way is the regularair-conditioned and comfortable busservices from Dhaka to Kolkata viaHaridaspur (India)/Benapole(Bangladesh) border post.from Burma(Myanmar) tamu– Another daily bus service byShyamoli and others under the BRTClabel from Dhaka connects Siliguri,but the buses in this route do notcross the Changrabanda/Burimari orBurungamari border post.– Other entry points from Bangladeshare Hili, Chilahati/Haldibari,Banglaband border posts for entry toWest Bengal; Tamabil border post fora route to Shillong in Meghalaya, andsome others with lesser knownroutes to north-eastern Indianregions.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 39
  40. 40. • Time variationbetween twoLongitudes– 360/24 hours =15 degrees– 60min/15degrees= 4minutes• ACCULTURATION– Acculturation is a process in which members of onecultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of anothergroup.• Intercultural competence– Intercultural competence is the ability ofsuccessful communication with people of other cultures.• Cultural assimilation– is a socio-political response to demographic multi-ethnicity that supports or promotes the assimilationof ethnic minorities into the dominant culture.• Creolization– is a concept that refers to the process in which new AfricanAmerican cultures emerge in the New World• Colonization (or colonisation)– occurs whenever any one or more species populate anarea.• Enculturation– is the process by which a person learns the requirementsof the culture by which he or she is surrounded, andacquires values and behaviours that are appropriate ornecessary in that culture.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 40
  41. 41. • Xenophobia is defined as"an unreasonable fear offoreigners or strangers or ofthat which is foreign orstrange".• Xenophily or xenophilia means an affection forunknown objectsor peoples.• Nativism(politics) or political nativism, a term used byscholars to refer toethnocentric beliefsrelating to immigration andnationalism; antiforeignism• Ethnocentrism is makingvalue judgments aboutanother culture fromperspectives of ones owncultural system.• Xenocentrism is thepreference for theproducts, styles, or ideas ofsomeone elses culturerather than of ones ownRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 41
  42. 42. Scientific Management• Scientific management, also called Taylorism,• was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows.• Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially laborproductivity.• It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science tothe engineering of processes and to management.• Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890swithin the manufacturing industries.• Its peak of influence came in the 1910s; by the 1920s, it was still influentialbut had begun an era of competition and syncretism with opposingor complementary ideas.• Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought wasobsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts ofindustrialengineering and management today.• These include analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic;efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of best practices; disdainfor tradition preserved merely for its own sake or merely to protect the socialstatus of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformationof craft production into mass production; and knowledge transfer betweenworkers and from workers into tools, processes, and documentation.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 42
  43. 43. Profitability index (PI),• also known as profit investment ratio (PIR)and value investment ratio (VIR), is the ratio ofpayoff to investment of a proposed project.• It is a useful tool for ranking projects becauseit allows you to quantify the amount of valuecreated per unit of investment.• The ratio is calculated as follows:Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 43
  44. 44. • Dvaita• also known as Bheda-vāda, Tattva-vāda and Bimba-pratibimba-vāda) is aschool of Vedanta founded byShriMadhvacharya.• Dvaita stresses a strict distinctionbetween God--the Supreme-Soul (paramaatma ) and the individualsouls of beings, jiivatma According toMadhvacharya, the individual souls ofbeings are not created by God but do,nonetheless, depend on Him for theirexistence.• Madhvācārya (1238–1317) was the chiefproponent of Tattvavāda "Philosophy ofReality", popularly known asthe Dvaita school of Hindu philosophy.• It is one of the three mostinfluential Vedānta philosophies.• Madhvācārya was one of the importantphilosophers during the Bhaktimovement.• He was a pioneer in many ways, goingagainst standard conventions and norms.According to tradition, Madhvācārya isbelieved to be the third incarnationof Vāyu (Mukhyaprāṇa),after Hanumān and Bhīma• Advaita Vedanta• is considered to be the most influentialand most dominant sub-school ofthe Vedānta school of Hindu philosophy• Other major sub-schoolsof Vedānta are Dvaita and Viśishṭādvaita;• while the minor ones includeSuddhadvaita, Dvaitadvaita and Achintya Bhedabheda• . Advaita (literally, non-duality) is asystem of thought where "Advaita"refers to the identity of the Self (Atman)and the Whole (Brahman)• The key source texts for all schools ofVedānta are the Prasthanatrayi—thecanonical texts consisting ofthe Upanishads, theBhagavad Gita andthe Brahma Sutras.• The first person to explicitly consolidatethe principles of Advaita Vedantawas Adi Shankara, while the firsthistorical proponent was Gaudapada,the guru of Shankaras guru GovindaBhagavatpada.• 788 CE - 820 CE, palady, keralaRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 44
  45. 45. Nimbarka• for propagating the VaishnavaTheologyof Dvaitadvaita, duality in unity.• According to scholars headed by Prof. RomaBose, he lived in the 13th Century, on theassumption that Śrī Nimbārkācārya was theauthor of the work Madhvamukhamardana.• According to NimbārkaSampradāya however, Śrī Nimbārkācāryaappeared over 5000 years ago, in the year3096 BCE at the time when the grandsonof Arjuna was on the throne.• He hailed from the present-day AndhraPradesh,Ramanuja• traditionally 1017–1137, also known asRamanujacharya, wasa theologian, philosopher and scripturalexegete. He is seen by Śrīvaiṣṇavas as thethird and most important teacher (ācārya)of their tradition (after Nathamuni andYamunacharya), and by Hindus in general asthe leading expounder of Viśiṣṭādvaita, oneof the classical interpretations of thedominant Vedanta school of HinduphilosophyShuddadvaita• is the "purely non-dual"philosophy propoundedby Vallabhacharya(1479-1531 CE),the founding philosopher andguru of the Vallabhāsampradāya ("tradition ofVallabh") or Puśtimārg ("The pathof grace"),a Hindu Vaishnava traditionfocused on the worshipof Krishna.• Vallabhacharyas pure form(nondualist) philosophy isdifferent from Advaita.• The Shrinathji templeat Nathdwara, and compositionsof eight poets (aṣṭachap),including Surdas, are central tothe worship by the followers ofthe sect.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 45
  46. 46. South Indian Dynasties• There were several significant rulers and dynasties insouthern Indian history. Dynasties such as– Cheras,– Cholas,– Pallavas,– Pandyas,– the Satavahanas of Amaravati,– Kadambas of Banavasi,– Western Ganga Dynasty,– Chalukya dynasty of Badami,– Western Chalukyas,– Eastern Chalukya,– Hoysalas,– Kakatiya dynasty, and– Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha have ruled over South India.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 46
  47. 47. Voluntary Initiatives for Sustainability in Tourism• Mission Statement“To promote and support sustainable tourism development through the representation, promotion andmutual co-operation of international, national and regional certification schemes and other voluntaryinitiatives for sustainable tourism at an international level.”VISIT stands for “Voluntary Initiative for Sustainability in Tourism”, and was created within the frame of anEU funded LIFE project in tourism eco-labelling. The name outlines the concept of the organisation: apositive collaboration between distinct initiatives working towards achieving sustainability in tourism.The Association was established in 2004 at REISEPAVILLON, Europe’s leading Green and Ecotourism Fair.This was the culmination of ongoing liaison and co-operation between a dozen leading tourism eco-labelsfrom 2001 onwards. Seven of these labels (based in the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Latvia, UnitedKingdom, Switzerland and Luxembourg) founded the organisation together they represent over 2,000participating tourism enterprises.Other organisations involved with and interested in sustainable tourism may join the organisation asassociate members, these include ecolabels working towards full membership such as Ecocamping andprofessional bodies involved in research and development in sustainable tourism such as Ecotrans. Forfurther information on joining VISIT as a Full member ecolabel or as an Associate please contact the VISITsecretary at the address below or download the relevant forms on other pages on this site.The alliance between the labels within VISIT is based on mutual understanding and recognition and theagreement to adopt a common standard. This standard sets the framework by which credible tourism eco-labels should operate in Europe. This ensures the consumer has a reliable and responsible tourism choiceand an indication that there are efforts to improve the destination towards more sustainability.VISIT is the first association of its type anywhere in Europe and its primary goal is to ensure that eco-labelling in tourism is successful, practical and responsible.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 47
  48. 48. Volunteer travel• Volunteer travel, volunteervacations, voluntourism, or vacanteerism• is travel which includes volunteering fora charitable cause. In recent years, "bite-sized" volunteer vacations have grown inpopularity. The types of volunteer vacationsare diverse, from low-skill work cleaning uplocal wildlife areas to providing high-skillmedical aid in a foreign country. Volunteervacations participants are diverse buttypically share a desire to “do somethinggood” while also experiencing new placesand challenges in locales they might nototherwise visit.• There are also other types of traveling thatengage people with scientific research andeducation to promote the understanding andaction necessary for a sustainableenvironment. Participants cover a fee thatwould include expenses on the different sitesworldwide, and engage in projects accordingto their interest or location.• Regulatory aspects ofhotel– Engineering andEnvironment Committee– Loss PreventionCommittee– Risk ManagementCommitteeRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 48
  49. 49. Marketing Plan for Airlines•Situation AnalysisMarket SummarySWOT AnalysisCompetitionProduct OfferingKeys to SuccessCritical IssuesHistorical ResultsMacroenvironmentMarketing StrategyMarketing ObjectivesFinancial ObjectivesTarget MarketsPositioningBreak-even AnalysisSales ForecastControlsImplementationContingency PlanningRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 49
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  51. 51. • Concepts of Tourism and TouristsWhy people travelreal or perceived need to escape from the routine situations of home, workand familiarity of physical or social environmentsReasons people traveldesire to escape the mundanepursue relaxation and recuperationopportunity for playstrengthen family bondsprestige of destinationsocial interactioneducationwish fulfillmentshoppingTourist behaviourreveals tourist motivationsGraburn’s “tourist inversions”shifts in behavior away from the norm towards a temporary oppositeThink about your last vacation - what did you do that was completelydifferent from your usual life?Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 51
  52. 52. • Tourist InversionsDimension: EnvironmentContinua: Winter vs. Summer, cold vs. warmth, crowds vs. isolation, modern vs. ancient,home vs. foreignClimate and opportunities for activities such as skiing, swimming• Tourist InversionsDimension: LifestyleContinua: Thrift vs. indulgence, affluence vs. simplicity, work vs. leisureExpenditure increased on events or purchases• Tourist InversionsDimension: FormalityContinua: Rigid vs. flexible, formal vs. informal, restriction vs. licenseDress codes, social behaviors and routines replaced• Tourist InversionsDimension: HealthContinua: Gluttony vs. diet, stress vs. tranquility, sloth vs. exercise, age vs. rejuvenationIncreased consumption, relaxation as relief from routine stress and active holidays asalternative to sedentary daily livesApplying Graburn’s Inversionsonly some dimensions will be subject to reversal in any one tripexplains why same people take different trips at different times of the year to differentplacesbut there are also different degrees of departure from the norm, not explainedRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 52
  53. 53. • Push-Pull EffectIso-Ahola’s model of the social psychology of tourismEscape from routine environments (Push)Rewards from the environments visited (Pull)Personal Characteristics of TouristsPlog’s psychographic profilepopulations arranged along a personality continuumPsychocentrics - self-inhibited, non-adventurousAllocentrics - confident, naturally adventurous, seek varietyand experienceTourist ChoicesHowever, Plog’s model does not explain extrinsic and intrinsicmotivations (caused by external circumstances or internalcharacteristics)Pearce suggests people have a “travel career” where theychange “levels” during their liveschanges may be prevented by money, health or other peopleRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 53
  54. 54. • Tourism Typologiesmany tendencies exist simultaneouslytypes of tourist however show that some tend to occur togetherallow us recognize different types of tourism (e.g. business tourism)anticipate motives and the impact on structural elements (e.g. hotelsOrganized Mass Tourists:package holiday with little contact with host community• Individual Mass Tourists:like organized mass tourist but wishes to visit sites not covered in packages• Explorers:arrange travel independently and want to experience the social and cultural life of the destination• Drifters:wants no contact with other tourists and seeks to live with the host community• Points about conceptual modelsRemember, all of these factors occur to a great or lesser degree• Push-Pull, psychological preferences and aging factors occur simultaneouslyAlthough can explain much about tourism and leisure, are too general to specifically predict patterns ofconsumptionConclusions - People’s motivations changeover their lifetimesat different times of the yeardue to extrinsic factors (such as money and other people)and intrinsic factors (such as personality types)Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 54
  55. 55. • The Grand Tour• was a circuit of Europe undertaken bythe wealthy, for reasons whichincluded culture, education, health andpleasure.• Principally centredon France,Italy and Germany, sometours also extendedto Spain, Portugal and Greece.• The dominant nationality on the GrandTour was the British, but there werealso significant numbers of French,German and Russian participants.• Grand Touring developed in thesixteenth century, reached its zenith inthe eighteenth century and survived inmodified form into the nineteenthcentury.• A tour could last from anywherebetween two to eight years.• Ethnic Tourism• Ethnic tourism is "travel motivated bysearch for the first hand, authentic andsometimes intimate contact with peoplewhose ethnic and /or cultural backgroundis different from the tourists". Ethnictourists are driven by the desire to seesomething different where curiosity is theultimate factor. The travelers choose toexperience first hand the practices ofanother culture, and may involveperformances, presentations andattractions portraying or presented byindigenous communities. In a broaderperspective, it includes cultural, heritage,anthropological, tribal, village and similarforms of tourism. Ethnic tourism, ifproperly planned and managed, can bepromoted as sustainable form of tourismand can be utilized as a tool for thepreservation and conservation of cultureand heritage as well as poverty alleviation.India, rich with its cultural diversity, grandheritage and inimitable history, is a worldfamous cultural tourism destination. Thefocal point of Indias attractiveness as adestination is its diverse ethnicity.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 55
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  62. 62. Relationship Marketing• Relationship marketing is not about having a "buddy-buddy" relationshipwith your customers. Customers do not want that. Relationship Marketinguses the event-driven tactics of customer retention marketing, but treatsmarketing as a process over timerather than single unconnected events. Bymolding the marketing message and tactics to the LifeCycle of the customer,the Relationship Marketing approach achieves very high customersatisfaction and is highly profitable.• The relationship marketing process is usually defined as a series of stages,and there are many different names given to these stages, depending on themarketing perspective and the type of business. For example, working fromthe relationship beginning to the end:– Interaction > Communication > Valuation > Termination– Awareness > Comparison > Transaction > Reinforcement > Advocacy– Suspect > Prospect > Customer > Partner > Advocate > Former Customer• Using the relationship marketing approach, you customize programs forindividual consumer groups and the stage of the process they are goingthrough as opposed to some forms of database marketing where everybodywould get virtually the same promotions, with perhaps a change in offer. Thestage in the customer LifeCycle determines the marketing approach usedwith the customer.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 62
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  64. 64. Semantic barriers of communication for Tourism• Lack of common language• Poor vocabulary• Use of jargons• Poor grammar, punctuation• Round about verbiage• Lack of clarity in the messageRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 64
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  67. 67. Negative impacts of mass tourism• Resources scarcity• Depletion of tourism attractions• Sexual abuse• Displacement• Erosion of local culturesRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 67
  68. 68. National Rail Museum isa museum in Chanakyapuri, NewDelhi which focuses on the railheritage of India it opened on the 1February, 1977Fairy Queen: Fairy Queen is the oldestrunning steam locomotive in theworld. It was built in 1855.• Gandhola Monastery, Lahaul, H.P.• Key Monastery, Spiti, HimachalPradesh.• Tabo Monastery, Spiti, HimachalPradesh• Auli, (alt. 2915 mts-3049 mts ) is animportant ski destination inthe Himalayan mountainsof Uttarakhand, India. Auli is knownas Bugyal in the regional languagewhich means meadow.• Bir in kangra valley, ski destination• Since 1994, PATA has operatedGreen Leaf, an environmentalawareness programme for thePacific Asia region.TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains withthe petrol crisis of 1973. Following theinaugural TGV servicebetween Paris and Lyon in 1981, the TGVnetwork, centred on Paris, has expanded toconnect cities across France and in adjacentcountries.• A TGV test train set the record for thefastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h(357.2 mph) on 3 April 2007.At mid 2011, the TGV is the fastestconventional train in the world, reaching320 km/h (200 mph) on the "LGV Est".• A TGV service held the record for the fastestscheduled rail journey with a start to stopaverage speed of 279.4 km/h(173.6 mph), which was temporarilysurpassed by theChinese CRH service Harmony express onthe Wuhan–Guangzhou High-SpeedRailway from December 2009 until July2011.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 68
  69. 69. Acid-Test Ratio•A stringent indicator that determines whether a firm has enough short-term assets to cover itsimmediate liabilities without selling inventory. The acid-test ratio is far more strenuous than the workingcapital ratio, primarily because the working capital ratio allows for the inclusion of inventory assets.Calculated by:••Companies with ratios of less than 1 cannot pay their current liabilities and should be looked at withextreme caution. Furthermore, if the acid-test ratio is much lower than the working capital ratio, it meanscurrent assets are highly dependent on inventory. Retail stores are examples of this type of business.The term comes from the way gold miners would test whether their findings were real goldnuggets. Unlike other metals, gold does not corrode in acid; if the nugget didnt dissolve whensubmerged in acid, it was said to have passed the acid test. If a companys financial statements pass thefigurative acid test, this indicates its financial integrity.• Returning home from China in 1292 CE, Marco Polo arrives on the Coromandel Coast of India in a typicalmerchant ship with over sixty cabins and up to 300 crewmen.• Hiuen Tsang Memorial is one of the major tourist attractions in Nalanda. Hiuen Tsang Memorial is erectedin the memory of the famous Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang. During the glorious days of NalandaUniversity, Hiuen Tsang came to study Buddhism and mysticism in India. He came in India in 633 AD i.e.during the Gupta period and stayed at Nalanda University for twelve years. He traveled the whole Indiaduring his stay at Nalanda.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 69
  70. 70. Green Triangle• covers three majordestinations of North EastIndia - Kaziranga NationalPark in Assam, Guwahati -the capital of Assam, andShilong in Meghalaya.Kaziranga is well-known forone horned rhino.Guwahati is considered asthe Gateway city of NorthEast India. Shilong is apopular hill station of NorthEast India and home of theKhasi Highland Tribe.Shilong is also known asthe Scotland of the East.• ECOTEL ® certified Hotelsunder the CHPL umbrella:• The Uppal, an ECOTELHotel, New Delhi• Cabbana Hotel, an ECOTELHotel, Phagwara, Punjab.• Rodas, an ECOTEL Hotel,Mumbai• The Fern, an ECOTEL Hotel,Jaipur• Meluha The Fern, anECOTEL Hotel, Mumbai• The Fern Residency, anECOTEL Hotel, GurgaonRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 70
  71. 71. PassportTypes of passports• Regular passport (Deep Blue/Black cover) - Issuedfor ordinary travel, such as vacations and businesstrips (36 or 60 pages)• Diplomatic passport (Maroon cover) - Issued toIndian diplomats, top ranking government officialsand diplomatic couriers.• Official passport (White cover) - Issued toindividuals representing the Indian government onofficial businessRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 71
  72. 72. Types• A rough standardization exists in types of passports throughout the world, although passport types,number of pages and definitions can vary by country.• Full passports• Ordinary passport (Tourist passport, Regular passport, Passport)• Issued to citizens and other nationals, and generally the most-issued type of passport. Sometimes it ispossible to have children registered within the ordinary passport of the parent, rendering the passportfunctionally equal to a family passport.• Official passport (Service passport, also Special passport)• Issued to government employees for work-related travel, and to accompanying dependents.• Diplomatic passport• Issued to diplomats for work-related travel, and to accompanying dependents. Although most diplomatswith diplomatic immunity carry diplomatic passports, having a diplomatic passport is not the equivalentof having diplomatic immunity. A grant of diplomatic status, a privilege of which is diplomatic immunity,has to come from the government of the country in relation to which diplomatic status is claimed. Also,having a diplomatic passport does not mean visa-free travel. A holder of a diplomatic passport usually hasto obtain a diplomatic visa, even if a holder of an ordinary passport may enter a country visa-free or mayobtain a visa on arrival.• In exceptional circumstances, a diplomatic passport is given to a foreign citizen with no passport of hisown, such as an exiled VIP who lives, by invitation, in a foreign country.• Emergency passport (Temporary passport)• Issued to persons whose passports were lost or stolen, and who do not have time to obtain replacementpassports. Sometimes laissez-passer are used for this purpose.• Collective passport• Issued to defined groups for travel together to particular destinations, such as a group of school childrenon a school trip to a specified country.• Family passport• Issued to family members—father, mother, son, daughter. There is one passport holder. The passportholder may travel alone or with one or more other family members. A family member who is not thepassport holder cannot use the passport for travel unless accompanied by the passport holder.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 72
  73. 73. different visa types• The Tourist Visa is a multiple entry visa valid for a periodof 180 days, granted for the purpose of tourism. Visits tofamily and friends are covered by this visa. The six monthTourist Visa is valid from the date of issue. Tourist Visascan also be given for 3 months. Three month visas arevalid from the date of first entry into India, which mustbe within 2 months of the date of issue. Three monthvisas are gradually being phased out.General requirements are:- A correctly completed application form in BLACK INKAND BLOCK CAPITALS. If you use an EasyFill Form, besure to press the Caps Lock key on your keyboard.- The applicants original passport. It must be valid for ATLEAST SIX MONTHS and have AT LEAST 4 FREE PAGES.- Correct visa fee, payable only in CASH or by BANKDRAFT.- Two passport-size photographs.- If you do not hold a passport for the country you areresident in, you must supply proof of residency (e.g.National ID Card, Drivers Licence). You are likely to becharged extra for your visa, and processing time may belonger (allow 3 weeks minimum).• Transit Visas• Business Visas• Employment Visas• Student Visas• Entry Visas• Conference Visas• Journalist Visas (J-Visa)• Research Visas• Missionary Visas• Collective VisasRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 73
  74. 74. CORAL REEFS DISTRIBUTION IN INDIAGulf of Kutch• The reefs here are also of fringing type around achain of islands from Jodhiya in the north toPort Okha in the south. These are the mostnorthern reefs in the Indian subcontinent.Because of the environmental conditions whichare extreme, with a large range in temperatureand salinity, at this site, the reefs are relativelyless developed and harbor a low biodiversitycompared to other Indian reefs. The Gulf ofKutch is also a region of high industrialdevelopment - this has been responsible for alarge scale of mortality of reef corals in therecent past. The entire Gulf of Kutch reefs havenow been declared as a Marine National Park.Lakshadweep Islands• The coral formation consists of 10 atolls with 36islands of which 10 are inhabited. The atolls,with the lagoon at islands cover areas rangingfrom 30 to 300 sq. km. The islands, however,range from less than a km to about 9 km inlength. The maximum width does not exceedtwo km across. The health of the reefs isgenerally excellent, especially in theuninhabited atolls whereas in the habitantislands, human impacts, as elsewhere, aresignificant.Gulf of Mannar• Fringing reefs occur around a chain of 20 islandsfrom Rameswaram in the north to Tuticorin in thesouth. The reefs at the northern and southernends of the chain are partially degraded due tohuman activities (mining, fishing and industrialdevelopment) whereas those in the middle,because of their location away from humansettlements, are in a relatively better condition.These reefs form part of the Gulf of MannarBiosphere reserve.Andaman and Nicobar Islands• These islands in the Bay of Bengal number around500 and all of them have fringing reefs. Most ofthem, like those at Nicobar, have healthy reefswith a large biodiversity. However, near humansettlements, such as Port Blair, impacts are readilyvisible. A serious natural threat to these reefs inthe last two decades was infestation with thecrown-of-thorns starfish.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 74
  75. 75. • Table dhôte is a French loanphrase which literally means "hoststable". It is used as restaurantterminology to indicate a menu wheremulti-course meals with only a fewchoices are charged, at a fixed totalprice. Such a menu may also becalled prix fixe• Table dhôte is meant to contrast with"À la carte", i.e. the usual menuoperation of a restaurant, wherebycustomers may order any of theseparately priced menu items available.• The maître d’hôtel often shortenedto maître d’) in the original Frenchlanguage is literally the "master of thehotel". In a suitably staffed restaurantor hotel, it is the person in charge ofassigning customers to tables anddividing the dining area into areas ofresponsibility for the various servers onduty• Sous-chef The Sous-Chef de Cuisine (under-chef of thekitchen) is the second in command and direct assistant of theExecutive Chef. This person may be responsible forscheduling and substituting when the Executive Chef is off-duty and will also fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie (linecook) when needed. Smaller operations may not havea sous-chef, but larger operations may have several• Chef de Partie, Station chefs specialize in a single area ofproduction, A chef de partie, often called a "station chef" ora "line cook," is responsible for one particular area of foodproduction in the kitchen. This position is usually found inlarger kitchens with a staff big enough to allow forspecialization. Usually, each "station" in the kitchen has onlyone or two workers on duty at any given time. In a casewhere theres more than one chef de partie on duty, theyreoften divided into a hierarchy using titles like "first cook,""second cook" and so forth.• Chef de cuisine, executive chef and head chef, This person isin charge of all things related to the kitchen which usuallyincludes menu creation; management of kitchen staff;ordering and purchasing of inventory; and platingdesign. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term fromwhich the English word chef is derived. Head chef is oftenused to designate someone with the same duties as anexecutive chef, but there is usually someone in charge ofthem, possibly making the larger executive decisions such asdirection of menu, final authority in staff managementdecisions, etc. This is often the case for chefs with severalrestaurants.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 75
  76. 76. The Popularisation of Up-Selling• Up-selling is probably used most inFood & Beverage outlets such as fast-food restaurants, cafes and bars wherethe counter staff or the bartenderwould ask the customer pay just a littlebit more for an up-size or a better brandof whisky. McDonalds does that, sodoes Starbucks, to great success.• However, when you probe further, youllunderstand the reasons for theirsuccess in such cases. Beverages usuallycommand a very high amount of margin(esp. for soft drinks and coffee) suchthat even if the up-size is given free, itwould hardly hurt profits. The extraEUR0.10 you pay for the up-size mayseem small to you, but it can actuallyworth up to tens if not hundred timesthe costs for providing you theadditional amount of liquid.• Hence, up-selling by enticing thecustomer just to pay a bit more may notgive you your just returns.Unfortunately, up-selling by asking thecustomer to pay a lot more doesntmake your deal attractive anymore.• Cross-Selling Other Products• It used to be rumoured that McDonaldsused to have 20% of its revenue areattributed to french-fries sales, and allthe counter staff has to say are the 5magical words "Would you like frieswith that".• Whether this rumour is true or not,McDonalds is indeed really successfulin cross-selling french-fries, apple piesand other stuff that you didnt think ofbuying, but bought nevertheless justbecause the counter staff suggested toyou.• Air Deccan, the first low cost carrier ofIndia has truly changed the face ofIndian Aviation Industry. The airlinegave wings to the dream of flying ofevery common Indian. Promoted byaviation enthusiasts, Capt Gopinath,Capt KJ Samuel and Vishnu Raval, AirDeccan tickets started its journey on23rd August 2003. The airline has itsbase in Bangalore with its secondaryhub at Meenambakkam InternationalAirport, Chennai.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 76
  77. 77. Leakage effect• The leakage effect is a concept within the studyof tourism. The term refers to the way in whichrevenue generated by tourism is lost to othercountries economies. Leakage may be sosignificant in some developing countries that itpartially neutralizes the money generated bytourism.• Methods• Leakage occurs through six differentmechanisms.It is an intrinsic component ofinternational tourism and thus is present inevery country, to widely-varying degrees.• Goods and services• Many countries must purchase goods andservices to satisfy their visitors. This includesthe cost of raw materials used to make tourism-related goods, such as souvenirs. For startingtourism industries, this is a significant problem,as some countries must import as much as 50%of tourism-related products.• Infrastructure• Some less economically developed countries donot have the domestic ability to build tourism-related infrastructure (hotels, airports, etc.). Thecost of such infrastructure is then leaked out ofthe country.sapopo 4 Refilwe• Foreign factors of production• Smaller countries often require foreigninvestment to start their tourism industry. Thus,profits from tourism may be lost to foreigninvestors. In addition, travel agents outside ofthe destination country remove money fromthat market as well.• Promotional expenditures• Many countries spend considerable sums ofmoney for advertisements and publicity.Maintaining a presence abroad may increasethe volume of tourists to a country but alsorepresent a considerable loss of money toforeign markets.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 77
  78. 78. • Transfer pricing• Many foreign companies manipulate theirpricing to reduce taxes and other duties. Insmaller or less developed countries, wheremany tourism-related companies may beforeign owned, this can represent a substantialloss of income.• Tax exemptions• Countries with a small tourism industry mayhave to give tax exemptions or other offers toincrease foreign investment. While this mayenlarge the tourism industry there, it must betaken into account as an instrument of incomeloss.• Application• A study of tourism leakagein Thailand estimated that 70% of all moneyspent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (viaforeign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels,imported drinks and food, etc.). Estimates forother Third World countries range from 80% inthe Caribbean to 40% in India.• Leakage is not restricted to less-developedcountries. Australia experiences a significantleakage effect from Japanese tourists. Thoughthe spend the most per capita of all tourists toAustralia, much of what they spend is throughJapanese travel companies, Japanese hotels, andother foreign-owned businesses. There is thussignificant leakage to Japans economy.• Leakage not only varies from country to country,but also from industry to industry. High-incometourism may well significantly increase leakage,as that industry likely involves importing moregoods and services than usual. Ecological oradventure tourism may exhibit a very smalldegree of leakage, however, as they place valuesolely on what the host country has to offerRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 78
  79. 79. • Effect• As a result of the leakage effect,tourism industries in developedcountries often are much moreprofitable per dollar receivedthan tourism in smaller countries.Islands, in particular, suffer fromsignificant leakage. In countriessuch as Turkey and the UnitedKingdom, the benefit to theeconomy from tourism is twicethe dollar amount spent bytourists. In smaller places, suchas Micronesia and Polynesia, thatbenefit is half the dollar amountspent. Some locations havemanaged to nullify the leakageeffect almost entirely - New YorkCity claims to generate sevendollars for the local economy perdollar spent by tourists. Someestimates of the degree ofleakage claim only 5% of moneyspent on tourism remains in adeveloping countrys economy.• Reducing leakage• For many countries, some sourcesof leakage are unavoidable. Foreign-owned hotels and airlines arenecessary for all but the mostestablished of tourism industries.However, encouragement ofdomestic involvement in a countrystourism industry may reduceleakage in the long run. Currently,the most popular measure isrestrictions on spending. Countriesmay limit the use of foreigncurrency within their borders,reducing the effect of transferpricing (see above). Many countriesrequire visitors to have a certainamount of money before entering,as wellRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 79
  80. 80. Tourism Multiplier Effect• Tourism not only creates jobs in the tertiary sector,it also encourages growth in the primary andsecondary sectors of industry. This is known as themultiplier effect which in its simplest form is howmany times money spent by a tourist circulatesthrough a countrys economy.• Money spent in a hotel helps to create jobs directlyin the hotel, but it also creates jobs indirectlyelsewhere in the economy. The hotel, for example,has to buy food from local farmers, who may spendsome of this money on fertiliser or clothes. Thedemand for local products increases as touristsoften buy souvenirs, which increases secondaryemployment.• The multiplier effect continues until the moneyeventually leaks from the economy throughimports - the purchase of goods from othercountries.• A study of tourism leakage in Thailand estimatedthat 70% of all money spent by tourists ended upleaving Thailand (via foreign-owned touroperators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks andfood, etc.). Estimates for other Third Worldcountries range from 80% in the Caribbean to 40%in India.Source:Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 80
  81. 81. Grant of L-1 Licence• Every year Government of NCT of Delhi formulates the Excise Policy andapproves Terms & Conditions for grant of L-1 licenses. In pursuance tothis policy and the approved terms & conditions, licences in form L-1are granted for the wholesale supply of Indian liquor. These aregranted to a Company or a society or a partnership firm orproprietorship firm having licensed manufacturing units(distillery /brewery /winery/bottling plant).• The applications for the grant of Licence are invited through the publicnotice published in some of the leading newspapers and in the officialwebsite of the Department. An application for the grant of L-1 Licence isrequired to be made in response to the public notice in the prescribedformat together with its Appendices (B and C) to the Dy.Commissioner of Excise. The prime job of L-1 Licensee is to supplyliquor to the holders of Licenses in form L-6, L-7,L-9,L-10,L-12,L-13,L-14,L-15,L-16,L-17,L-18,L-19,L-20,L-21,L-28,L-29 and other liquor licencesin the National Capital Territory of Delhi.• The aspirants for the grant of L-1 Licences have to comply with theprocedure as laid down in the terms and conditions for the grant of L-1Licences which are made available in the Office during the noticeperiod. Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 81
  82. 82. ABC analysis• The ABC analysis is a business term used to define an inventory categorizationtechnique often used in materials management. It is also known as SelectiveInventory Control. it stands for Always Better Control. Policies based on ABCanalysis: A ITEMS: very tight control and accurate records B ITEMS: LESSTIGHTLY CONTROLLED and good records C ITEMS: simplest controls possibleand minimal records• The ABC analysis provides a mechanism for identifying items that will have asignificant impact on overall inventory cost, while also providing a mechanismfor identifying different categories of stock that will require differentmanagement and controls.• The ABC analysis suggests that inventories of an organization are not of equalvalue. Thus, the inventory is grouped into three categories (A, B, and C) inorder of their estimated importance.• A items are very important for an organization. Because of the high value ofthese ‘A’ items, frequent value analysis is required. In addition to that, anorganization needs to choose an appropriate order pattern (e.g. ‘Just- in-time’) to avoid excess capacity.B items are important, but of course less important, than ‘A’ items and moreimportant than ‘C’ items. Therefore ‘B’ items are intergroup items.C items are marginally importantRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 82
  83. 83. Johari window• The Johari window is a technique created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955 in the United States,used to help people better understand their mental instability. It is used primarily in self-help groups andcorporate settings as aheuristic exercise.• When performing the exercise, subjects are given a list of 56 adjectives and pick five or six that they feeldescribe their own personality. Peers of the subject are then given the same list, and each pick five or sixadjectives that describe the subject. These adjectives are then mapped onto a grid.• Charles Handy calls this concept the Johari House with four rooms. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that wesee and others see. Room 2 is the aspects that others see but we are not aware of. Room 3 is the mostmysterious room in that the unconscious or subconscious part of us is seen by neither ourselves nor others.Room 4 is our private space, which we know but keep from others.• The concept is clearly related to the ideas propounded in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator program, whichin turn derive from theories about the personality first explored by psychologist Carl Jung.• An alternate mechanism for determining an individuals Johari Window is to plot the scores fromthe Personal Effectiveness Scale (PES). The Scale comprises of three factors : Self-Disclosure, Openness toFeedback & Perceptiveness. The Self-Disclosure score is to be plotted horizontally, whereas the Opennessto Feedback score is to be plotted vertically. The Johari Window formed naturally displays the sizes of theOpen, Hidden, Blind Spot & Unknown areas, giving a perspective into the individuals personality.The individual may also plot another Window, the Dream Johari Window. The sizes of the areas in theDream Johari Window may be different from the sizes of the same areas in the current Johari Window. TheDream Johari Window represents what an individual wants his/her personality to be like. The individualhaving a Dream Johari Window identical to the current Johari Window may have a balanced personality.The Perceptiveness score from the PES indicates how likely it is for the individual to achieve the DreamJohari Window. For example, a LOW score on the PES indicates less possibility of transitionRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 83
  84. 84. • An empty Johari window, with the "Rooms" arranged clockwise, starting with Room 1 at the top leftRtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 84
  85. 85. • Tourist arrivals data is the mostcommonly used measure of tourismdemand, followed by tourist expenditureand tourist nights in registeredaccommodation.• Holiday Inn is a brand of hotels, formallya economy motel chain, forming part ofthe British InterContinental HotelsGroup(IHG). It is one of the worldslargest hotel chains with 238,440bedrooms and 1,301 hotels globally.There are currently 5 hotels in thepipeline. There are 100 million guestnights each year, globally.• The Red Ribbon Express –– a train dedicated to spread awarenessamong the masses about the threat ofAcquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome -AIDS is nowadays touring the eastern UP. Thetrain has been received enthusiasticallywherever it halted. Not only commonpeople, but the hesitant ones who werevulnerable and fearing of catching theinfection discussed their condition freely andfearlessly with the experts. The train is tocover 17 destinations in UP. Of them, ninehave already been covered. AIR Gorakhpurcorrespondent Salman Haider covered itsjourney to Nautanwa station in Mahrajganjdistrict of east UP.• OAG, formerly Official Airline Guide, isa United Kingdom based businessproviding aviation information andanalytical services sourced from itsproprietary airline schedules, flightstatus, fleet, MRO and cargo logisticsdatabases. OAG is best known for itsairline schedules database which holdsfuture and historical flight details formore than 1,000 airlines and over 4,000airports. This aggregated data feeds theworld’s global distribution systems andtravel portals, and drives the internalsystems of many airlines, air trafficcontrol systems, aircraft manufacturers,airport planners and governmentagencies around the world. Theorganisation operates globally and hasoffices in Europe (UK andNetherlands), Asia (Singapore, Chinaand Japan) and the Americas (UnitedStates and Canada). OAG is organisedinto three customer-facing channels:OAG Aviation, OAG Cargo and OAGTravel.• OAG is a brand of UBM Aviation,a United Business Media business.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 85
  86. 86. • 1873 Thomas Cook & Son opens its newhead office at Ludgate Circus, London• In 1881, Thomas Cook started its Indiaoperations, with its first office inMumbai• THE "HALO EFFECT" The CRS "haloeffect" The principal method by whichcarriers can encourage incrementalbookings via their CRS• Rajasthan pushkar – camel fairNovember• Kumbh mela – prayag, Haridwar, Ujjain,nasik• Bihar sonepur cattle fair – especiallyelephants• Dadri cattle fair – up• Suraj kund craft mela Haryana• Grand Tour of Europe• Young English elites of the seventeenthand eighteenth centuries often spenttwo to four years traveling aroundEurope in an effort to broaden theirhorizons and learn about language,architecture, geography, and culture inan experience known as the Grand Tour.The Grand Tour began in the sixteenthcentury and gained popularity duringthe seventeenth century.• The term Grand Tour was introduced byRichard Lassels in his 1670 book Voyageto Italy. Additional guidebooks, tourguides, and the tourist industry weredeveloped and grew to meet the needsof the 20-something male and femaletravelers and their tutors across theEuropean continent. The young touristswere wealthy and could afford themultiple years abroad. They carriedletters of reference and introductionwith them as they departed fromsouthern England.Rtist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 86
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