Operational Components of OD


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Operational Components of OD

  1. 1. Operational Component & Foundation of OD © Ramakrishna Kongalla, Assistant Professor Rtist @ Tourism
  2. 2. Operational component of ODModel of OD-action research• A basic model underlying most OD activities is the action research model- a data based, problem solving model that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry.• The action research model focuses on planned changes as a cyclical process involving collaboration between organizational members and OD practitioners. Emphasis on data gathering and diagnosis prior to action planning and implementation. Careful evaluation of research after the action is taken. Rtist @ Tourism
  3. 3. Features of action research• Problem focused: Begins with a problem drawn from the field. The response to the inadequacy of scientific research was action research, always begin with a problem.• Action oriented: focuses not only on maximizing the knowledge of a phenomenon, but also attempt to take concrete actions to change the situation.• Cyclical process: the iterative process starts with problem identifications and ends with action taking. The second cycle begins with the evaluation of the result and a reassessment of the problem.• Collaborative: it is the process in which both the researchers and employees contribute their joint expertise.• Experimental: being an organic or cyclical process involves the introduction of a change, examination of its effects and modification of a change. Action research emphasis the power of learning by doing, experimentation being a primary route towards its attainment.• Tackle future problems: it is a self critical approach that calls on both client and consultant to examine their actions and assumption. Rtist @ Tourism
  4. 4. Process of action research Data Gathering Identifying or defining a problem Evaluating Purpose Analysis and Studying the • Indl & orgnl consequences of the Interpretation learning action Ascription of • Solving meaning to the data problems • Bringing about change Action Taking Action Planning Selecting a course of Considering alternative action course of action Rtist @ Tourism
  5. 5. • Data gathering: from a preliminary understanding of the problem, one has to move towards an understanding of the causes, symptoms and outcomes of the problem.• Analysis: the analysis phase involves making sense of the data gathered and interpreting the meaning.• Action taking: this stage is the actual response to the problem. In this, the critical role of the action researcher is anticipating unforeseen consequences of the action taken and planning for them.• Action planning: this is the critical phase of this research. Alternative plans of action need to be generated and their potential impact assessed.• Evaluation: this phase consists of reassessment of the problem. The current state of the problem is examined and the impact of the action is evaluated. Mid-course corrections, if necessary, are initiated. Rtist @ Tourism
  6. 6. Role of the action researcher• Critical functions that need to be performed by the action researcher are explained below: – Problem definition: as action research starts with a problem, the problem needs to be accurately diagnosed. In most cases the action researcher has a preliminary diagnosis of the problem by the client to start with. – Study design: the action researcher has specialized knowledge with regards to the understanding of organizational systems, structures, and processes as well as the research process. Rtist @ Tourism
  7. 7. – Data collection and analysis: as mentioned earlier , it is a cyclical process moving through various stages from problem diagnosis, information gathering, analysis and interpretation to action taking. Data needs to be collected and analyzed in order to decide on the appropriate interventions to be effected.– Interpretation: interpretation of the data collected and analyzed involves the ascription of meaning to it. The nature of the meaning can come both from the action researcher, an expert in applied behavioural science, and the concerned organizational member who have an in-depth understanding of the system and how individuals perceive phenomena.– Action taking: based on action taken, intervention in the client system needs to be planned and executed. This may vary from extremes to complete client domination to full collaboration. However, it may be fruitful to take a middle path so that the client’s understanding of the system is clubbed with the external expertise of the consultant in planning and designing interventions. Rtist @ Tourism
  8. 8. Characteristics/competencies1. OD focuses on development of organizational culture.2. OD focuses on overall development of organization and individuals with win-win strategy.3. It relies heavily on action research.4. It deals with improvement of on going processes.5. OD focuses on total system change and views organization as complex social system.6. Delegation of authority, empowerment, and quality of work life a sense of autonomy are the hallmark of OD programme. Rtist @ Tourism
  9. 9. 7. OD practitioners are facilitators and collaborators. Their assistance in identification of problem areas, arriving at a solution, implementation and feedback is necessary. Their services are valuable.8. OD is characterized by study and development of multiethnic culture that is supportive of work ethics. People with diverse value system, culture, and interests should be able to work effectively under one roof and achieve cordial relationship with fellow employees. It should be able to help achieve organizational effectiveness.9. Organizational development is a joint responsibility of owners, employees, investors’ society, government agencies and consumers. It must be understood that the organizations exist for all of them. Rtist @ Tourism
  10. 10. Foundation of ODPhases of OD• Organizational Development (OD) programs follow a logical progression of events- a series of phases that unfolds over time; an important part of managing an OD program as well is to execute each phase well (French & Bell, 1999). Warner Burke describes seven phases of OD programs as; 1.Entry 2.Contracting 3.Diagnosing 4.Feedback 5.PlanningChange 6.Intervention 7.Evaluation Rtist @ Tourism
  11. 11. • Entry represents the initial contact between consultant and client; exploring the situation that led the client to seek a consultant; and determining whether the problem or opportunity, the client, and the consultant constitute a good match (French & Bell, 1999).• Contracting involves establishing mutual expectations; reaching agreement on expenditures of time, money, resources and energy; and generally clarifying what each party expects to get from the other and give to the other (French & Bell, 1999). Rtist @ Tourism
  12. 12. • Diagnosing is the fact-finding phase, which produces a picture of the situation through interviews, observations, questionnaires, examination of organization documents and information, and the like; Burke observes that the diagnostic phase has two steps- gathering information and analyzing it (French & Bell, 1999).• Feedback represents returning the analyzed information to the client system; the clients exploring the information for understanding, clarification, and accuracy; and the clients owning the data, their picture of the situation, and their problems and opportunities (French & Bell, 1999).• Planning Change involves the clients deciding what action steps to take based on the information they have just learned; alternative possibilities are explored and critiqued (French & Bell, 1999). Rtist @ Tourism
  13. 13. Thank You…!!!©Ramakrishna Kongallae-mail: artist.ramakrishna@gmail.com Rtist @ Tourism