Comprises of PRESIDENT, v.president and the council of minister
All the executive powers are vested in president, who acts on the advice on the council of ministers.
PRIME MINISTER is the leader of majority party and the parliament who heads the council of ministers.
It is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain the control of government separately or in coalition It is essential for representative democracies, it prevent the leadership of the single party from setting out policy without challenge. Examples are TAIWAN, GERMANY,INDIA,DENMARK FRANCE MULTIPARTY SYSTEM
When three or more parties controls the government and government thus formed is called coalition government For e.g. UPA- inc,dmk,tdp,ncp NDA- bjp,jd(u),rastriyalokdal 3RD FRONT-cpi, cpm,forward block,trs,jd(s),aiadmk COALITION GOVERNMENT
HON’SUPREME COURT-comprises of chief justice and 25 other judges appointed by the president Judges hold the office till 65 yrs. Of age President may consult the supreme court or any question of factor law of public importance C.J.I-MR.K.G.BALAKRISHNAN He is the first ST c.j.i. of India 2.judiciary
High courts-18 high courts Judges are appointed by the president in the consultation of c.j.i and the governor of the state each high court has powers of superintendence over all courts within its jurisdiction Continued…………….
Parliament has the power to make laws for the whole or any part of territory of India List 1 of the constitution State legislature have the power to make the laws for the states. List 2 of the constitution List 3-combining parliament and state legislatures 3.LEGISLATURE
Parliament comprise of two houses-lok sabha and rajyasabha Lok sabha-(lower house)-elected directly by the people of India 545 seats, 2 of which are selected by president which represents Anglo Indian community Head of lok sabha-elected by the Mps Current lok Sabah speakar-Meira Kumar First lady speaker in the history of republic of India POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
Rajya sabha(upper house)-indirectly selected by the people India 245 members 233 represent states and union territories 12 members are nominated by president Continued…………..
Established on 25 jan.1950 1st election was on 1952 17 crore 60 lakh people took part in which 85% are illiterate and 15% are literate Shiv Kumar sen was the 1st chief election commissioner Mr.Navin chawla is the current chief election commissioner ELECTION COMMISION OF INDIA
World’s busiest election commission Average election per year-5 Golden period-Mr. T.N. SHESHAN(1990-96) Demerits-power regarding the disqualification e.g. VARUN GANDHI’s speech in pilibhit Can’t say that the ruling government does not influences its working CONTINUED……………..
It is the only state in India which enjoys special autonomy under the article 370 of constitution of India According to which no law can be enacted by the parliament of India excepts in field of defense, communication and foreign policy Supreme court jurisdiction has been extended over J&k Only state which has its own flag and constitution Indians from other state can’t purchase property in J&K Under armed forces act, Indian armed forces has been enforced JAMMU AND KASHMIR:SPECIAL CASE
Used when state legislature and state executive are dissolved and state is under direct federal rule enabled by article 356 Article 356 gives authority to central government to president’s rule if there has been failure of constitutional machinery of the state Earlier on it was become usual practice to use this power till the land mark case of S.R.BOMMAI vs. UNION OF INDIA PRESIDENT’RULE IN INDIA