Photo:http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/womenbiography/ss/013008Queens.htmIt was not unprecedented to have a female pharaoh, but none really engaged in military campaigns. Hatshepsut is thought to have possibly engaged in one to Nubia. She is more well known for establishing trade routes, most notably with Punt, a trading center on the east African coast. In this picture, Hatshepsut shows herself with a nemes, the cobra-like headdress of a pharoah, and a rigid and frontal posture typical of the pharoahs. Over the course of her reign, she had herself depicted completely as a male pharoah, with the idealized male torso and false beard that all the pharoahs used as iconography to depict themselves. She did this, obviously, to show she was just as powerful and legitimate as any male pharoah; she may have seen herself as more legitimate than her nephew Thutmose III, who only had ¼ royal blood.
Photo: http://www.egyptmyway.com/images/photo/egmuseum/hatshepsut_offerings_b530.jpgHere Hatshepsut has done herself up completely as a man to show her regnal power. She has the nemes with a uraeus, the serpent who spits fire at the pharoah’s enemies. She also has a male torso and a false beard.She is kneeling and holding canopic jars because she is shown here offering tribute to her “father,” the sun god Amun. Remember that all Egyptian pharoahs were said to be the sons of the sun god.
Photo 1: http://z.about.com/d/arthistory/1/0/2/7/hatshepsut_art_06.jpgTop photo: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Sphinx_of_Hatshepsut.jpgAnother way a pharoah had of showing himself to be important was to depict himself as a sphinx. Just as the lion is the most physically powerful of creatures, the pharaoh is the most mentally powerful. By joining the two creatures, the pharaoh showed he was physically and mentally the most powerful of men. In fact, the statue was likely placed along with others like it on a processional way to Hatshepsut’s temply in Deir el-Bahri, and the statue has an inscription that identifies Hatshepsut as the king of Upper and Lower Egypt.This sphinx, made of red granite, is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is one of the works of art in the museum that the Met allows the blind to touch.
Photo 1 (bottom): http://www.arvendalstudios.com/egypt/photos/pharao4b.htmPhoto 2 (middle): http://www.egyptholiday.com/july/images/66delb.jpgPhoto 3 (top): http://egyptsites.wordpress.com/2009/02/09/temple-of-hatshepsut/Info below from http://egyptsites.wordpress.com/2009/02/09/temple-of-hatshepsut/One of the most important tasks for a pharaoh was the building of his temple, which would become his tomb when he died. Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple is an astonishing work of art. With its terraced colonnades, it naturally blends with the rocky mountain from which it was cut. It shows the influence of ancient Near Eastern art in its use of ramps, the preferred entryway for ancient Near Eastern ziggurats. The temple itself became an influence for the Greeks and Romans. Rock-cut temples such as Hatshepsut’s were very common during the Middle Kingdom, but famous pharaohs such as Tut, who is from the New Kingdom, also used them.The mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut of Dynasty XVIII was built just north of the Middle Kingdom temple of MentuhotepNebhepetre in the bay of cliffs known as Deir el-Bahri. In ancient times the temple was called Djeser-djeseru, meaning the ’sacred of sacreds’. It was undoubtedly influenced by the style of the earlier temple at Deir el-Bahri, but Hatshepsut’s construction surpassed anything which had been built before both in its architecture and its beautiful carved reliefs. The female pharaoh chose to site her temple in a valley sacred to the Theban Goddess of the West, but more importantly it was on a direct axis with Karnak Temple of Amun on the east bank. Also, only a short distance on the other side of the mountain behind the temple, was the tomb which Hatshepsut had constructed for herself in the Valley of the Kings (KV20).The Temple of Hatshepsut was built on three terraced levels, with a causeway leading down to her Valley Temple (now lost) which would have been connected to the River Nile by a canal. Gardens with trees were planted in front of the lower courtyard.On approaching the first court there are colonnades on the southern and northern sides of a ramp leading to the second court. At the end of the northern colonnade a colossal statue of the queen has been reconstructed and re-erected from fragments. Reliefs in the southern lower portico are very shallow and often difficult to see, but if the light is right they are very interesting. These show the transportation by ship of two obelisks from the granite quarries at Aswan, escorted by soldiers, standard-bearers, musicians and priests. Further along the wall but even more difficult to recognise, the queen offers the obelisks to Amun at Karnak along with the dedication ceremonies.The lower northern portico shows Hatshepsut in a boat, fowling and fishing in ritual scenes with birds, and a net of waterfowl drawn by two gods. Other ritual scenes include the queen offering statues and driving calves to Amun and she is also portrayed as a sphinx trampling her foes.Crouching lions are carved at the bottom of the ramp leading to the second terrace. In the second court there was once a brick temple dedicated to Amenhotep I and Ahmose-nefertari, but it was destroyed when Hatshepsut’s architect Senenmut began construction of the new temple. A brick shrine dedicated to Aesclepius by Ptolemy III (also destroyed) stood in front of the southern side of the portico on the second terrace. At the very end of the southern portico is a Chapel of Hathor with many reliefs of Hatshepsut being licked or suckled by the goddess in the form of a cow. Beautiful Hathor-headed pillars line the central part of the hall and lead the way to the sanctuary area of the chapel cut into the hillside at the back. Unfortunately these inner chambers are usually closed to visitors. On the northern wall in the hypostyle of the Hathor Chapel are colourful scenes of boats and a parade of soldiers, a panther and Libyans dancing in a festival of Hathor.In the southern colonnade are the famous scenes of Hatshepsut’s expedition to Punt. The precise location of Punt is not known, but it is thought to have been probably on the east coast of Africa, to the south of Egypt. The end wall shows a village in the land of Punt, its dome-shaped houses on stilts with ladders to access them. There are wonderful birds and animals all around. Men are cutting trees, including incense and ebony and carrying off heaps of tribute and treasure to be taken back to Egypt. The famous relief of Ity the ‘Queen of Punt’ – a grotesquely fat lady who was actually the wife of Parahu, Punt’s chief – is now in Cairo Museum but has been replaced by a reproduction. On the western wall elaborately-rigged sailing boats get ready to bring the tribute back to Egypt, including incense trees in baskets, cattle, baboons and a panther. Note the many types of fish in the water in the register below. Further along we see the transplanted incense trees in the gardens at Karnak and the produce from the expedition being weighed and documented by officials before being presented to the queen to be offered to Amun.The northern colonnade begins with a Chapel of Anubis which echoes the Hathor Chapel on the southern side and shows colourful scenes of Hatshepsut in the presence of the jackal-headed god. In some places Hatshepsut’s figure has been removed but the figure of her successor Tuthmose III remains in offering scenes to Amun as well as Anubis, Wepwawet, Sokar, Osiris and other mortuary gods.In the northern portico we see scenes of the queen establishing her right to rule by illustrating her divine birth. The reliefs are shallow and not well-preserved, but show the divine union of Hatshepsut’s mother Ahmose with Amun. Khnum the creator god then fashions the queen and her ka on the potter’s wheel and Ahmose is led to the birth-room by the goddess Hekat who presides over the childbirth. Hatshepsut is then presented to Amun and a number of other deities and the goddess Seshat, with Hapi, records her name and reign length. The register above portrays the coronation ceremonies of the queen where she is crowned first by her father Tuthmose I, then by Horus and Set.The ramp leading to the third terrace is flanked by Horus falcons. The Polish-Egyptian mission has been working to restore the upper terrace at Deir el-Bahri since 1961 and it was closed to visitors until 2002. The pillars in the portico in front of the third terrace were decorated with Osirid statues of the queen, some of which have now been painstakingly restored.Passing under a huge pink granite doorway the visitor enters a columned courtyard. The wall to the north of the doorway shows scenes from the ‘Beautiful Feast of the Valley’, with barques carrying statues of Tuthmose I, II, III and Hatshepsut. Barques of the Theban Triad are carried by priests, with offering-bringers, dancers and musicians making up the procession. The chambers in the northern part of the upper terrace are dedicated to the solar cult of Re-Horakhty and in one of these is a huge alabaster altar on which sacrifices would have been left exposed to the sun. Other niches and chapels (including another dedicated to Anubis and one to the parents of Hatshepsut) lead off from these chambers and still have very well-preserved colourful paintings, but are still closed to visitors.The southern side of the court in the upper terrace is dedicated to the royal mortuary cult. The wall to the south of the doorway also shows scenes of processions of royal statues in boats with their attendants. On the south wall are offering scenes to various deities. The chambers to the south of the court (still closed) included cult chapels of Hatshepsut and her father Tuthmose I with similar well-preserved decoration in each.In the centre of the upper court at the rear, is the sanctuary of Amun, the focus of the temple which was cut deep into the rock of the mountain (not at present open to visitors). This would have been the resting place for the barque of Amun during the ‘Valley Festival’. Two chambers in the sanctuary show scenes of Hatshepsut, with her daughter Neferure and Tuthmose III worshipping various gods. The sanctuary was later expanded by Ptolemy VIII, Euergetes who added a third chamber dedicated to Imhotep and Amenhotep Son of Hapu who were worshipped as deities at this time and associated with gods of healing. The third terrace later became a sanatorium.EntranceThe Temple of Hatshepsut is open from 6.00am to 4.00pm in winter. Tickets cost EGP 30 and should be bought at the ticket office. There is a little train (the taftaf) from the parking area to the temple entrance that costs EGP2. The temple is floodlit in the evening and although not open, it is a beautiful sight which can be seen from any high point, even from across the river in Luxor.
From her remains Egyptologists think Hatshepsut was overweight.
Women In Power
WOMEN IN POWER<br />
HATSHEPSUT, PHAROAH OF EGYPT<br />Hatshepsut was ruled Egypt for 20 years, from 1503 to 1482 BCE during the 18th dynasty<br />Hatshepsut married her half-brother Thutmose II, who ruled for 4 years before he died<br />Upon his death, Thutmose III, Thutmose II’s son by a concubine , was proclaimed king<br />Hatshepsut usurped the throne<br />
Hatshepsut's Mummy was Identified in 2007<br />The mummy was found by Egyptologist Howard Carter, who also found Tut’s tomb<br />Hatshepsut was identified only recently when a tooth known to be hers and found elsewhere was matched to the mummy you see on the left<br />
Theodora: Queen of Byzantium<br />Theodora was the wife of Justinian, the emperor of Byzantium from 527-565<br />Theodora was the daughter of a circus performer and was on the lowest social scale of anyone of the time<br />She was so beautiful, intelligent and witty that when Justinian fell in love with her, he had the law rewritten so he could marry her!<br />
Theodora Ruled with Justinian<br />He gave her equal control in the kingdom<br />When the famous Nika revolt took place, it was Theodora who calmed it with a moving speech about the role of monarchs<br />Theodora and Justinian transformed the city of Constantinople, making it one of the most beautiful of its day<br />Interior of the Hagia Sophia<br />
Theodora's Contributions to Women<br />Theodora passed laws against enforced prostitution and set up homes for prostitutes<br />She helped women have more rights in divorce<br />She made it easier for women to own and inherit property<br />She enacted the death penalty for rape<br />
Theodora at San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy<br />
Queen Elizabeth I: 1533-1603<br />Father:<br />Henry VIII<br />Mother<br />Anne Boleyn<br />Edward de Vere<br />Earl of Oxford<br />Sir Walter Ralegh<br />Queen Elizabeth<br />
Elizabethan England<br />At a time when women were supposed to be “passive, silent and obedient,” Elizabeth dominated world politics, made England into a superpower and gave her name to the era in which she lived!<br />
Chapter 11 for Athalia: Melakhim Bet <br />Like Hatshepsut, Athalia comes to power by usurping the throne!<br />א וַעֲתַלְיָה אֵם אֲחַזְיָהוּ, וראתה (רָאֲתָה) כִּי מֵת בְּנָהּ; וַתָּקָם, <br />וַתְּאַבֵּד, אֵת, כָּל-זֶרַע הַמַּמְלָכָה.<br />1 Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the royal seed.<br />
After six years of hiding Yoash in the Temple . . . <br />יב וַיּוֹצִא אֶת-בֶּן-הַמֶּלֶךְ, וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת-הַנֵּזֶר וְאֶת-הָעֵדוּת, וַיַּמְלִכוּ אֹתוֹ, וַיִּמְשָׁחֻהוּ; וַיַּכּוּ-כָף--וַיֹּאמְרוּ, יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ.<br />12 Then he brought out the king's son, and put upon him the crown and the insignia; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said: 'Long live the king.'<br />The kohain, Yehoyada, stages a coup with the king’s guard<br />As we see with Hatshepsut and Elizabeth, royal blood is valued<br />Here, the king’s <br />guard restore<br />the rightful heir to the throne<br />
יד וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד עַל-הָעַמּוּד כַּמִּשְׁפָּט, וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת אֶל-הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְכָל-עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ, וְתֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת; וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָה אֶת-בְּגָדֶיהָ, וַתִּקְרָא קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר.<br />14 And she looked, and, behold, the king stood on the platform, as the manner was, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and cried: 'Treason, treason.' <br />As we saw in the age of Elizabeth, court intrigue and conspiracies were a natural part of palace life.<br />
The Pretender to the Throne is Slain<br />טז וַיָּשִׂמוּ לָהּ יָדַיִם, וַתָּבוֹא דֶּרֶךְ-מְבוֹא הַסּוּסִים בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ; וַתּוּמַת, <br />שָׁם.<br />16 So they made way for her; and she went by the way of the horses' entry to the king's house; and there was she slain.<br />
Powerful Women Were Rare in the Ancient World <br />Today women can have<br />power in the workplace <br />and at home<br />But the ancient world has shown us women can be just as ruthless as men<br />
No matter who has power, it has to be used well<br />With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility<br />