The form of any winged bird that flies in the sky . . .<br />North Syrian bird face goddess<br />
The form of anything that creeps on the ground . . .<br />Tutankhamen wore a scarab such as this one – made of gold, carnelian, lapis lazuli, and turquoise – because the scarab was sacred to the Egyptians and represented rebirth<br />
The form of any fish that is in the waters below the earth . . .<br />
The Luminaries<br />And when you look up to the sky and behold the sun and the moon and the stars, the whole heavenly host, you must not be lured into bowing down to them or serving them. These the Lord your God allotted to other peoples everywhere under heaven<br />
The moon was also heavily worshipped in the ancient world<br />
Since Temple times, the שְׁמַעhas been part of the liturgy<br />
The Shemaremained a powerful reminder of central tenets of Judaism<br />What are some of the concepts in the first paragraph of the Shema?<br />What are some of the concepts in the second paragraph?<br />שְׁמַע<br />יִשְׂרָאֵל: יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד<br />Devarim6:4<br />
Faith and Action<br />Ephesians 2:8–9 (NASB)<br />8 For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; <br />9 not as a result of works, so that no one may boast. <br />Acts 15:8 And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us;<br />15:9 And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.<br />
Christian vs. Jewish “Circumcision”<br />Acts 15:8-9 (Go to this verse :: Verse pop-up) <br />The Gentiles' conversion resulted in a serious controversy in the church over whether they should be required to be circumcised. This major issue resulted in the convening of the first ministerial conference in the history of God's church (Acts 15). At this conference, the ministry was led to decide that the Gentiles do not need to be circumcised.<br />God revealed to the apostles that, under the New Covenant, He makes no distinction between Jew and Gentile. Regardless of race or ethnic origin, He extends the promises of salvation to any and all whom He chooses to call. Under the New Covenant, physical descent from Abraham no longer matters because God is concerned only over the person's repentance and faith in Christ. Those who receive the Holy Spirit after repentance and baptism become "the seed of Abraham." Additionally, because the purpose and meaning of physical circumcision have been superseded by the New Covenant, there is no need to inflict pain and possible psychological distress on an adult male through this operation.<br />Peter emphasizes that God looked upon the hearts of the Gentiles and saw their repentance. Although they were not circumcised, God forgave their sins because of their repentance and faith in Christ and granted them the gift of the Holy Spirit. They were, therefore, justified by faith and spiritually circumcised, that is, in heart and mind (Romans 2:28-29). During the Jerusalem conference, God revealed to the apostles that justification fulfilled the spiritual symbolism of circumcision.<br />
We Must Love God, but We Must Also Serve Him<br />Let’s see the second paragraph of the Shemaagain<br />
Threats to Judaism<br />Paganism:<br />The threat was to God’s Unity, His Oneness<br />Pagans thought many gods ruled the world<br />Pagans believed there was a magical world beyond the gods that man could access through incantations<br />Christianity<br />One can debate the threat to Unity of God, but most today believe Christianity is a monotheistic religion<br />Pagans did not want to get circumcisions, and the halakhawas burdensome and an obstacle to mass conversion =<br />Circumcision of the heart: just believe in Christ and you will be saved<br />
OlMalkhutShamayim:<br />Without love, one is not serving God properly<br />Without action, one is not showing proper love<br />
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