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Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
Ten Makot, Makot Ten
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Ten Makot, Makot Ten


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    • 1. Ten Makot, Makot Ten The Mitzrim Were Punished Again and Again
    • 2. What do the Plagues Undermine in Egyptian Society?
    • 3. The Power of Magic in Egyptian Life Photo credit: Copyright 2007 ,
    • 4. Word and Magic
      • Egypt was the land of magic:
      • The Egyptians greatly valued magic and believed in the power of incantations – spoken words that have magical effects.
      Photo credit: http://www.brooklynmuseum . org/images/sized/Magic_m.jpg.
    • 5. Uses of Magic
      • The Egyptians used magic to heal, to protect, to curse and to ensure the dead’s passage to the afterlife.
      • The priests were the societal group to perform magical acts.
      The dwarf god, Bes. Egyptians thought he protected women during childbirth. Photo credit:
      • Cure for cataracts:
      • Mix brain-of-tortoise with honey. Place on the eye and say:
      • There is a shouting from the sky
      • darkness. There is an uproar in the
      • northern sky. The Hall of Pillars falls
      • into the waters. The crew of the sun
      • god bent their oars so that the heads
      • at his side fall into the water. Who
      • leads hither what he finds? I lead forth
      • what I find. I lead forth your heads. I
      • lift up your necks. I fasten what has been
      • cut from you in its place. I lead you forth
      • to drive away the god of Fevers and all
      • possible deadly arts.
      From Brier, Bob. Ancient Egyptian Magic . Quill Press: New York, 1981.
    • 7. God Has a Plan:
      • וַאֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי -- כִּי לֹא - יִתֵּן אֶתְכֶם מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם , לַהֲלֹךְ :  וְלֹא בְּיָד חֲזָקָה
      • וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת - יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת - מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ ; וְאַחֲרֵי - כֵן , יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם
      • Yet I know that the king of Egypt will let you go only because of a greater might.
      • So I will stretch out my hand and smite Egypt with various wonders which I will work upon them; after that he shall let you go.
      • Exodus 3:19-20
    • 8. Moshe is not convinced . . .
      • וַיַּעַן מֹשֶׁה , וַיֹּאמֶר , וְהֵן לֹא - יַאֲמִינוּ לִי , וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי :  כִּי יֹאמְרוּ , לֹא - נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה
      • וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה , מזה ( מַה - זֶּה ) בְיָדֶךָ ; וַיֹּאמֶר , מַטֶּה
      • וַיֹּאמֶר הַשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אַרְצָה , וַיַּשְׁלִכֵהוּ אַרְצָה וַיְהִי לְנָחָשׁ ; וַיָּנָס מֹשֶׁה , מִפָּנָיו
      • But Moshe spoke up and said, “What if they do not believe me and do not listen to me, but say: God did not appear to you?”
      • God said to him, “What is that in your hand?” And he replied, “A rod.”
      • He [God] said, “”Cast it on the ground.” He [Moshe] cast it on the ground and it became a snake; and Moshe recoiled from it.
      • Exodus 4:1-3
    • 9. Moshe is still unsure:
      • וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל - יְהוָה , בִּי אֲדֹנָי , לֹא אִישׁ דְּבָרִים אָנֹכִי גַּם מִתְּמוֹל גַּם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁם , גַּם מֵאָז דַּבֶּרְךָ אֶל - עַבְדֶּךָ :  כִּי כְבַד - פֶּה וּכְבַד לָשׁוֹן אָנֹכִי
      • וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו , מִי שָׂם פֶּה לָאָדָם אוֹ מִי - יָשׂוּם אִלֵּם , אוֹ חֵרֵשׁ אוֹ פִקֵּחַ אוֹ עִוֵּר -- הֲלֹא אָנֹכִי , יְהוָה
      • וְעַתָּה , לֵךְ ; וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה עִם - פִּיךָ , וְהוֹרֵיתִיךָ אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר
      • But Moshe said to God, “Please, God, I have never been a man of words , either in times past or now that You have spoken to Your servant; I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.”
      • And God said to him, “Who gives man speech? Who makes him dumb or deaf, seeing or blind? Is it not I, God?
      • Now go, and I will be with you as you speak and will instruct you what to say.”
      • Exodus 4:10-12
    • 10. Moshe understands his role, but still does not want it: וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנָי ; שְׁלַח - נָא בְּיַד - תִּשְׁלָח But he [Moshe] said, “Please, God, make someone else your AGENT.” Exodus 4:13
    • 11. Uh-oh! You shouldn’t have said that!
      • וְאַחַר , בָּאוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן , וַיֹּאמְרוּ , אֶל - פַּרְעֹה :  כֹּה - אָמַר יְהוָה , אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל , שַׁלַּח אֶת - עַמִּי , וְיָחֹגּוּ לִי בַּמִּדְבָּר
      • וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה -- מִי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ , לְשַׁלַּח אֶת - יִשְׂרָאֵל :  לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֶת - יְהוָה , וְגַם אֶת - יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחַ
      • Afterward, Moshe and Aharon went and said to Pharaoh, “Thus says Hashem, the God of Israel: Let My people go that they may celebrate a festival for Me in the wilderness.”
      • But Pharaoh said, “Who is God that I should heed Him and let Israel go? I do not know God, nor will I let Israel go.”
      • Exodus 5:1-2
    • 12. לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֶת - יְהוָה , וְגַם אֶת - יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחַ How would you like to get to know God, Pharaoh? He’ll be happy to get acquainted with you.
    • 13. First Plague: Blood in the Nile
    • 14. The Nile
      • Just a reminder that life in Egypt would have been impossible without the Nile.
      • Where are all the cities situated?
      Photo credit:
    • 15. Hapy: God of the Nile
      • Hail to thee, O Nile! Who manifests thyself over this land, and comes to give life to Egypt! Mysterious is thy issuing forth from the darkness, on this day whereon it is celebrated! Watering the orchards created by Re, to cause all the cattle to live, you give the earth to drink, inexhaustible one! Path that descends from the sky, loving the bread of Seb and the first-fruits of Nepera, You cause the workshops of Ptah to prosper!
              • Hymn to the Nile, ca. 2100 BCE
      Sunk relief of Hapy, god of the Nile Photo credit: sunk_relief_of_the_god_hapy.gif.
    • 16. Osiris was the major god associated with the Nile
      • Osiris is shown with green skin probably to suggest his role as a fertility god
      • Osiris was considered the backbone of Egypt
      • If he was the backbone, as was the Nile, to hit the Nile was to paralyze Egypt!
    • 17.
      •    כֹּה , אָמַר יְהוָה , בְּזֹאת תֵּדַע , כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה :  הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַכֶּה בַּמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר - בְּיָדִי עַל - הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר בַּיְאֹר - וְנֶהֶפְכוּ לְדָם
      •    וְהַדָּגָה אֲשֶׁר - בַּיְאֹר תָּמוּת וּבָאַשׁ הַיְאֹר ; וְנִלְאוּ מִצְרַיִם לִשְׁתּוֹת מַיִם מִן - הַיְאֹר
      • Thus says the Lord, “By this you (the pharaoh) shall know that I am the Lord.” See, I shall strike the water in the Nile with the rod that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood;
      • and the fish in the Nile will die. The Nile will stink so that the Egyptians will find it impossible to drink in the Nile.
      • Exodus 7:17-18
    • 18. Second Plague: Frogs וְשָׁרַץ הַיְאֹר , צְפַרְדְּעִים , וְעָלוּ וּבָאוּ בְּבֵיתֶךָ , וּבַחֲדַר מִשְׁכָּבְךָ וְעַל - מִטָּתֶךָ ; וּבְבֵית עֲבָדֶיךָ וּבְעַמֶּךָ , וּבְתַנּוּרֶיךָ וּבְמִשְׁאֲרוֹתֶיךָ The Nile shall swarm with frogs, and they shall come up and enter your palace, your bedchamber and your bed, the houses of your courtiers and your people, and your ovens and your kneading bowls. Exodus 7:28
    • 19. The Frog Goddess, Heqet, was Another Fertility Goddess
      • She was associated with the moon – as often goddesses in the ancient world were
      • The moon was said to control the ebb and flow of the water and therefore the one who was associated with the moon was a fertility goddess
      • She is one of the eight gods/goddesses associated with creation and is the consort of Khnum, the ram-headed god who molds beings out of clay
      • Heqet’s job was to bring the clay mounds to life
    • 20. Heqet as Fertility Goddess
      • Heqet was one of the goddesses associated with pregnancy and childbirth.
      • Taweret, the hippopotamus goddess, was the main protector of pregnant women and their newborn children.
      • But Bes, the dancing dwarf, we saw was also associated with a safe labor and the protection of newborn children.
      Photo credit:
    • 21. Heqet was the patron goddess of MIDWIVES! So what did Heqet do?
    • 22. Plague the Third: Vermin וַיֵּט אַהֲרֹן אֶת - יָדוֹ בְמַטֵּהוּ וַיַּךְ אֶת - עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ , וַתְּהִי הַכִּנָּם , בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה :  כָּל - עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ הָיָה כִנִּים , בְּכָל - אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם Aharon held out his arm with the rod and struck the dust of the earth, and vermin came upon man and beast; all the dust of the earth turned to lice throughout the land of Egypt. Exodus 8:13
    • 23. “ A man says this speech [for the Judgment of the Dead] when he is pure, clean, dressed in fresh clothes, shod in white sandals, painted with eye-paint, anointed with the finest oil of myrrh.” Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol.2, p.131 Ancient Egyptian toilet box
    • 24.
      • Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, said of the Egyptians:
      • “ They are very careful to wear newly-washed linen all the time. They circumcise their children for the sake of cleanliness; they would rather be clean than better looking.”
      Barber shaving the head of a soldier Tomb of Userhat, 18th dynasty
    • 25. ל    וַיּוֹשַׁע יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא , אֶת - יִשְׂרָאֵל -- מִיַּד מִצְרָיִם ; וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת - מִצְרַיִם , מֵת עַל - שְׂפַת הַיָּם . לא    וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת - הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה , אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּמִצְרַיִם , וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם , אֶת - יְהוָה ; וַיַּאֲמִינוּ , בַּיהוָה , וּבְמֹשֶׁה , עַבְדּוֹ .  30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore. 31 And Israel saw the great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the LORD; and they believed in the LORD, and in His servant Moses.
    • 26. HOW’D WE GET OUT?