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  • My name is JB Clancy. I am a registered architect, I am a partner with AR&T in Boston and I also live here in Milton. This morning I would like to talk to you about sustainable architecture. – you might have heard of Green buildings, LEED buildings, maybe even zero energy buildings - they go by several names these days but they are all trying to do one thing – reduce their impact on the planet. But what does a green building look like? Why do we even consider it green? I hope to answer some of these questions for you in the next 45 minutes.
  • As an architect I have always been interested in what compels us to build buildings? I am not alone, In trying to understand buildings, architects and architectural historians have written libraries full of books looking at the influences behind our built environment: culture, historical and political events, materials, economic conditions, the client, climate. Have you ever looked around your campus and wondered why certain buildings look the way they do?
  • What informs the shape, placement, expression of a building? The primitive hut as represented here in this famous drawing by Marc-Antoine Laugier- represents an idea of the first building, a form which arose organically out of nature. At the core of the primitive hut is the search for the essence of architecture, the essence of a dwelling, the essence of a house.
  • At its most elemental level the building is an environmental separator. A shelter from the elements. Control heat air, rain, light, noise, animals. This was true for the first houses and is true today.
  • But beyond shelter, what is the purpose of a house? What informs the way it looks and functions? What is its relationship to the society that builds it – what is its responsibility?
  • We are in the midst of a paradigm shift: one from a world of endless bounty to that of limited resources. It is becoming apparent that there are consequences to our actions: Our culture of consumption, especially our consumption of fossil fuel based energy, is changing the climate of our planet.
  • We all know that the world is finite. There are limited amount of resources available and all these resources can been distilled into one basic element: energy.
  • All forms of life extract energy from the environment and convert it to forms which can be used. Humans convert energy from forms that are less desirable to those that are more desired i.e. from grass to meat, from wood to heat and from fossil fuels to electricity. Throughout history, humans have developed ways to expand their ability to harvest energy. You can see the growth of energy that humans are able to command as we move through time - from approx 2,000 calories a day to 230,000 calories per day. A rate of over 100 times. It is this consumption of energy that has allowed for the “quality of life” we all know enjoy in this country.
  • But, it is becoming clear that this rate of consumption can not be sustained. Groups like the 2000 watt society in Switzerland have attempted to define a sustainable level of energy consumption for the planet. They have in effect established an energy budget that we must work within. That budget is 2000 watts (i.e. 17,520 kilowatt-hours per year of all energy use, not only electrical). The budget addresses all energy use, transportation, housing, food, etc. You can see that we in the US consume approx 12,000 watts (105,000 kWh) per capita while less developed countries consumes less than 2,000. To achieve this the 2000 watt goal by 2050, developed countries have to significantly reduce their energy consumption, while underdeveloped countries have the opportunity to raise their energy usage. To go from 12,000 watts to 2,000 we in the US would have to reduce our consumption by approx. 85% across the board. Can anyone picture an 85% reduction?
  • What is this level of consumption leading to…higher prices as demand outstrip supply.
  • Our consumption of energy leads to environmental degradation like mountain top removal as we take coal to run our power plants or creates highly toxic by products like nuclear waste.
  • And lastly our energy consumption leads to increased carbon emissions – one of the GHG that to leads to climate change. This graph shows the relationship of energy consumption and carbon output – a story we are all familiar with. You can see most of it has been in the 20 th century - The dramatic rise illustrated here is not only due to population growth. As industrialization has progressed around the world, the amount of energy each one of us uses has also increased, with the global average per capita consumption of all forms of energy rising by 50% in the last 40 years alone. Of that The US has a large share of this emission output. We have 5% of the world's population, but we're responsible for 22% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
  • So where are we interms of emissions? According to 350.org we are already over a CO2 limit that can be considered “sustainable.” We are at 387 parts per million and we need to be at 350 ppm. This is the level scientists have identified as the safe upper limit for CO2 in our atmosphere. So what do we do? we need to reverse the trend and begin to drive the line down… To do that, well we need to consume less energy.
  • With so much attention given to transportation emissions, many people are surprised to learn that buildings are the single largest contributor to global warming. Data from the US Energy Information Administration illustrates that buildings are responsible for almost half (48%) of all energy consumption and GHG emissions annually.
  • Let me talk a bit about energy consumption in buildings… there are two ways of measuring energy consumption in buildings: The first is the energy that the building consumes (operational energy); This is the energy to heat and cool the building, to run the appliances, the lights. This drawing by the architect Leon Krier shows graphically the energy that is consumed by an average US household per century. Imagine 100 million tanks like that scattered about our landscape…
  • That energy is measured in a number of ways – you are familiar with kWh probably and gallons but might not know btus or therms. Here are some simple conversions. We like to work in Btu’s.
  • the second kind of energy is the energy required to build and maintain the building (called embodied energy) Presently the embodied energy of building materials contributes anywhere from 15 to 20% of the energy used by a building over a 50 year period or 5 years of energy consumption equals the total embodied energy of a building Different material have different amount of embodied energy highly processed material have a higher embodied energy – for example steel is higher than wood. Recycled materials have less embodied energy than material made new.
  • To understand how energy can influence a building let’s take a journey through America looking at buildings through the lens of energy, to see how the availability of energy, the form of energy and the cost of energy influenced the shape of our houses. This graph shows the type of fuel and amount used from 1630 to the present. You can see the era of fossil fuels is not that old, really beginning around 1850, you can also see most of the consumption has occurred in the last 50 years. The dramatic increase has been a combination of population increase and per capita increases.
  • House 1691 The available energy source was wood, animals and water Wood was used to heat the building (NOTE: wood is considered a carbon neutral fuel source because the carbon is already in our system, unlike fossil fules which represent stored carbon from millions of years ago) Wood was used to build the building There were very little manufactured materials Materials likely directly from the site – small glass panes likely the only imported manufacturerd material. Think of how carefully you might place a window if you could only use that much glass? The form of the building is compact and simple. With limited energy you are conservative in your use of it.
  • House 1780 The available energy source was still wood - note the large central chimney With limited energy, even if the building is large it is still restrained in its form, massing. There were very little manufactured materials – selected area – entry is ornamented. Hand carved. Rest is very restrained.
  • The available energy source was coal Centralized heating with fossil fuel enables plan to grow – less compact Industrial revolution in full swing – decorative ornament product on industrial manufacturing With fossil fuels the individual is able to harness more power. The style, high Victorian, flourished during the Industrial Revolution, starting in the late 1870s, which allowed factory-made, precut parts to be shipped around the United States on the new coast-to-coast railway system. Pattern books also became available, making the style's elaborate gingerbread and multiple gables widely accessible to the middle classes. With fossil fuels what once was the domain of kings was now available to all.
  • This is the famous Farnsworth house design by Mies in 1951 in plano illinois. From the graph we can now see that petroleum is becoming the dominant fuel source This building has no regard for climate – it does have to – cheap energy and mechanical system can over come requirements climate It can literally defy laws of nature like gravity as expressed in the cantilevers at the end of the building. Made with highly processed materials like steel and glass From the perspective of energy what I find interested is how decadent this building is while seeming to look so simple and pure.
  • This house is the ultimate expression of the fossil fuel era. House is made with oil carpet, vinyl siding, vinyl floors, plastic counter tops, All highly processed materials coming from all over the world. The house also uses large amounts energy to heat and cool –
  • These building represent a trend of the growing American house. Average size of a house in America has grown from 983 sf in 1950 to 2350 sf today Value: Given the amount of energy that has been invested in this building and the amount of energy it will take t run it, the question should be asked will we or the owner get a good return for their investment? Is this how our society should be spending our energy capital? In the 20 th century architects like to say that “Form Follows Function” meaning that the building form, like an airplane say, was a result of the essential needs of the structure – but thinking about this timeline maybe it should be FORM FOLLOW ENERGY.
  • If we accept that we need to reduce our energy consumption by 85% to meet the goals of the 2000 watt society what might a house look like? What are the principles that should govern building in the 21 st century?
  • Here are some architectural “principles” for building in the what I am calling the Age of Sustainability. The principles are…
  • What I am now going to present is one project we have been working on that attempts to address these principles, a house for the 21 st century. The house is being designed for Habitat for Humanity in Vermont. It is being developed in partnership with Peter Schneider, a Consultant, from the Vermont Energy Investment Corporation. I realize that this one building will not solve the condition we find ourselves but its story will hopefully illustrate some of the opportunities present in the act of building.
  • Principle 1: use less energy – a lot less. How much less… remember to meet the goals of the 2000 watt society we have to consume 85% less. This graph shows energy consumption per sf of three building, the Farnsworth house, a typical house and our 21 st century house. KBtu/sf/yr is kind of like an MPG rating for a car. It tells you the efficiency of a house. You can see the difference between the Farnsworth House and the 21 st century house. The Farnsworth house consumes about 180 Kbtu/sf/yr while our 21 st c house consumes 10 kBtu/sf/yr. Anyone can run these numbers for their own house. I have developed a spreadsheet that allows you to put in your utility data and it will tell you your score. My score is around 60kBtu/sf/yr – a long way from our target.
  • How is this done? How is an 85% reduction in energy consumption achieved today? In addition to being a licensed architect, I am a certified Passive House Consultant. I am one of about 75 in this country. Who here has heard of Passive House? I don’t mean the general term Passive Solar but Passive House Institute. The Passive House Institute in Germany was created in the early 90’s by a couple of scientist who set out to design a building to meet the energy reductions being called for from groups like the 2000 watt society. They used North American experience from the 1970’s to develop a set of techniques, tools and an energy standard. The standard results in a 90% reduction in energy used to heat and cool and building. 20,000 house have been built in Europe to this standard. They have tested them and created software that allows us to study the performance during the design phase. Personal experience – My first introduction to PH was through a NYTImes article that talked about a house without a heater? I then found a series of nine full day classes followed by a month long take home exam. We are now attempting to implement these techniques in our work.
  • So how does it work? We use a lot of insulation – in massachsetts your walls would be 1 foot thick.
  • We pay attention to thermal bridging
  • We eliminate unwanted air leakage. 30% of the heat in your house can be lost through leaks in the wall.
  • By providing this insulation we can now take advantage of the heat that come from people…
  • equipment
  • And most importantly… the sun. 2/3 of the energy needed to heat this house come form the sun. That said we need to pay special attention to where we put our glass – most on the south side, very little on the north.
  • We can also use the building to control how much sun gets into the house – the great thing about the sun is we know where it will be every minute of every day – it is very predicable.
  • We use a piece of equipment called a heat recovery ventilator to bring fresh air and at the same time transferring the heat inside the house to the incoming fresh air.
  • And most importantly it is integrated – the whole is greater than the sum of the individual parts.
  • We are able to model the building in software developed in Germany by the PHI.
  • All of this results in a building that can be heated with the equivalent energy used to run a hair dryer and (2) 75 watt light bulbs. And this is in northern VT! Do you know how cold it is up there? So those are the principles of Passive House – what do those elements look like in a house?
  • These are sketches from my notebook showing the development of the design. Quickly realized that we would need a simple form with a tall wall facing south.
  • That salt box then started to get elevated.
  • The mass then began to get broken down and the salt box form evolved into a main building with a shed. The houses relationship to the garden and the street was developed.
  • And this is a 3d sketch showing it in its final form. I did these drawings on the plane ride home, sent them to my friend as here are some ideas and left it at that.
  • Here it is the - the form, massing, and details are all configured around reducing energy … one might say form does follow energy.
  • Although the shape and massing are critical to achieving the energy reduction amounts, One might never know driving down the road that this will be one of the most energy efficient house in the state of Vermont. It does not wear it “greenness” on its sleeve. It is accessible to anyone, in fact it can be built for less that $100/sf.
  • Here are the north and east elevations.
  • Here is a slice through the building, called a section – you can see all the components and the orientation of the rooms to the sun. 3’ of insulaito in the ceiling – sounds like a lot but it is all relative – if you redefine the requirement tof the building envelope to meet an 85% reduction it is not excessive but necessary. The amazing thing about this is that we are using the architecture to do the work – we are just putting things in the right place.
  • Principle 2 – make the energy you use… With the small energy required to heat and cool and run the systems - this house can actually produce as much energy as it consumes if a renewable source of energy is added. It will then become a Zero Energy Building.
  • We can make that energy with solar photovoltaic panels or a wind turbine.
  • Remember when I said it was the architecture that was doing most of the work – well this is a comparison of two buildings, our Passive House and an average size house with an average amount of energy consumption. You can see if we wanted to get the Typical House to ZERO we would need 125 solar panels or an investment of $150,000 per house. Impossible. With a Passive House this is actually achievable.
  • This house also uses a system to heat the hot water with energy from the sun – called solar thermal. The energy to heat water for showers and clearing represents a significant amount of energy for any house.
  • Principle 3: Make it local. The materials for this house should be local and minimally processed. Kind of like food… whole grain equivalent. We want to keep toxic material out of the living areas using low VOC materials and finishes,, the interior walls and ceilings are insulated with recycled newspaper, there will be no tropical wood in this house. Ideally all the framing lumber would come from a managed New England forest. Highly refined materials like glass will only be used where the material, like the glass, can be used to lower the energy consumption of the house. Large north facing windows can never recover the energy lost no mater how well insulated they are.
  • I also like to think of Material empathy – where one can personally relate to the source and location of material used. This helps locate the building in its context. Another Locavove idea….
  • This project here is a house design by AR&T in Maine that embodies local materials - I don’t know if we will get to make our columns out of whole tree trucks though.
  • Principle 4: Make it simple. The exceptional performance and low cost ($100/sf) is achieved through simple forms and volumes. Unlike the 1880 house there is minimal exterior surface area to interior volume and no complicated roof intersections. The plan accommodates the necessary program comfortably and in a small footprint. The house measures about 1,400 sf of gross building area not including the basmeent.
  • This is the second floor, the plumbing is concentrated in the back and all the bedrooms have an orientation to the south.
  • Principle 5: Make it multifunctional. Every room, every surface can be used. Rooms can also have multiple functions. We all know everyone lives in the kitchen now so we have combined the living/dining/kitchen are in one room. We have moved away form the double programmed house where there is a whole section of the house that is used only twice a year and everyone lives in the kitchen/family room/breakfast room anyway. This is a cabin designed by AR&T which brings all of those functions into one room.
  • Principle 6: Make it last. There are buildings in New England that have lasted hundreds of years. The 21 st century house should also be built to last this long too. A new building represents a special opportunity – achieving these energy goals is much easier with new construction. That said, it will not be cost effective to go back into a new house 20 years form now to add more insulation. Because of that they need to be built well and to the low energy standard NOW .
  • We have not been doing this lately, Unfortunately we have more problems with the building built in the last 20 years than we have with the building built a hundred years ago.
  • Principle 6: Make it personal. The sustainability goals outlined here do not necessarily carry a particular aesthetic or architectural style. In fact we could imagine a number of stylistic expressions for this building. These sustainable principles should allow for individual expression – not restriction.
  • And by making it personal one can humanize the components and the building.
  • We have the ability to build a truly sustainable house now. It does not require a technological breakthrough, in some cases like the Habitat House it does not even require additional funding, just a motivation and an understanding of the value this will provide both for the individual and society. By designing a house through these principles we feel there is an opportunity to create a transformational space for the individual and the planet that will be loved and cared for for generations. I would like to conclude with a quote from John Ruskin – he was a 19 th architect – this is from his book The Seven Lamps of Architecture: Every human action gains in honour, in grace, in all true magnificence, by its regard to things that are to come.... Therefore, when we build, let us think that we build forever. Let it not be for present delight nor for present use alone. Let it be such work as our descendants will thank us for; and let us think, as we lay stone on stone, that a time is to come when those stones will be held sacred because our hands have touched them, and that men will say, as they look upon the labor and wrought substance of them, “See! This our fathers did for us.” John Ruskin. 1907. The Seven Lamps of Architecture . J.M Dent. p. 249

100428 milton 100428 milton Presentation Transcript

  • A House for the 21 st Century Milton Academy April 28, 2010 J.B. Clancy, AIA, Certified Passive House Consultant .Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • The Architect’s Dream by Thomas Cole, 1840
  • Marc-Antoine Laugier, Essay on Architecture, 1755 View slide
  • Gottfried Semper, The Four Elements of Architecture, 1851 View slide
  • The Little House, Virginia Lee Burton
  • The Garden of Eden by Thomas Cole, 1828
  • E. Cook, "The Flow of Energy in an Industrial Society" Scientific American , 1971 p. 135 .
  • 2000 Watt Society 2000 W is average amount of energy used continually by each per person worldwide
  • Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R. J. Andres. 2003. "Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions" In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
  • Source: 350.org
  • Source: Architecture 2030
  • Operational Energy Leon Krier
  • Energy Units Unit Fuel type Btu content Kilowatt hour Electricity 3,414 Therm Natural gas 100,000 Gallon Heating oil 139,000 Gallon Gasoline 125,000
  • Embodied Energy National Trust for Historic Preservation
  • History of Energy Consumption by Source in USA 1630 to Present
  • House 1691 Built by Richard Clemence in 1691, Johnston RI
  • House 1780 Winslow Crocker House, Yarmouth Port, MA, 1780
  • House 1850-1925 Drew House 1882, Sandwich MA
  • House post war 1950 Farnsworth House, Mies van der Rohe 1951, Plano, IL
  • House 1980 to present Anywhere USA
  • House 1980 to present McMansion, Anywhere USA
  • House Now – 21 st Century House
  • Architectural Principles in the Age of Sustainability
    • Use less energy – a lot less
    • Make the energy you use
    • Make it local
    • Make it simple
    • Make it multifunctional
    • Make it last
    • Make it personal and beautiful
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • 1. Use Less Energy – a lot less… Specific Energy Demand kBTU/(ft2year)
  • Passive House Institute Passivhaus Institut Darmstadt, Germany Passive House Institute US Urbana, Illinois
  • Passive House Concept Controlling Heat Loss… INSULATION R40 WALLS: R80 CEILING: R60 SLAB TRIPLE-PANED WINDOWS U value 0.18
  • Passive House Concept Controlling Heat Loss… ELIMINATE THERMAL BRIDGES
  • Passive House Concept Controlling Heat Loss… REDUCE AIR INFILTRATION .6 ACH @ 50 PA
  • Passive House Concept Capturing Heat Gains… PEOPLE
  • Passive House Concept Capturing Heat Gains… EQUIPMENT
  • Passive House Concept Capturing Heat Gains… SOLAR ENERGY
  • Passive House Concept Controlling Gains Seasonally… WINDOWS AND ORIENTATION U VALUE .14: TRIPLE GLAZED: >.5 SHGC ON SOUTH WINDOWS
  • Passive House Concept Providing Fresh Air… HEAT RECOVERY VENTILATION MINIMUM .35 ACH
  • Passive House Concept INTEGRATED
  • Passive House Concept PHPP MODELING SOFTWARE
  • Energy Demand to heat this house
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • SOUTH ELEVATION WEST ELEVATION Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects Habitat for Humanity Passive House
  • Architectural Principles in the Age of Sustainability
    • Use less energy – a lot less
    • Make the energy you use
    • Make it local
    • Make it simple
    • Make it multifunctional
    • Make it last
    • Make it personal and beautiful
    • Definition: Net zero energy building
    • The energy produced by on-site renewable energy is equal to the energy consumed by the building.
    (Energy Consumed) - (Energy Produced) = ZERO Energy 2. Make the energy you use
  • 2. Make the energy you use
  • So little energy is consumed that we can actually get to Zero with the addition of renewable energy 2. Make the energy you use Cape House Habitat Passive House Size 1445 SF 1445 SF kBtu/SF - Site 72 kBtu/SF 10.5 kBtu/SF Total Site Energy 30,000 kWh 4,450 kWh PV Array 25 kW 3.8 kW PV Array Size 125 panels 19 panels Cost @ $6/W $150,000 $22,800
  • 2. Make the energy you use
  • 3. Make it local Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • Make it local Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • 4. Make it simple
  • 5. Make it multifunctional Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • 6. Make it last Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • Leon Krier 6. Make it last
  • 7. Make it Personal Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • 7. Make it Personal Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects
  • Resources
    • PassivHaus Germany: www.passivehouse.com
    • Passive House US: www.passivehouse.us
    • Architecture 2030: www.Architecture2030.org
    • 350.org: www.350.org
    • 2000 Watt Society: www.novatlantis.ch
    • US Energy Information Administration: www.eia.doe.gov
    • Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects: www.alriti.com