Colonialism  &  the “Second Hundred Years’ War”
But now, for something completely different . . . . <ul><li>Anglo-Dutch warfare in the late 1600s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fo...
First, the big picture <ul><li>The Big Picture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies had, by the 17th century, been incorporated...
“ Second Hundred Years’ War” <ul><ul><li>No one of these wars was a duel between France and England, but in each of them o...
The Big Picture: War objectives <ul><li>England considered the objective of these wars to be the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>de...
France’s war objectives <ul><li>France's objectives were  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also global trade dominance,  </li></ul></...
Early Colonialism and Empires <ul><li>Superior technology, not culture is key to Europe’s power </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, F...
Second Hundred Year’s War 1687-1815 <ul><li>Causes: balance of power; commercial and colonial competition </li></ul><ul><u...
More of the Wars <ul><li>War of the Spanish Succession  </li></ul><ul><li>Hapsburg and Bourbon houses claim throne of Spai...
Back at it . . . BEST. WAR NAME. EVER! <ul><li>War of Jenkins’s Ear 1739 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-Spanish War </li></ul...
War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748)   <ul><li>Austrian Charles VI dies (1740) Pragmatic Sanction—ensures heir takes...
The Diplomatic Revolution (1756)   <ul><li>Uneasy peace </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous shift in alliances: Prussian now an...
Damn Prussians:  The Seven Year’s War [or the First World War (?)] <ul><li>Has both continental and colonial conflicts (fr...
Meanwhile in the colonies… <ul><li>William Pitt the Elder: fight the war in the colonies, not on the continent   </li></ul...
Results of the Seven Years’ War <ul><li>England and France left heavily in debt, attempts to get out of debt lead to two r...
American Revolution <ul><li>American Revolution (1775-1783)   </li></ul><ul><li>French and Dutch back colonists to lessen ...
Still to come <ul><li>French Revolution (1789-1797): French farther in debt from American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Nap...
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18th

  1. 1. Colonialism & the “Second Hundred Years’ War”
  2. 2. But now, for something completely different . . . . <ul><li>Anglo-Dutch warfare in the late 1600s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought for trading advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch hated British “Navigation Acts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most significant outcome of these wars was the Dutch’s loss of the port city of New Amsterdam to Brits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renamed New York </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. First, the big picture <ul><li>The Big Picture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies had, by the 17th century, been incorporated into the economies of Western European countries. Mercantilism had come to mean the domination of trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus colonialism and the overseas trade became inextricably bound up with issues of continental power and advantage that had been characteristic of the dynastic-state system since its beginning. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. “ Second Hundred Years’ War” <ul><ul><li>No one of these wars was a duel between France and England, but in each of them one or more of the other European powers were engaged. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Big Pic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1689 and 1815--series of wars fought on an increasingly global scale to determine power relations on the continent. Wars are known collectively as the Second Hundred Years' War. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Big Picture: War objectives <ul><li>England considered the objective of these wars to be the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defense of Protestantism and English liberties through . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the containment of French continental ambitions, the balance of power, and global trade dominance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For you juniors and seniors: do these objectives sound familiar? Do they harken back to the 2 nd half of the 20 th c? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. France’s war objectives <ul><li>France's objectives were </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also global trade dominance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continental power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to expand its borders into the Low Countries and along the Rhine. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Early Colonialism and Empires <ul><li>Superior technology, not culture is key to Europe’s power </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, France and Great Britain dominate the mercantile trade of the 18 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial struggles are linked to balance of power on continent: England and France </li></ul>
  8. 8. Second Hundred Year’s War 1687-1815 <ul><li>Causes: balance of power; commercial and colonial competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine Year’s War 1687-1695(League of Augsburg) (parallel colonial war in N. America between France and England (King William’s War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ends when belligerents become exhausted/stalemate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty (Peace) of Ryswick 1697—thwarts France’s attempted expansion into Germany </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. More of the Wars <ul><li>War of the Spanish Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Hapsburg and Bourbon houses claim throne of Spain. England sides w/Austrian Hapsburgs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France exhausted, sues for peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the American colonies (Queen Anne's War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Utrecht </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There followed thirty years of &quot;peaceThese 18 th c. wars are fought largely “by professional armies and navies, civilian populations were rarely drawn deeply into the conflicts” . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Back at it . . . BEST. WAR NAME. EVER! <ul><li>War of Jenkins’s Ear 1739 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-Spanish War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where: West Indies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What: Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 lead to conflict btwn Spanish and British colonial interests. Brits tried to smuggle more goods into SP. trading posts than allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who Won? Unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: opened up warfare on continent and in colonies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748) <ul><li>Austrian Charles VI dies (1740) Pragmatic Sanction—ensures heir takes throne </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa take throne </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick II seized Austrian province of Silesia </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia, France, Spain and Bavaria v. Austria, Great Britain and Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>England drawn in to preserve balance of power between Austria and France. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, there was an attendant colonial war too: France v. GB. In N. America and India too. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle: not really a peace, but a truce </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Diplomatic Revolution (1756) <ul><li>Uneasy peace </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous shift in alliances: Prussian now an ally of Great Britain. Defensive position </li></ul><ul><li>Before Gr. Brit and Austria were allies </li></ul><ul><li>This development makes possible an alliance between France and Austria </li></ul>
  13. 13. Damn Prussians: The Seven Year’s War [or the First World War (?)] <ul><li>Has both continental and colonial conflicts (from 1756-1763) </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick the Great invades Saxony (Austrian ally). Maria Therese of Austria would love Silesia back too. </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick the Great (II) with British financial aid versus Austria, France, Sweden, and Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia signs peace w/ Fred. One less enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace of Hubertusburg: Nothing really changes. Silesia still Prussian. Prussia a GREAT POWER! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Meanwhile in the colonies… <ul><li>William Pitt the Elder: fight the war in the colonies, not on the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Pitt's goal in North America: take out the French in St. Lawrence and Mississippi Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestrates, as Sec of State the dominance of GB </li></ul><ul><li>N. America and India </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Paris (1763): Great Britain a world power; GB acquires French Canada and land btw Appalachian Mtns and the Mississippi River. Spain still in Latin America; Fr. gives Spain New Orleans and LA territory West of Ms. R. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results of the Seven Years’ War <ul><li>England and France left heavily in debt, attempts to get out of debt lead to two revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>France needs top to bottom restructuring : That top part’s gonna be really painful, if ya get my drift! </li></ul><ul><li>England: Gotta get the money from somewhere. But where? Hmmm….colonies? All that new land means new frontier which needs protecting, too, which costs money. No more salutary neglect. </li></ul>
  16. 16. American Revolution <ul><li>American Revolution (1775-1783) </li></ul><ul><li>French and Dutch back colonists to lessen British power </li></ul><ul><li>British in heavy debt from previous wars </li></ul>
  17. 17. Still to come <ul><li>French Revolution (1789-1797): French farther in debt from American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleonic Wars (1797-1815)   </li></ul>

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