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  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Introduction What is racism? Why and how does it go online? How does it affect young people? How to oppose online hate targeting young people? These questions have become the focus of attention as an attempt to raise awareness towards negative impact of the digital technology such as internet and World Wide Web in the life of young people. Young people nowadays have been accustomed to the use of digital technology since birth. This generation, termed as digital natives, is natively surrounded and accustomed to use and utilize digital technology such as computers, videogames, DVD players, video cameras, cell phones, iPods, and other instruments from digital age (Prensky, 2006). Growing up in the digital age has made its own challenges for young people to process torrential shifts of information changing. With the ubiquity of information in the digital era and the availability of the information changes, young people nowadays have become part of the digital society whose culture has evolved in such a way that creates endless possibilities in almost every aspects of life. Racism in today’s digital society has evolved in such a way where racist recreates its novelty by utilizing technology as the core engine of its main mission – generating hate towards other race. Discrimination towards other race of color has been done in various ways by white supremacist whose main mission is to create oppression and retain its power of domination over other race of color. Among those ways of discrimination practices, racial cyberhate is another level of racism utilized by hate monger to empower its influence in a greater manner. Internet and World Wide Web have reinforced racial hatred into another dimension than ever before – intensifying its expansion into the modern world of digital society. In fact, “the number of hate 1
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati website is skyrocketing, providing opportunities for loners to receive encouragement, affirmation, and a sense of belonging otherwise achievable” (Cortese, 2006, p. 13). Following the growth of online hate sites, the first significant site called stormfront.org was created on World Wide Web in April 1995. After that, other extremist rapidly followed by creating their own hate websites. To statistically illustrate, below are findings of cyberhate significant number of growth: The latest annual count by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) found that the number of hate groups operating in America rose to 888 last year, up 5% from 844 groups in 2006. That capped an increase of 48% since 2000. The end of 2007 brought to a close another year marked by staggering levels of racist hate in America. Even as several major hate groups struggled to survive, other new groups appeared, and the radical right as a whole appeared to grow. (http://www.splcenter.org). Adding to that, the unique characteristics of cyberspace and the power of rhetoric has changed the face of racial cyberhate – more subtle and sophisticated way compared to those of the oldies. It is seldom “overt and blatant but rather takes the modern form of new or symbolic racism and is typically enacted in the many forms of subtle and indirect discrimination (in action and discourse) in everyday situations” (Whillock, 1995, p. 5). Considering how online hate on racism has reformulated in such a way in order to place young people as target in its system of hate message dissemination, there is a need to call for awareness to oppose or at least minimizing the harmful effect of racial cyberhate targeting young people. This paper focuses more on how to address the issue of racial cyberhate targeting young 2
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati people within the framework of its cyber behavior – the empowerment of internet and World Wide Web to its progression along with the strategies for attention and participation getter and their implication to young people. Furthermore, this paper also suggests strategies to oppose racial cyberhate targeting young people. Racism goes online – the empowerment of internet and World Wide Web What is racism? Racism is the belief that a particular race is superior or inferior to another, that a person’s social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. According to Zunega & Castaneda in Racism, today’s racism is not only about racial figures but also other aspects such as ethnicity, nationality, origin, language, accent, religion, and cultural customs (2000). Racism has existed throughout human history where “shared experience molds both culture and individual nature that shapes what we know and believe” (Cortese, 2006, p. 25). In other words, racial separatism is the belief, most of the time based on racism, that different races should remain segregated and apart from one another. Admittedly, it has been disputable whether racism continues to be restless case in United States. Some people argue that it has been declined, yet some other agrees that it is still prevalent in today’s American society with a different shape. The following illustration may become the sign that racism is still prevalent in the new millennium: Racism is thriving in America, affecting residential patterns, educational achievement, health, and quality of life. The majority of Whites believe Blacks and Latinos are likely to prefer welfare to hard work and tend to be lazier, louder, more pushy and prone to violence, less intelligent, and less patriotic than Whites. Focus group participants criticize and ridicule Blacks, and 3
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati frankly express feelings of disgust toward them, while few challenge the racist stereotypes uttered by others, most concede group consensus” (Cortese, 2006, p. 29). For years racist and extremist have used various printing forms, starting from books, pamphlets, posters, newspapers, and magazines to get their message out. They have also tried to use modern inventions such as movies, radio, television, recorded audio and video tape and even telephone messages to spread their beliefs. So it is not surprising that they have decided to take their hate to the internet. What is the impact of internet towards racism? Internet has simply brought a new dimension in today’s digital society where the possibilities are endless. With endless possibility, internet has given a means to limitless and borderless access of communication and information. The internet lets them reach millions with a click of a mouse. As result of this, racism in the digital society has transformed its face that fits the setting of utilizing and implementing technology for its maneuver in the form of cyberhate. What has made internet so beneficial that racist and white supremacist decide to go online? There are some values infusing racial cyberhate and its components. First, needless to say that internet has enabled hate messages to easily be created and disseminated into a larger continuum where its function will continue significantly as mouthpiece for free expression and speech, especially for societies where there are no such liberties (Cortese, 2006). Compared to other countries where freedom of speech is very limited and bordered, United States is a different case where its democratic government will use many means including legislation to express a vast range of ideas, opinions, and concepts freely and publicly (Cortese, 2006). Also, the freedom of speech is ensured in the First Amendment of the United States 4
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Constitution, adopted in 1791, where it is stated that "Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." (http://www.usconstitution.net). This article gives a clear vision that speech receives constitutional protection and it is envisioned, defended, and enacted within this amendment. Nonetheless, in order to anticipate the arbitrarius implication of freedom in speech, The United States has set up regulation and laws to anticipate its misuse: Certain forms of slander are regarded as punishable offenses, as are the spreading of particular lies and the incitement to murder or to commit violence. Legal innovation is a means to prohibit hate speech and providing protection from discrimination. Yet, there is genuine reluctance to set limits on freedom of speech. In fact, according to the First Amendment of the American Constitution, lawmakers may not pass any legislation that unnecessarily limits freedom of speech” (Cortese, 2006, p. 15) Although United States there has been regulations and limitations towards forms of speech where hate speech is highly likely to have legal consequences, there is a rift where hate speech continues to exist in cyberspace. This rift has been utilized by hatemongers, racist, white supremacist, and extremist around the globe, perpetuating their existence: “A number of people with extremist views from other countries exploit these American freedoms and store their hate sites on computers in the U.S., thus avoiding more stringent laws in their home countries. Furthermore, many 5
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati companies that provide internet service in the United States have little incentive to regulate the speech of their users because the Telecommunications Act of 1996 specifically states that internet service providers cannot be held criminally liable for the speech of subscribers” (http://www.partnersagainsthate.org/) Subsequently, the reluctance from the U.S., government to place greater limits on the freedom of speech and freedom of expression could be one of the reasons why so many racial hate websites has been created here in United States and actively continue their movement. Second, it has made it easier to voice one's racist opinions - people have easy access to racist websites, chat rooms, and blogs. Likewise, artists of all kinds, musicians, painters, and photographers can also post their racist views presented in their art via the internet very easily. Who are these racist, extremist, white supremacist, and hate mongers behind racial cyberhate? There are seven leading mainstreams known as “elite” movements in racial cyberhate: Elite Mainstreams of Racial Cyberhate Who/What/How Extremist Seeking Credibility (ESC) Legitimate activist who have been unfairly denied and finally form new mainstream David Duke – former leader of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Ideology – white supremacy behind misleading rhetoric of “white rights” Articulating a subtle but virulent brand of racism that exploits race-related issues such as illegal immigration and affirmative actions Websites: Council of Conservative Citizens (www.cofcc.org/); American Renaissance (www.amren.com/) 6
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Elite Mainstreams of Racial Cyberhate Who/What/How Holocaust Deniers Propaganda movement that seeks to deny the reality of the Holocaust – the systematic mass murder of 6 million Jews and millions of others by Nazi regime in Europe during World War II Misinterpreting their propaganda as “historical revisionism” – accusation that Jews have falsified and exaggerated the tragic events of the Holocaust in order to exploit non-Jewish guilt Bradley Smith and his committee for open debate of the Holocaust (Ahmed Rami, Ernst Zundel, David Irving) Website: Institute for Historical Review (www.ihr.org/) Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Members It has been existing for 130 years Disseminating information on upcoming rallies, explanations of customs (e.g. cross burning), and spurious accounts of Klan history Websites: The American Knights and the Imperial Klans of America (http://www.kkkk.net/) Neo-Nazis Propaganda of anti-Semitic, racist ideas of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party Focusing more attention to recruit young racist through the online marketing of white power music William Pierce & Erich Gliebe (Founder and Co- Founder of the largest and most active neo-Nazi organizations in the U.S. today) – Matt Koehl & Gerhard Lauck (National Socialist Movement) Websites: The National Alliance (http://www.natall.com/ ) & The National Socialist Movement (www.nsm88.org/) 7
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Elite Mainstreams of Racial Cyberhate Who/What/How Racist Skinheads Promoting sense of group belonging and superiority by the white power movement Devotion to musical groups who record rock music with hateful lyrics Effectively combining bigotry – laced hard rock and the internet as a main propaganda weapon to attract young recruits Collaborating with Resistance Records and Magazine owned by the National Alliance Websites: Hammerskin Nation (http://www.hammerskins.net/), displaying Plunder & Pillage (band), Panzerfaust Records World Church of the Creator (WCTOTC) One of the fastest-growing hate groups in the US today Motto: RaHoWa (Racial Holy War), promoting the expansion and advancement of White Race exclusively Displaying hatred to mainstream Christians, African Americans and other people of color and Jews. Using website extensively, frequently updated and designed for membership – having extensive sponsors and online mailing lists, bulletin boards and chat rooms, pictures, jokes, and free downloadable racist video games targeting teens (http://www.wcotc.com/) (http://www.partnersagainsthate.org/). 8
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Third, it widens the range of scope with the low cost. The internet has rapidly become the medium of choice for hate mongers because of its wide access at low cost. Norman Olson, commander of the Michigan Militia Corps, one of the many extreme right wing groups using the internet, has said "Thank God for high tech." (http://www.media-awareness.ca). It is through the internet, hate speech is accessible to millions. What is more, the internet has made hate speech accessible to those who before never would have come into contact with it. The internet allows hate mongers to reach into the privacy and isolation of people's homes, to find the vulnerable, those prone to the message of hate speech, wherever they happen to be. It was relatively difficult, prior to the internet, for hate mongers to seek these people out. Moreover, internet provides s a relatively easy access to hate speech to children and even to the suburbs – making it widely accessible online - in homes, offices, schools, and libraries. Examining the phenomenon of racial cyberhate, digital technology has contributed significantly to the architectural setting of online hate on racism. The power of internet and World Wide Web has given a new dimension of communication, control, and commands to racial cyberhate. These three entities have been the code for developing any practices they have in cyberspace. Communication plays an important role for deconstructing hate massage and recreating rhetoric. Control is given by internet and World Wide Web in terms of their efficacy, flexibility, and accessibility. Commands is then able to implemented when their hate messages psychologically have empowered their users’ mind and thoughts by developing misguided sense of self worth and belonging. 9
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati According to Brook & Jester, there are important key factors of cyberspace utilization to enhance hate message online (1) The secure feeling and power given by anonymity, (2) free means of information exchange, (3) global effect where no one is foreign and no one is domestic, (4) provide support base for encouragement without having to join any physical group. In the same way, cyberhate communities discover that the internet and World Wide Web have enabled them to easily allow (1) hate groups to recruit, network, and plan events effortlessly than before, (2) more people around the world to join hate groups instantly and faster, (3) hate creators design a meaningful web page with minimum cost and bring it easily to the viewers (http://www.bsos.umd.edu) Young people and racial cyberhate – strategies for attention and participation getter Today’s generation perceive the use of digital media such as internet and other digital technology as inseparable part of their lives. It can be said that young people nowadays cannot live without technology around them. Whether accessing the internet through a desktop computer or connecting through short message services (SMS) via mobile phones, digital media are ubiquitous in many young people’s lives. The intensive use of internet and other forms of digital technology have made young people nowadays having unspeakable dependency towards the media and internet. Not only would the internet become a media to see and store information but also a media of socializing and sharing privacy. Based on report by the Pew Internet & American Life Project in 2007, the significant use of internet and digital media is enhanced into a level where it becomes a new world for young people to not only search for information but also sharing, communicating, and socializing: 10
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Some 93% of teens use the internet, and more of them than ever are treating it as a venue for social interaction – a place where they can share creations, tell stories, and interact with others. The Pew Internet & American Life Project has found that 64% of online teens ages 12-17 have participated in one or more among a wide range of content-creating activities on the internet, up from 57% of online teens in a similar survey at the end of 2004 (http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf) This interesting phenomenon of digital technology use such as internet has real consequences for the convergence between race and hate speech. The tricky convergence between race and hate speech is that the form of hate speech in this digital era has transformed into a more subtle and sophisticated way. The transformation as such has given the idea for racist, extremist, and hate mongers to reformulate the rhetoric of hate speech into bigotry where it can be masked into educational content and have it misinterpreted. What is more, internet will always be the first place for young people nowadays to look or do research for any information needed in this digital society. Therefore, hate speech content can be placed and attached into educational content as an attempt to “misguide” any related content in cyberspace, especially about race and racial history. In this paper, the discussion about the behavior of racial cyberhate is focused more to its strategies to attract young people attention and participation. Due to the fact that finding examples for racial hate website, specifically designed for teenage is limited, references taken as exemplary case study mostly derived from previous studies conducted on websites that now has been totally moved and deleted as an attempt to limit its proliferation. However, two cloaked 11
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati websites will be taken as an effective example of prominent cyber behavioral strategy targeting young people – Martin Luther King Jr’s website and The Insurgent website. Cloaked Website The term “cloak” refers to the art of disguise, masking, and coded for of transferring message in such a way where it will be considered as somehow decent, common, normal, and acceptable (http://www.jessiedanielsphd.com/). This strategy can be a great deal of threat when it comes to misleading young people who happen to have a little awareness about digital literacy. Unlike those who have been more aware towards the racial cyberhate discourse, strategy, and tactics, for mostly young people, this awareness has yet taken them into consciousness. The reason is that this kind of website utilizing the digital illiteracy of young people in selecting and processing information on the web in an inadvertent mode. Related to this, the possibility of being misguided and mislead by false information is highly likely to be the case, “even high achieving and internet savvy adolescents had difficulty deciphering whether a particular cloaked website was a trustworthy source of information and survey shows parents worry most about children’s access to internet sex sites and that many parents know little about hate web sites” (Daniels, 2008, p. 140 – 145). Furthermore, what makes youth get involved in racial cyberhates? Using psychological approach, hate mongers develop discourse that strengthen the sense of self appreciation and sense of belonging to those of alienated young people who are still struggling to fit in some place in the society. Youth, most often young white males, is experiencing cultural alienation or anomie. There is a real possibility that alienated young white men may direct their frustration at those perceived to be “others”, whether based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or the combination of one or more of these identities. The 12
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati potential harm in the presence of white supremacy online is that it is easier for already-alienated young white males to seek out validation for their discontent (Daniels, 2008, p. 146). Racial cyberhate behavior What is so special about this cloaked websites? There are several characteristics that have been used as the main platform that seem disarming and delusionary. In order to observe more of these characteristics, there are two active-prominent cloaked websites taken as exemplary study case: Martin Luther King Jr and The Insurgent. Each of these websites has its own disguised ingredients but presenting an invidious formula. Martin Luther King Jr (www.martinlutherking.org) 13
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Encountering this site for the first time is most probably reached from the search engine when trying to search the historical information about Martin Luther King. By typing a keyword “Martin Luther King” with Google, this site appears as number eight from the search list entitled Martin Luther King Jr – A True Historical Examination (Google, 2008). In the similar fashion, Yahoo ranks this site in the first place with the same entitlement (Yahoo, 2008). This site has been created by a white supremacist named Don Black. He utilizes the need of scholarly historical information about Martin Luther King by locking the site to be properly mannered in the cyberspace – making it legitimately accessible without even realizing that this site is actually the white supremacist rhetoric. The presence of cloaked sites raises important questions about youth and digital media; one of these questions has to do with whether someone could ‘stumble upon’ virulent anti-Semitism or racism online. It is not only possible but also likely that casual or novice web users could inadvertently come across white supremacist rhetoric while looking for legitimate civil rights information. The cloaked site of www.martinlutherking.org is a case in point” (Daniels, 2008, p. 140). The strategy used to put this site easily noticeable without any deep concern is by ending its suffix in .org and creating entitlement by using the word “A True Historical Examination”. The target of this site is expected to be young people, teenagers, adolescents, and students as the title of this site portrays – “Martin Luther King Jr” and “Attention Student: Try Our MLK Pop Quiz” There are two prominent characteristics from this site – (1) professional – looking graphic design, and (2) Non-extremist sounding rhetoric. In terms of navigation, this site is none of those 14
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati overtly site that exposes blatant discourse and appearance, rather this uses educational narratives (Daniels, 2008). Clicking the links on the right of thee website will give further access to white supremacist rhetoric and anti-Semitism propaganda. What is more, when clicking the link “truth about king”, the presented truth about Martin Luther King is actually a reconstructed hate message towards Martin Luther King himself presented with captured article saying that he is actually communist: “Well friends, he is not a legitimate reverend, he is not a bona fide PhD, and his name isn't really "Martin Luther King, Jr." What's left? Just a sexual degenerate, an America-hating Communist, and a criminal betrayer of even the interests of his own people” (http://www.martinlutherking.org/thebeast.html). Clicking the link of “suggested books”, web users are going to find the book entitled My Awakening by David Duke. For web users who have been familiarized with racial cyberhate discourse, propaganda, or strategies, the name David Duke is known as a white supremacist and an anti-Semitic former Ku Klux Klan leader (http://www.adl.org/). Instead, for teenagers, adolescents or simply those of web users who are unfamiliar with racial cyberhate behavior will highly likely to be misguided because of his scholarly-political-impression on the web that makes him seems legitimate. Adding to that, clicking on the link of “download flyers to pass out at your school”, web users will find it clearer that this site is actually anti-Martin Luther King because there are three sub links about the flyers that depict Martin Luther King in the opposite direction – degrading Martin Luther King by using his well-known word, dream. What is more, exploring through the bottom of the page, web users will find the link of “join MLK Discussion Forum” and “Hosted by Stormfront”. For those who have been familiar with storm front 15
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati definitely will identify this site as being sponsored and linked to other related racial cyberhates such as Stormfront – a white supremacist internet forum. Overall, this cloaked site is an interesting example of an idyllic-scholarly setting racial cyberhate. “Although these clues may seem fairly obvious to some web users, others can easily miss them. Thus, unsuspecting visitors to the site who have little web experience but are aware of how white supremacy works in the U.S., may be very well be familiar with David Duke, or be suspicious with language referring to “Jews and Civil rights” and therefore understand that the site is not actually intended as a tribute to Dr. King but rather than aims to undermine the civil rights cause” (Daniels, 2008, p. 140). The Insurgent (www.resist.com) 16
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati By typing a keyword “war” with Google, this site appears as number ten from the search list entitled WAR – White Aryan Resistance (Google, 2008). Yet, it is rather hard to find this site on Yahoo list even though the same keyword “war” has been typed to search. This website is created by Tom Metzger, a former Ku Klux Klan leader, a television repairman by trade and a one time candidate for Congress - separated from Ku Klux Klan, he shaped his own hate group called WAR (White Aryan Resistance) (Daniels, 2008). Unlike Martin Luther King’s website, the insurgent website is the clearer example of how more various youth-related media features, such as newsletter, a cable access television, radio and broadcast, games, cartoons, arts, music, and jokes, are used as its cloak for attention getter. Since the unique feature highlighted in this website is games, this paper will focus more of games behavior in this website. It is rather easy for web user to identify that these games are racial based upon their overt-representation and depiction, not to mention of the language and expression – violently racist and homophobic. As to illustrate, games such as Bin Laden Liquors, Drive by 2, African Detroit Cop, Watch out behind You Hunter, Border Patrol and Kaboom enable web users to experience shooting, killing, and exterminating racial objects (www.resist.com). In addition, the games are available for online play and download. Overall, as ended by suffix .com, this website focuses more to the use of games as popular culture that happens to be more reachable for young people, especially boys. Without any evaluation of its statistics, it is rather hard to say whether these games are effective due to the fact that today’s youth is highly likely to play more advanced games such as Grand Theft Auto and Mortal Combat (Daniels, 2008). However, apart from the effectiveness of these games reaching out the youth, the highlighted point conveyed is that 17
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati games have been utilized to spread hate speech with racial stereotyping and characterizing, violence, and rough graphic. Therefore, this proves how racial hate speech continues to have further, smoother, and easier accessibility reaching out the youth. Lesson Learned – Suggested strategies opposing racial cyberhate Encountering the virulent impact of racial cyberhate as well as pornography and other forms of related-violent media and discourse for youth, there are several strategies suggested to oppose racial cyberhate. The first is legal support by simply approaching those who would provide a platform for hate mongers and asking them to withdraw the platform such as phone companies, Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Secondly, encouragement from community of anti-hate speech in the form of monitoring group, agencies, and parents can also be used as one of the attempts to oppose racial cyberhate – one of the examples is intelligent project conducted by Southern Poverty Law Center, an American non-profit legal organization, internationally known for its tolerance education programs where its legal victories against white supremacists and its tracking of hate groups (www.splcenter.org). Thirdly, is parental supervision by using two ways: (1) simply keeping an eye on what children do and stopping them from doing anything that would harm themselves, including connecting through the internet to hate speech sites and (2) harnessing computer filtering and blocking programs, programs that would block access from home computers to hate sites such as Net Nanny, SurfWatch, Cyberpatrol and Cybersitter. SurfWatch (www.bsos.umd.edu). Goldsmith & Wu argued that “information filtering is especially crucial to the Net, where it is so easy to publish, and where the danger of information overload is thus so great (2006, p. 52). 18
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati Another emphasis on how to oppose racial cyberhates is to raise critical awareness towards sense of self, content and media use and access in order to consciously develop and identify further the tactics and strategies used by hate mongers. Youth of color need critical consciousness to go with lived experiences of everyday racism; and white youth need to begin the lifelong process of unlearning the epistemology of white supremacy. Bringing these multiple literacies together – visual and textual literacy, critical media literacy, and a literacy of antiracism and social justice –will empower young people not to be seduced by white supremacy, whether overt or cloaked, whether in online in digital media or offline, in culture and institution (Daniels, 2008. p. 149). 19
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati References Adams, Maurianne (Ed). 2000. Readings for diversity and social justice. New York: Routledge. Cortese, Anthony. (2006). Opposing hate speech. Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. Goldsmith, Jack & Wu, Tim. (2006).Who Controls the Internet? –Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. Prensky, Mark. (2006). “Don’t bother me mom – I’m Learning” – How computer and Video Games are Preparing Your Kids for 21st Century Success – and How You can help! Minnesota: Paragon House Whillock, Rita. Kirk & Slayden. David. (1995). Hate speech. California: SAGE Publications, Inc. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=886), May 26, 2008 http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html#Am1), June 1, 2008 http://www.jessiedanielsphd.com/cloaked.html, June 2, 2008 http://www.partnersagainsthate.org/publications/hoi_full.pdf), May 25, 2008 http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt.phillips/gvpt333/e-journal/hate2/hate2/), June 1, 2008 http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/articles/online_hate/countering_hate.cfm), June 1, 2008 20
  • Racial Cyberhates Targeting Young People Pratiwi Wini Artati http://www.adl.org/opinion/david_duke_review.asp, June 3, 2008 http://www.martinlutherking.org, June 1, 2008 http://resist.com, June 2, 2008 http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf), May 24, 2008 21