The Internet The origins of the Internet reach back to research in the 1960s It was commissioned by the United States government for military purposes. Commercialised in the mid 90’s
Mp3 Created in 1991 and released in 1993. Mp3 = MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer 3 At 128 kbit/s – 11 times smaller than original source. Removes High and low frequency sounds undetectable by human hearing. Allowed music to be shared. Mp3 appeared on internet in 1994. Popularity increased with the creation of Winamp
Nullsofts’s Winamp A Media player Created in 1997 One of the first and most popular Mp3 player. Available for free. Its popularity, and ease of use aided in the file-sharing of Mp3.
Napster Created in 1999 Created by Shawn Fanning while attending Northeastern University in Boston. Software allowed music (Mp3) files to be shared between other users.
Gnutella Gnutella works by having a large circle of users (called nodes),using the gnutella client software. On initial startup, the software must find at least one other node. When conducting a search, a request is sent to each node , who forwards the request to all its connected nodes, and on and on... (initially) up to 7 times, until the request is found If a search request turns up a result, the node that has the result contacts the searcher.
It works by having the owner of a file, split and send each part of the file to whoever wants it.
As the receivers all receive different parts of the file, they in turn share their part of the file to the others
This results in higher speed possibilities as the file is then being sent from multiple computers.
Napster/Metallica controversy 2000 - 2001 Metallica Discovers song “I Disappear” available on Napster along with all their songs. Legal action was initiated against Napster Violated three areas of the law: copyright infringement, unlawful use of digital audio interface device, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) Napster shuts down July 2001