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Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk
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Lecture 1 Fuel Gas (Introduction) @ Www.07 Met.Tk

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION<br />GASEOUS FUELS<br />))) 07MET.TK (((<br />All About Metallurgical & Materials Engineering<br />Download This & More Stuff @ WWW.07MET.TK<br />
  • 2. INTRODUCTION<br />
  • 3. INTRODUCTION<br />
  • 4. Gaseous fuel in Pakistan<br />Natural gas plays an important role in Pakistan’s economy, as it contributes around 50 per cent of the total commercial energy supply in the country.<br />Pakistan’s total remaining gas reserves are estimated at 29.80 trillion cubic feet (2008) which are adequate for meeting the gas requirement of Pakistan for 6 years at the current rate of production.<br />
  • 5. The constituents of each gas fuel can be classified in to 2 groups:<br /> (i) those which are combustible<br /> (ii) those which are not combustible & hence have no heating value but only act as diluents<br />diluent gas<br />A gas of known quality introduced for analytical purposes so that it quantitatively lowers the concentration of the components of a gaseous sample; <br />
  • 6. Combustible Gases<br />Hydrogen<br />Carbon monoxide<br />Marsh gas (methane)<br />Ethylene (C2 H4)<br />Acetylene (C2 H2)<br />Diluents<br />Nitrogen<br />Carbon dioxide<br />oxygen<br />
  • 7. Combustible Gases<br />Hydrogen is found in large quantities in coal destructive distillation.<br />It has a specific heat of 2.414.<br /> it requires 8 times its weight of oxygen for burning or 2 times its volume. That means almost 35 times its weight of air!<br />Hence H2 makes the fuel light & increases its heating power too.<br />It also increases the amount of air required for combustion.<br />Since specific heat of steam is very high, it also increases the amount of heat carried away by the products of combustion. <br />
  • 8. Combustible Gases<br />Carbon monoxide is also an important constituent. It burns to form CO2 which produces4374 BTU of heat. H2 can produce up to 61000 BTU!!<br />It is also among the products of destructive distillation of coal.<br />Its specific heat is not so high. Requires 0.57 times its own weight of air.<br />
  • 9. Combustible Gases<br />Methane has a calorific value of 23,500 B.Th.U.<br />Burns according to equation:<br />CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O<br />Requires 4 times its own weight of O2 for complete combustion.<br />It is present in coal-gas, as it is produced by destructive distillation.<br />
  • 10.
  • 11. Important properties<br />Explosive limit/Flammability limits: gives the proportion of combustible gases in a mixture, between which limits this mixture is flammable.<br /> Gas mixtures consist of combustible, oxidizing, and inert gases & are only flammable under certain conditions. <br />The lower flammable limit (LFL) (lower explosive limit) describes the leanest mixture that is still flammable, i.e. the mixture with the smallest fraction of combustible gas,<br />The upper flammable limit (UFL) (upper explosive limit) gives the richest flammable mixture. Increasing the fraction of inert gases in a mixture raises the LFL and decreases UFL.<br />
  • 12. Important properties<br />Minimum Ignition Energy is the minimum amount of energy required to ignite a combustible vapor, gas or dust cloud, for example due to an electrostatic discharge. MIE is measured in joules (J). <br />In oxygen the MIE - range is lowest. <br />Air-fuel ratio is the mass ratio of air to fuel present during combustion. <br />
  • 13. Important properties<br />
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Uses <br />Several million vehicles running on natural gas are now in circulation in the world.The use of natural gas has significant advantages: <br />no major transformation of the engine, <br />good energy efficiency, <br />a large potential reduction of emissions of CO2. <br />However, the difficulties of storage of natural gas for vehicles are obstacles to its development. <br />
  • 17. ))) 07MET.TK (((<br />All About Metallurgical & Materials Engineering<br />Download This & More Stuff @ WWW.07MET.TK<br />

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