Why liquid fuels? Liquid fuels are popular due to their high energy density and ease of use. Liquid fuel is coming into more general use every year, especially where long flame and high temperature are desired. Due to its easy transportability and relative abundance, oil has become the world's most important source of energy since the mid-1950s. Calorific value is the amount of heat released when fuel is burnt in oxygen in a calorimeter
Why liquid fuels? Energy density is a term used for the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass. The latter is also known as specific energy
Petroleum- Introduction Most of the liquid fuel used today is derived from petroleum/crude oil. Petroleum is a very complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources. 84% by volume of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels), including gasoline, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas.
Petroleum Four different types of hydrocarbon molecules appear in crude oil. The relative percentage of each varies from oil to oil, determining the properties of each oil.
Petroleum The alkanes from pentane (C5H12) to octane (C8H18) are refined into gasoline (petrol) the ones from nonane (C9H20) to hexadecane (C16H34) into diesel fuel and kerosene (primary component of many types of jet fuel) and the ones from hexadecane upwards into fuel oil and lubricating oil.
Petroleum The cycloalkanes, also known as naphthenes, are saturated hydrocarbons which have the formula CnH2n. The aromatic hydrocarbons with the formula CnHn tend to burn with a sooty flame
Why use petroleum for fuel Crude petroleum is easily regulated so as to burn without smoke or soot, giving a steady heat and requiring no stoking. It is less bulky, and from two to two and a half times as efficient as anthracite coal.
Distillation of petroleum Fractional distillation to separate the by-products. Aviation GasolineGas/Diesel Oil (Distilled Fuel Oil) Heavy Fuel Oil Residual Kerosene Jet Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and EthaneMotor Gasoline NaphthaOther Petroleum Products Petroleum CokeRefinery Gas (not liquefied)
Important liquid fuels in petroleum Aviation Gasoline Blending Components. Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline. Benzene as a component of high-octane gasoline. Distillate Fuel Oil. A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils.
Important liquid fuels in petroleum Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in diesel engines. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation. Gas Oil. A liquid petroleum distillateused to produce distillate fuel oils and gasoline. Gasohol. A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol).
Important liquid fuels in petroleum Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel. A kerosene-based product used for commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines. Commercial Kerosene-type . Military Kerosene-type. Heavy Gas Oil. Petroleum distillates with an approximate boiling range from 651 degrees Fahrenheit to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit.
Fuel oils Any petroleum product for the generation of heat. It falls in the class of distillate fuel oil (kerosene to lubricating oils), residual fuel oils, blended fuels. Must be low in viscosity. Sufficiently free from volatile matter Flash point (temperature at which oil is ignited) of above 1500F.
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