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3  Distillation Of Gasoline @ Www.07 Met.Tk
3  Distillation Of Gasoline @ Www.07 Met.Tk
3  Distillation Of Gasoline @ Www.07 Met.Tk
3  Distillation Of Gasoline @ Www.07 Met.Tk
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3 Distillation Of Gasoline @ Www.07 Met.Tk


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  • 1. WWW.07MET.TKTheoryIn mixtures some chemicals are valuable while others may beworthless. The trick is to separate the good from the bad withoutspending too much money along the way. While there are quite afew separation techniques in a chemical engineers bag of tricks,distillation is the workhorse of the chemical industry. It is fairlyinexpensive and can produce very high purity products. Becauseof this the petroleum industry has adopted it as their separationmethod of choice. The towers pointing skyward at oil refineriesare in fact distillation columns, and their vast numbers reveal justhow frequently this unit operation is used. Gasoline is a derivedfrom petrolium consisting primarily of hydrocarbonsandenhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings,used as fuel in internal combustion engines. Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Material that is separatedfrom crude oil via distillation, called natural gasoline, does notmeet the required specifications for modern engines, but willform part of the blend.Gasoline consists of hydrocarbons withbetween 5 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule.Distillation
  • 2. WWW.07MET.TKMethod of separation of substances based on differences in theirvolatilities. It is achemical unitoperation Thereare two types ofdistillation.  Batch distillation process  Continuous distillation processDistillation was developed into its modern form with theinvention of the alembic (word often used to refer entiredistillation apparatus) by Islamic alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan in 800AD. He is also credited with the invention of numerous otherchemical apparatus and processes that are still in use today.It istheoretically impossible to completely purify a mixture ofcomponents by distillation because that would require eachcomponent in the mixture to have a zero partial pressure. If ultra-pure products are the goal, then further chemical separation mustbe applied.Apparatus*25 ml conical flask*Condenser*Cooling bath*Flask support*Graduated cylinder*Gas burners*ThermometerProcedure
  • 3. WWW.07MET.TKI took 100 ml of sample in the flask, tight the flask with the corkand fit the thermometer and condenser. Apply heat immediatelyat a uniform rate so regulated that the first drop falls from theend of the condenser is not less than two minutes nor more thanfive minutes i.e. its should be within 2-5 minutes. When the firstdrop falls from the end of condenser then it should touch the sideof cylinder. Then regulate the heat such that the first 10 mldistillate should be recovered is not less than 3 minutes or morethan four minutes. Here after maintain the rate of distillation itshould not less then 4 ml/min nor more then 5 ml per min. recordthe reading of the distillation thermometer when the level of thedistillate reaches each 5 ml mark on the cylinder when the liquidresidue in the distillation flask is approx. 5 ml there may beincreased because of the presence of ends which have relativelyhigh boiling point, however don’t apply any further increase ofheat after this adjustment. Continue the heating until mercuryreaches a maximum and start to fall consistently.Precautions  First drop falls from the end of condenser then it should touch the side of cylinder  The heat provided should be kept constant.  Reading should be taken carefully.Observations & Calculations1st drop falls at 45°C10 ml of receiving cylinde 56°C20 ml of receiving cylinder 62°C30 ml of receiving cylinder 70°C40 ml of receiving cylinder 78°C50 ml of receiving cylinder 86°C
  • 4. WWW.07MET.TK60 ml of receiving cylinder 94°C70 ml of receiving cylinder 102°C80 ml of receiving cylinder 132°C85 ml of receiving cylinder 136°C90 ml of receiving cylinder 138°CResults5 ml gasoline (undistilled)Graphical Representation distillation of gasoline 160 140 120 temperature 100 80 60 40 20 0 1st 10ml 20ml 30ml 40ml 50ml 60ml 70ml 80ml 85ml 90ml drop amount (distilled gasoline)