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Week5 (chap 5)

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• helo..my friend i need of chap 05 analog transmission manual but fro 3rd edition of data communication and networking by behrrouz a forozan..plz help me guys....tnx

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Week5 (chap 5)

1. 1. Physical LayerCh 5: AnalogTransmission
2. 2. OutlineÌ Chapter 5: Analog Transmission 5.1 Digital-to-Analog Conversion o Amplitude shift keying o Frequency shift keying o Phase shift keying o Quadrature amplitude modulation 5.2 Analog-to-Analog Conversion o Amplitude modulation o Frequency modulation o Phase modulation 2
3. 3. 5-1 DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION Digital-to-analog conversion is the process of changing one of the characteristics of an analog signal based on the information in digital data. 3
4. 4. Types of digital-to-analog conversion  Bit rate is the number of bits per second.  Baud rate is the number of signal elements per second.  In the analog transmission of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. 4
5. 5. ExampleAn analog signal carries 4 bits per signal element.If 1000 signal elements are sent per second, find thebit rate.SolutionIn this case, r = 4, S = 1000, and N is unknown.We can find the value of N from 5
6. 6. ExampleAn analog signal has a bit rate of 8000 bps and a baudrate of 1000 baud. How many data elements are carried by each signalelement? How many signal elements do we need?SolutionS = 1000, N = 8000, and r and L are unknown.We find first the value of r and then the value of L. 6
7. 7. Binary amplitude shift keying 7
8. 8. ExampleWe have an available bandwidth of 100 kHz which spansfrom 200 to 300 kHz.What are the carrier frequency and the bit rate if wemodulated our data by using ASK with d = 1?SolutionThe middle of the bandwidth is located at 250 kHz.This means our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz.We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate(with d = 1 and r = 1). 8
9. 9. ExampleWe normally use full-duplex links with communication inboth directions.We need to divide the bandwidth into two with twocarrier frequencies.The available bandwidth for each direction is now 50kHz, which leaves us with a data rate of 25 kbps in eachdirection. 9
10. 10. Binary frequency shift keying 10
11. 11. ExampleWe have an available bandwidth of 100 kHz which spansfrom 200 to 300 kHz. What should be the carrierfrequency and the bit rate if we modulated our data byusing FSK with d = 1?SolutionThis problem is similar to Example 5.3, but we aremodulating by using FSK. The midpoint of the band is at250 kHz. We choose 2Δf to be 50 kHz; this means 11
12. 12. Bandwidth of MFSK used in Example 5.6 12
13. 13. Binary phase shift keying 13
14. 14. QPSK and its implementation 14
15. 15. ExampleFind the bandwidth for a signal transmitting at 12 Mbpsfor QPSK. The value of d = 0.SolutionFor QPSK, 2 bits is carried by one signal element.This means that r = 2.So the signal rate (baud rate) is S = N × (1/r) = 6 Mbaud.With a value of d = 0, we have B = S = 6 MHz. 15
16. 16. Concept of a constellation diagram 16
17. 17. Constellation diagrams for ASK (OOK), BPSK, and QPSK 17
18. 18. Constellation diagrams for some QAMs Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of ASK and PSK. 18
19. 19. OutlineÌ Chapter 5: Analog Transmission 5.1 Digital-to-Analog Conversion o Amplitude shift keying o Frequency shift keying o Phase shift keying o Quadrature amplitude modulation 5.2 Analog-to-Analog Conversion o Amplitude modulation o Frequency modulation o Phase modulation 19
20. 20. 5-2 ANALOG AND DIGITAL Analog-to-analog conversion is the representation ofanalog information by an analog signal. One may ask why we need to modulate an analogsignal; it is already analog. Modulation is needed if the medium is bandpass innature or if only a bandpass channel is available to us. 20
21. 21. Amplitude modulation 21
22. 22. Frequency modulation 22