Kharan desert


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Kharan desert

  1. 1.  Kharan Desert Kharan Desert Presentation topic: 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 1
  2. 2. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 2
  3. 3. GROUP MEMBERS: M Bilal Ahmad  Aamir Mahmood  Hafeez Ahmad  M Adeel  M Arif  Sangar Khan 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 3
  4. 4. OUTLINES:  Geographical Boundaries and topography  Climatic condition  Agriculture in kharan  Social life and culture  Wind erosion  Different projects and researches in kharan 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 4
  5. 5. Geographical Boundaries and topography Introduction The Kharan Desert is a sand desert situated in the Balochistan province in southwestern Pakistan. It is a mountainous desert located in Kharan District, Balochistan. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 5
  6. 6.   Geographically, District Kharan is mountainous in the north, which is known as RasKoh Range which separates Kharan from GidarSurab, Rodenjo and Dasht-i-Goran valleys in Kalat and Besima in Washuk District. In the south, it is bounded by Siahan Range, separating it from the Rakhshan valley and Panjgur District. It covers an area of about 48,051 sq. km. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 6
  7. 7. Kharan desert 01/23/2012 7
  8. 8. Topography  The district is mainly deserted and is occupied by alluvial accumulations.  The important features of the desert are accumulations of wind-borne sand, in large masses, which are formed into crescent shaped dunes.  The desert area occupies centre of the district and runs from Hamm-i-Mashkel on the west to the Carr Hills in the east. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 8
  9. 9.     There are only two small rivers in the distric Boddo river Mashkel river Boddo with its tributaries in the north-east and the Mashkel in the south-west. Main stream flows to the north-west of Magas valley in the Iranian Makran, where it turns east towards Pir Shah Imam and then towards north-west. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 9
  10. 10. Climatic condition The climate of Kharan is dry. Dust storms are common throughout the year. During the summer season, the days are hot and nights are very pleasant and cool. The winter is dry and cold.  The annual average rainfall in the district is 104 mm measured.The average minimum temperature was 2.4°C in January and the maximum temperature 42.5°C in July.  The average rainfall in the desert is about 100 mm annually  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 10
  11. 11. • • • The climatic conditions in the kharan areas including Chagai are extreme with the ratio of average annual precipitation to evaporation reaching extremely low values. The rugged and varied topography with denuded watersheds creates an extremely fragile environment resulting in frequent droughts and occasional flash floods causing land degradation Incidences of drought have been a common feature in the area due to its hyper arid natural climate, and they have taken a heavy toll of livestock and crops. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 11
  12. 12. Agriculture in kharan Agriculture is the major source of livelihood in the district. Like in most other adjoining districts e.g. Panjgur, Awaran, Khuzdar, and Chagai, wheat is the principle crop in the district while a varies of fruits is also grown.  Livestock and camel breeding is the second most important sector in the district. Rug making is also popular in the district. Electricity was provided to the district as late as 1991.  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 12
  13. 13.  The major issues of the district are:  Loss of vegetative cover in the Watersheds and rangelands due to overgrazing, and use of wood for fuel by the local and nomadic population. Soil loss and reduction in fertility due to wind and water erosion. Limited water availability and its poor quality for domestic, agricultural and other requirements   01/23/2012 Kharan desert 13
  14. 14. While agriculture is mostly subsistence oriented using the highly rainfall dependent  Sailaba and Khushkaba forms of practices, water for domestic purposes is brought  From long distances on animal backs or, where communities can afford, in bowers pulled by tractors.  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 14
  15. 15. Major Crops Rabi Crops: Wheat, Barley, Rapeseed/Mustard, Cum in, Lentil (Masoor), Vegetables,  Fodder and Sunflower  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 15
  16. 16. Kharif Crops: Sorghum (Jowar), Millet (Bajra), Maize, Mung bean, Mash bean,  Fruits, Onion, Vegetables, Melons, Chili es, Fodder and Cotton.  Major Fruits Almond, Apple, Apricot, Grapes, Peach, Plum, Pear, Pomegranate, Dates, Citrus , Chico  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 16
  17. 17. Wind erosion Definition : Wind erosion is the process of detachment, transportation, and deposition of soil material by wind 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 17
  18. 18. The Mechanisms of Wind Erosion There are 3 major processes involved in wind erosion. These are: Saltation involves small particles being lifted into the air by strong wind currents then blown back onto the surface. Suspension is the process immediately after saltation where turbulent airflow keeps the (fine) sediment in the air. These grains travelling by suspension may remain airborne until rain washes them out of the air Creep occurs when larger grains of material are pushed downwind by the turbulence caused in suspension. Soil grain motion or grain transport rely on interactions between the grains and the passing airflow 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 18
  19. 19. Abrasion is the direct result of wind erosion. It is the process by which landforms in arid environments are shaped. Abrasion is the wearing away of (relatively) solid rocks by suspended particles being thrown against a surface at high velocity. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 19
  20. 20.  Wind is common in desert because:  Air near the surface is heated and rises, cooler air comes in to replace hot rising air and this movement of air results in winds.  In desert there is little or no soil moisture to hold rock and mineral fragments 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 20
  21. 21. Controll of wind erosion    Due to the following practices we can control wind erosion. Shelter belt Field shelterbelts can provide extra protection against wind erosion no matter what cropping system is used. They are especially important in dry years when low crop yields result in insufficient residue cover. Field shelterbelts reduce the wind velocity for distances up to 30 times the height of the trees. They also trap snow, increasing soil moisture for increased crop yields. This yield increase helps to offset yield losses associated with taking land out of crop production for the shelterbelt plantings. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 21
  22. 22. Shelter belt 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 22
  23. 23.  Permanent Soil Cover Perennial grasses and legumes cover the soil densely and provide the best long-term protection against wind erosion. Most common use of this type of soil cover is as pasture or hay. Grasse sand legumes can also be used in combination with other crops such as tree fruits and some berry crops.  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 23
  24. 24. Permanent soil cover 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 24
  25. 25. Surface roughening Surface roughening helps to control erosion by: covering the surface with soil clods that are too large to be lifted by the wind making the surface sufficiently rough with tillage ridges and furrows that can trap any loose soil that may be moving. Surface roughening should only be considered when there is insufficient (less than 50%) vegetation cover to protect the soil surface or when the soil type will produce sufficient clods to protect the surface. Roughening can be used in both crop and pasture country 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 25
  26. 26.  Traditional economy is a blend of cereal forming, and seminomadic grouping of goats, sheep and cattle.  communities make their living from fishes and formal trade as worthless occupation  Balochies in Karachi and other areas enjoy all the festivals and take part in the recreational activities  Balochi is main language but Persian, Saraiki, Sindhi and Brahui, are used as second languages by the desert people. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 26
  27. 27. Balochi women are very famous for their art work, embroidery on their cloths  The art work of mirror on cloths is the most famous art work of Balochi culture.  The people's dress consists of shirt (qameez), trousers (shalwar)  leather shoes or sandals (Balochi Chapal) are common used.  Women also wear gold and silver ornaments.  The woman of Baluchistan is different from the woman belonging to other parts of country.  01/23/2012 Kharan desert 27
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  29. 29. • Those who are living in the remote areas are following some festivals, music, folk culture and dancing and enjoying their lives 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 29
  30. 30. Balochi have two meals a day, one in the morning and one in the evening. The most essential grain is wheat but they also make use of rice and millet. Balochi diet meat is the most important In Balochistan Sajji is s special dish and it is presented to honorable guests Milk is the most favorite drink and also made cheese, butter and buttermilk from it In summer the most loving sharbat is “Lassi” it is made form molasses, milk and sugar. Dates are also very much liked by the Balochi. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 30
  31. 31. Mostly people live in mud houses in some area,s cemented houses are also present. Baluchistan is the province having tribal setup. They are Balochs or Pathans or the Hazaras all of them owns a separate tribal setup with some basic rules They are very paceful people. Balochi are mostly Predominantly muslim Baloch culture is rich, varied and deep-rooted. Balochistan had one of the earliest human settlements in the world. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 31
  32. 32. Different project  Rainwater Harvesting and Desertification Control (RHDC), Kharan Desert Balochistan (Gov of Pakistan)  The project aims to manage and utilize the existing land, water and bio-resources of Kharan Chaghai Desert on productive lines. The water resources remained under high stress due to prolonged drought for the last seven years throughout Balochistan but had pronounced effect on the ecology of Kharan Chaghai Desert. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 32
  33. 33.  The accelerated desertification process can be controlled through rainwater harvesting and exploitation of available saline and fresh groundwater sources and utilizing these resources for sand dunes stabilization by applying biotechnologies i.e.. Introducing naturally screened xerophytes native and exotic tree, bushes and grass species of the desert 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 33
  34. 34.  Establishment of a field research station on 500 acres of land is in process. Initially, four water storage ponds have been excavated in District Noshki. Water shed management activities i.e.. Construction/development of check dams, dikes and ditches have also been initiated in the area. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 34
  35. 35. The desertification control and rainwater harvesting activities in Kharan Desert 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 35
  36. 36. GARUK DAM PROJECT  Location: The proposed dam site is located across Garuk River at about 47 Kms South East of Kharan district of Baluchistan.  Scope of Work: Government of Pakistan intends to develop land and water resources of the country for irrigated agriculture development, hydropower, flood control, socio economic uplift, and emancipation of poor and needy women of the area.  Objective / Benefits:- Conservation of flood water resources for irrigation drinking and recharge.  Development of new irrigated agricultural area. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 36
  37. 37.  Hydropower Generation.  Socio-economic uplift.  Women emancipation. Date of starting 2013-14 Date of Completion:2016-17 (Construction Period = 3 Years) Project Cost: Original Approved Rs. 1.790 Billion Revised (under submission) Rs. 7.921 Billion 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 37
  38. 38. Salient Features:  184 ft high Earth Core Rock fill Dam will create gross storage of 50,695 AF and this storage will be used to irrigate 12,500 Acres of Cultural Command Area with high efficiency irrigation system along with hydropower generation of 300 KW.  Present Status / Progress:  Tender of Garuk Dam on EPC basis invited on Oct 03 Nov 19,2009  WAPDA proposed the Project through local District Contractors by subletting the various components to participation of local community local monetary benefits.   01/23/2012 Kharan desert 38
  39. 39.   Government of Baluchistan suggested transferring the project to I&P (Department of Baluchistan for execution) Funds amounting to Rs. 1,000 Million required for 2012-13. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 39
  40. 40.  Chaghai-II  Is the name given to the Pakistan's second atomic, which were carried out on 30 May 1998 in the Kharan Desert in Pakistan's Baluchistan Province. Chaghai-II took place two days after Pakistan's first nuclear test, Chaghai-I, which was carried out on 28 May 1998 in the Ras Koh Hills in Chaghai District. 01/23/2012 Kharan desert 40
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