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CONTENTS:DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR IN 1. INRODUCTION TO INDIAN FOOD PROCESSING NORTH BENGAL & PROVISION OF SCENARIO INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FOOD PROCESSING SEZ 2. GOVT. POLICIES & INITIATIVES FOR FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR Prepared by: 3. NORTH BENGAL : SITE & DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL ANALYSIS SHUBHRANEEL AICH 4. NEED FOR PROJECT 10 ID 60 R15 5. AIM, OBJECTIVES, SCOPE & LIMITATIONS R.C.G.S.I.D.M 6. PROJECT METHODOLOGY 7. LITERATURE REVIEW 8. CASE STUDIES 9. DATA COLLECTION QUESTIONNAIRE 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY M.TECH PROJECT 2011-2012
FACTORS IMPACTING FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR INTRODUCTION TO FOOD PROCESSING SCENARIO IN INDIA Atta (1 Kg) Fruit Juice (1 L) Potato Chips (35 gms) Jam (500 gms)DEMAND CONDITIONS TOTAL ADDITION IN VALUE CHAIN : 60-75% 81.48 • Rapid urbanization • Rising per capita income 10-15% • More than 10% growth predicted 20-30% 10-15%INDUSTRY STRATEGY & STRUCTURE 59.478 20-25% • Industry is highly fragmented 9.75 • Very low FDI in food processing sector in 6 18.43 India 5.64 0.6 10.4FACTOR CONDITIONS • Availability of natural resources Movement to stockist Transportation Processing cost Retailers margin Freight / Octoroi Excise duty Packing material Farmer Sales tax Processors margin Discount / Scheme Distributors margin Mandi charges • However, the processing levels are low • High level of wastageRELATED AND SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES • Presence of various institutions • No significant evidence of coordination among the supporting bodiesGOVERNMENT VALUE WHOLE FOOD FARM INPUTS TRADE & ADDITION / SALE RETAIL & • Tax holiday for new food processing /SUPPLIER DISTRIBUTION PROCESSING TRADE SERVICE units • Liberalized overall policy regime = = = FLOW OF VALUE CHAIN ON FOOD PROCESSING = = =
STATUS FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR IN INDIA MAJOR SEGMENTS IN FOOD PROCESSING F & V Processing7000 9% 4% 3% Food Grain Milling Fruits & Vegetables Dairy Products Dairy Products6000 34% Meat & Poultry 20% Poultry Products Fish Processing Meat Products5000 4% Bread & Bakery Other Processed Foods 10% Alcoholic Beverages 16% CAGR Aerated water4000 0 Above figure represents the major segments in the food industry & their share 35% in food processing sector STATE WISE SHARE OF FOOD PROCESSING3000 Andhra Pradesh 16% 13% Gujarat Karnataka2000 4% Madhya Pradesh 13% Maharashtra 12% Punjab1000 5% Rajasthan Tamil Nadu 7% 7% Uttar Pradesh 0 3% West Bengal 6% 14% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Others0 Above figure represents the growth in food industry in terms of production value in INR Crores 0 Above figure represents state wise share in Food Processing Sector
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA SCHEMES / POLICIES FOR GOVT. POLICIES & INITIATIVES FOR FOOD PROCESSING SECTORDEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY:Infrastructure: EXISTING SCHEME UNDER 10th PLAN PROPOSED SCHEME UNDER 11th PLAN Mega Food Parks Scheme (MFPS) to provide Supply driven-not entrepreneur driven Demand driven infrastructure along the value chain from farm to market. Post marketed Pre marketed Scheme for cold chain, value addition and Stand-alone (no backward and forward Strong backward and forward linkages- preservation infrastructure linkages) reliable and sustainable supply chain Capital Investment Subsidy For Construction / No Project Development Agency Project Management Agency (PM) (to Expansion / Modernization Of Cold Storages / handhold from Storages of Horticulture Products. concept to commissioning) No financial closure Financial closure to be ensured by the Scheme for Development/Strengthening of Project Management Agency Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading Targeting small & medium enterprises No restriction on the number of units- and Standardization. with a minimum of 20 units for a 30 acre restriction can be on the quantity ofPolicies related to Quality Control & Testing park material to be handled Activities confined to park alone Complementary activities can take place Implementation of HACCP / ISO 22000, ISO outside the central park by creating the 14000 / GHP / GMP Quality/ Safety Management System required infrastructure in a well-defined Zone to be finalised after a feasibility Setting up / up gradation of Food Testing study. Laboratories. Financial assistance 25% limited to Rs.4 Higher scale of assistance to meet 75% of Crore inadequate to create the the project cost with a ceiling of Rs. 50 Schemes for Quality Development appropriate infrastructure crore per park (90% in difficult areas).
GOVT. POLICIES & INITIATIVES FOR FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR VISION 2015PROBLEMS OF TAXATION IN FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY: To realize the vast potential of Indian agriculture•Customs tariff of 25-40 % on supply of raw material for packaging material. Increasing the size of the processed food sector•Value added tax rate on processed food is 12.5 % - highest in the world. so as to•Customs duty on import of machinery items by food processing industry is 20-25 %. Enhance farmer’s income•Tax incidence on aseptic processing & filling equipment is about 40 % Generate employment opportunitiesPROBLEMS OF FINANCE FOR FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR: Provide to consumers at affordable price•Banks use similar risk models for food processing sector as for manufacturing sector Contribute to overall national growth•High operational / transaction cost in companies.•Non availability of timely credit from organized sources; farmers rely on other sources. OBJECTIVES•Intermediary finance sources charge 4 times the interest rate as banks. Raise the level of processing of perishables fromFOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT POLICY: 6% to 20%•Automatic approval for foreign equity up to 100%. Raise the level of value addition from 20% to•FDI up to 100% is permitted under the automatic route in the food infrastructure . 35%•FDI policy does not permit FDI into Retail sector except Single Brand Product Retailing. Raise the level of share in global food trade from•No industrial license is required for almost all of the food & agro processing industries. 1.5% to 3%INITIATIVES TAKEN FOR EXPORT PROMOTION: Processed foods market to increase to INR 13,500 billion•Free trade zones (FTZ) and export processing zones (EPZ) have been set up.•Units in EPZ / FTZ and 100% Export oriented units can retain 50% of foreign exchange. Share of value added products to grow from 38% to 58%•50% production of EPZ / FTZ and 100% EOU units are saleable in domestic tariff area.•Profits from such exports are also exempt from Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT).
b Following figures represent the comparison of Fruit &Vegetable requirement vs. production showing the surplus NORTH BENGAL : DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL ANALYSISavailability in state of West Bengal (‘000 TONS) VEGETABLE b Following map represents PRODUCE FRUIT & ANNUAL ‘000 HA. SYMBOL CROP the major Fruit & Vegetable AREA Vegetable Requirement (tonnes per annum) Present Vegetable Production (tonnes per annum) production areas in West Bengal with area & amount1200000 of production1000000 800000 Mango 67.76 405.95 600000 Pineapple 11.85 342.59 400000 200000 Banana 25.73 502.11 0 Papaya 8.48 245.67 Darjeeling Jalpaiguri Coochbehar Orange 3.50 33.05 Dinajpur (N) Dinajpur (S) Malda Murshidabad Nadia 24 Parganas(N) 24 Parganas(S) Howrah Hooghly Burdwan Birbhum Guava 9.00 133.78 Bankura Midnapore Purulia Jackfruit 10.42 143.47 Litchi 6.55 55.67 Fruit Requirement (tonnes per annum) Fruit Production (tonnes per annum) Coconut 30.56 4007.39250000 Sapota 3.69 43.26200000 Cashewnut 9.71 9.56150000100000 Tomato 47.63 748.60 50000 Cabbage 70.69 1830.45 0 Cauliflower 63.74 1649.37 Darjeeling Jalpaiguri Coochbehar Dinajpur (N) Radish 34.65 445.05 Dinajpur (S) Malda Murshidabad Nadia 24 Parganas(N) 24 Parganas(S) Howrah Hooghly Burdwan Birbhum Pea 24.58 114.52 Bankura Midnapore Purulia Brinjal 145.6 2661.60 Onion 16.02 173.14
DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL ANALYSISSTRENGHTS INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL Low Development / Potential for growth is Land availability for industrial purposes CATCHMENT AREA FOR EXISTING PROCESSING FACILITIES high through SJDA FOOD PARKS : No. of Units: 13 Strategic location for international trade Water supply through rivers & melted ice if Pineapple 231900 tn. (72%) Total Capacity: 720 Tn. Orange 33000 tn. (100%) with : Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, South required. East Asia, China & Europe. Accessibility : Roads - NH-31, N.H. 31- RURAL MARKETS/MANDIS: Siliguri Regulated market Strategic location for promoting trade & A, NH-55, S.H. 12, 12A. Rail linkages by (Pineapple, Oranges) development of North East Indian States. Broad, Metre & Narrow gauge. Bagdogra Low population density; hence no domestic airport near Siliguri AGRI EXPORT ZONE: overburdening of natural resources. Surplus power availability through Flowers - Jalpaiguri, Siliguri Ideal weather conditions for social substations. Thermal PowerStation AGRI EXPORT ZONE: development planned in vicinity. Pineapple - Jalpaiguri, Siliguri, Koch 3 soil types in a fertile river valley provide Tax benefits for area of Siliguri Bihar, North Dinajpur good agricultural land.WEAKNESSES SUGGESTED INDUSTRIES EXISTING COLD STORAGE FACILITIES No. of Units: 10 Low development in terms of all Export facilities for fresh fruits & Total Capacity:111631.8 Tn. infrastructural facilities vegetables, flowers, tea No industrial raw material or industries Food processing industries with export EXISTING COLD STORAGE FACILITIES Lack of manual labor & technical manpower motives No. of Units: 25 Total Capacity:286524.4 Tn. Presence of international borders may be a Export / Import hub for trade with sensitive issue Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, South East AGRI EXPORT ZONE: Terrain & topography are not ideal for large Asia, China & Europe. Mango, Lychee - Malda scale developments. Secondary industries like wood RURAL MARKETS/MANDIS: Limited provisions for transport linkages like works, pharmaceuticals, contractual English Bazaar Malda rail, roads & air transport cultivation of cash crops. (Mango, Litchi) Current political instability Other small scale industries such as CATCHMENT AREA FOR sericulture, animal husbandry etc. FOOD PARKS : EXISTING PROCESSING FACILITIES Mango 99400 tn. (24%) No. of Units: 20 Litchi 10000 tn. (18%) Total Capacity: 1970 Tn.
FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR NEED FOR PROJECT( Economic benefits for regional development )Employment generation for population during construction & operational phase High demandDevelopment of allied industries like Logistics , Packaging , Pharmaceutical , SteelInfrastructural development for region in terms of Roads, Electricity, WaterSocial infrastructure development in terms of Hospitals, Housing, Schools Changing consumerism, high income Demand for processed,Increase in export / import of Processed Food products levels with increasing disposable and value - added income, lifestyle changes, brand products ESTIMATEDGOVT. POLICIES & INCENTIVES consciousness, healthy living INVESTMENTProvisions for industrial schemes such as : Food Park, MFPS, AEZ, SEZ, MMLH etc.Tax rebates, Concessions, Subsidies for activities related to food processing REQUIRED BYStrengthening of Agricultural Marketing & Quality Control Infrastructure 2015:Development schemes for Logistics Infrastructure like Cold chain, Warehousing High returns in EUR 22.9 HighFinancial support for Farmers, Developers, Industrial units, Logistic units terms of quality BILLION investmentsSpecial provisions in 11th 5yr plan for food processing sector and brand loyalty buildingREGION OF NORTH BENGAL: (Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Koch Bihar, Uttar Growing corporate sectorDinajpur Dakshin Dinajpur, Maldah ) participation, improved infrastructureSurplus Fruit & Vegetable Production and supply chain, consolidation of agri -Area also rich in medicinal plants, tea production, flouriculture activities & spices marketing supply chainStrategic location for export to Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan & other markets FORWARD INTEGRATION: BACKWARD INTEGRATIONStrategic location for import from China & South East Asia for Indian distribution Selling in the Domestic From farm to the Cold StorePotential for industrial development Market • Collection Points close to farms:Availability of Transportation & Logistics • Develop markets from • Farmer not required to go to Market existing levels • Transparency in prices FECILITATION OF REGIONAL SOCIAL INCENTIVES & • Reduce number of • Maintaining the Cold Chain Refrigerated LAND & ECONOMIC CONCESSIONS FOR middlemen logistics ACQUISITION & DEVELOPMENT FOOD PROCESSING Selling in Foreign Markets Developing Quality LEGAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES • Developing International • Better Varieties Standards • Post Harvest Management • Marketing on Competitive • Education/Extension Programs: Eco- FACTORS FOR INDUSTRIAL ZONE FOR FOOD PROCESSING Terms friendly, organic farming, tissue culture,
ANALYSING THE POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPING FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR AIM, OBJECTIVES, SCOPE & LIMITATIONS AREA APPRAISAL OF ANALYSIS OF DEMAND/ GOVT. POLICIES & AIM: NORTH BENGAL EXPORT POTENTIAL INITIATIVES Development of Food Processing Sector in North Bengal region &CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS Designing of infrastructural services of a Food Processing SEZ.• AVAILABILITY OF RAW • QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS • SPECIAL AREA ALLOCATION OBJECTIVES: MATERIALS OF PRODUCE • EXPORT & TAX INCENTIVES 1. Identification of catchment areas & providing• POTENTIAL OF AREA TO • MARKET IDENTIFICATION IN • INFRASTRUCTURE SCHEMES development strategies for terminal markets, primary SUPPORT INDUSTRIES INDIA/ABROAD • AGRICULTURAL SCHEMES processing centers, storage infrastructure, logistics &• EXISTING OR PROPOSED • IDENTIFICATION OF transport linkages INDUSTRIES REQUIRED FINISHED 2. Identification & delineation of site for SEZ, broad level• EXISTING INFRASRTUCTURE GOODS master planning of processing & non processing zones of the SEZ & relevant surrounding areasOBSERVATIONS: OBSERVATIONS: OBSERVATIONS: 3. Designing of Infrastructural services for SEZ Processing• AREA RICH IN FRUIT & • 2 FOOD PARKS, 1 SEZ,1 AEZ zones • LARGE MARKET FOR FLOWER PRODUCTION EXPORT OF RAW & PROPOSED SCOPE OF WORK:• HAS ABUNDANCE & PROCESSED GOODS • PROPOSALS FOR MARKET 1. Physical planning & design of SEZ infrastructure for VARIERY FOR EXPORT & • DEMAND AREAS WITHIN LINKAGES & COLD Processing zone of the SEZ PROCESSING COUNTRY & ABROAD STORAGE CHAIN 2. Master planning & development guidelines for Non• LAND, POWER, WATER, HR • ENOUGH SURPLUS • EXPANDING CATCHMENT / processing zone. AVAILABLE MATERIAL TO SUSTAIN PRODUCTION AREAS 3. Development guidelines for location PPCs / Terminal• FEW EXISTING INDUSTRIES PROCESSING SECTOR markets & Logistic networks 4. Areas of North Bengal i.e. Districts – Darjeeling , JalpaiguriRESULT: RESULT: RESULT: , Koch Bihar, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur & MaldahAREA FEASIBLE FOR LARGE DEMAND OF GOVT. POLICIES FAVOUR THE have been considered under scope of planningDEVELOPMENT OF LARGE PROCESSED GOODS PROVIDE DEVELOPMENT IN THS LIMITATIONS:PROCESSING INDUSTRY REQIRED MARKET SECTOR 1. Financial viability of the project has been assumed 2. Political disturbances, regional instability have not been NEED OF DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIAL ZONE FOR FOOD accounted for in the project.PROCESSING SECTOR IN THE AREA OF NORTH BENGAL FOR REGIONAL ECONOMIC & 3. Environmental policies for forest, high altitude, hills have SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT not been considered.
PROJECT METHODOLOGY STEPS FOR IMPLEMENTING INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOOD FOOD PROCESSING ZONE 2 PROCESSING SEZ PROJECT BACKGROUND STUDY DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR PRIMARY IDENTIFICATION & ANALYSIS OF 1 PROCESSING CENTRES & LOGISTIC SYSTEM INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT SITES WITHIN THE REGION IDENTIFICATION OF CATCHMENT AREAS BY USING ESTABLISH NEED FOR PROJECT G.I.S. MAPPING OF RELATIVE CONSTRAINTS / PHYSICAL DELINEATION OF SITE INTO FACTORS (BLOCK WISE) PROCESSING & NON-PROCESSING ZONES BLOCK POPULATION AIM, OBJECTIVES, SCOPE, LIMITATIONS BROAD ZONING AND PHASE PLANNING BLOCK AREA UNDER AGRICULTURE FOR BOTH ZONES WITH TRANSPOTATION LINKAGES INFRASTRUCTURE PREPARE PROJECT METHODOLOGY LOCATION OF P.P.C. FOR EACH BLOCK IN ALL PLOT ALLOTMENT AND DEMARKATION DISTRICTS BASED ON RELATIVE FACTORS USING FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL G.I.S. USES LITERATURE REVIEW OF RELATED ISSUES AGRICULTURAL AREA PLANNING & DESIGNING OF VARIOUS INFRASTRUCTURAL SERVICES & LOCAL TERMINAL MARKETS FACILITIES CASE STUDIES RELATED TO PROJECT TRANSPOTATION LINKAGES INFRASTRUCTURE: DESIGN OF A TYPICAL PRIMARY PROCESSING CENTRE AND •POWER SUPPLYPRIMARY & SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION TERMINAL MARKET UNIT INCLUDING REQUIRED SERVICES •WATER SUPPLY •WASTE MANAGEMENT ANALYSE & PROPOSE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR THE •EFFLUENT TREATMENT PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION TRANSPORTATION LINKAGES BETWEEN P.P.C. & •FIREFIGHTING SERVICES INDUSTRIAL AREA & REQUIRED COLDCHAIN FACILITIES •WAREHOUSES •COLD STORAGE DESIGN OF A TYPICAL COLD CHAIN •TRANSPORT TERMINAL RESULTS & CONCLUSION FACILITY & PRIMARY PROCESSING •COMMON UTILITIES CENTRE
LITERATURE REVIEW : SEZ SEZ ENTITIES SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE (SEZ) : SEZ DEVELOPER CO-DEVELOPER SEZ UNIT Geographical region that has economic laws different from a country’s generally applicable economic laws. NON PROCESSING AREA PROCESSING AREA SOCIAL INFRASTUCTURE MANUFACTURING & SERVICES UNITS Underlying objective being an increase in HOTELS economic growth and activity through increased INFRASTRUCTURE FOR UNITS HOSPITALS foreign investment. HOUSING SHOPPING Several other initiatives in past to boost exports in RESIDENTIAL India before formation of SEZs: 50 % SCHOOL Infrastructure only to the extent approved by Board of Approvals qualifies for the tax concessions & exemptions. Excess infrastructure • Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Scheme MINIMUM • Export Oriented Units (EOU) Scheme can be built with out tax benefits • Software Technology Park (STP) Scheme • Electronic Hardware Technology Park (EHTP) SchemeUNITS FOR ACTIVITIES: EXCLUSIVE FACILITIES INFRASTRUCTURAL FOR UNITS SEVICES • Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme• Manufacturing goods • Canteens • Free Trade • Advance Licensing and Deemed Exports Scheme• Rendering services • Public telephone booths • Warehousing Zones,• Trading or warehousing • First aid centres, • International Financial • Free Trade Zone(FTZ) Scheme purposes • Crèches Services Centre
STAGE UNIT DEVELOPER / CO-DEVELOPER LITERATURE REVIEW : SEZ Development No Customs Duty No Customs DutyMinimum land area required for establishment of SEZ: Stage: No Excise Duty No Excise Duty• Land to be contiguous with no public thoroughfare. (Capital Goods, No Sales Tax No Sales Tax• Land to be vacant on the date of application. Consumables, No Service Tax No Service Tax• Developer to have either freehold/ development / lease rights Components & No Purchase Tax No Purchase Tax• For formal approval, land must be in the possession of the developer Spares) No Stamp duty & Registration No Stamp duty & Registration Fees Fees GENERAL SPECIAL No Stamp duty on Mortgages No Stamp duty on Mortgages TYPE OF SEZ SEZ AREA SEZ AREA No Electricity duty No Electricity duty (HEC) (HECS)Multi Product 1000 200 Operation No Customs Duty No Customs DutyMulti Services 100 50 Stage: No Excise Duty No Excise Duty (Raw No Sales Tax No Sales TaxPort/Airport based 100 50 Materials, No Service Tax No Service TaxSector Specific 100 50 Consumables, No Purchase Tax No Purchase TaxFree Trade Components & No Stamp duty & Registration No Stamp duty & RegistrationWarehousing Zone 40 40 Spares) Fees Fees(FTWZ) No Stamp duty on Mortgages No Stamp duty on MortgagesElectronics hardware No Electricity duty No Electricity dutyand Profit Stage Exemption from Income Tax No Income Tax for 10 years 10 10software, including 100% for the first 5 yrs No MATITES 50% for the next 5 yrs No Dividend Distribution TaxBiotech Non- 50% of profits ploughed back forConventional 10 10 the next 5 yrs No Minimum Alternate TaxEnergyGems & Jewellery 10 10 0 Tax benefits for SEZ entities:
Located near natural aggregation LITERATURE REVIEW : MFPS COLLECTION CENTER points will serve a number of• Aggregation MEGA FOOD PARK SCHEME (MFPS) collection centres lying in close• Transportation proximity Inclusive concept which is aimed at establishing Primary grading sorting may be direct linkages from the farm to processing and on done to the consumer markets Facilities for storage, sorting grading PRIMARY PROCESSING CENTER cleaning etc. Efficient logistics facilities will connect the• Sorting, Grading & storage Transportation facilities like collection centres to the primary processing• Refrigeration vans refrigerated vans, trucks etc . centres, which in turn will be connected to a Storage facilities will include all central processing centre. weather warehouses and cold storage The scheme aims at facilitating the establishment of food processing industry backed by an efficient supply chain, which will include collection centres, primary Industrial park with a number of processing centres and clod chain infrastructure. CENTRAL PROCESSING CENTER processing units• Common technical Common design factory sheds infrastructure Common facilities such as • 30-35 food processing units with• Common facilities Water• • Collective investment of about 250 crores Basic infrastructure & Electricity utilities Effluent treatment • Annual turnover of 400-500 crores• Standard design factories Specialized facilities • Generate employment for about 30000 people. Cold storage Ware housingMEGA FOOD PARK SCHEME Logistics
LITERATURE REVIEW : LOGISTICS FLOW OF GOODS FLOW OF FINANCE FLOW OF INFORMATION • FARMER • VALUE ADDITION • DISTRIBUTION CENTRES • RETAIL OUTLETS • FINAL CONSUMER • SUPPLIER OF RAW • TRANS-SHIPMENT • ONLINE MATERIALS HUBS0 Value chain in Logistics / Supply chain of Food Processing sector MANUFACTURER TRANSHIPMENT CONSUMER • LOADING • ROAD • CWC, SWC • UNLOADING • STUFFING • RAIL • ICD, CFS • DE-STUFFING • CLEARING • AIR • LOGISTICS PARK • CLEARING • SEA • PIPELINE0 A typical supply chain in a Food Processing Logistics system
LITERATURE REVIEW : LOGISTICSDOMESTIC SUPPLIERS DEPOT LOGISTICS RETAILER DISTRIBUTION DEPOT CENTRE TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING FINAL DISTRIBUTION DEPOT CONSUMER WARE HOUSING ASSEMBLY CENTRE • Road transport VALUE ADDITION DISTRIBUTION • Rail transport DEPOT CENTRE • Sea transport INTERNATIONAL • Air transport EXPORT • Packaging SUPPLIERS • Pipeline transport • Labeling & assembling DEPOT • Express services LOGISTICS PARK • Tracking & tracing INLAND DOMESTIC WARE BONDED WARE CONTAINER HOUSE HOUSE / FTWZ DEPOT Semi rigid OFFICE SPACE / PACKAGING Rigid packaging Flexible packaging packaging TRAINING COLDSTORAGE PARKING & 3RD PARTY LOGISTICS Bottle, metal Carton box Paper, plastic BOARDING BANKING TRUCK TERMINAL RAILTERMINAL PORT TERMINAL Metal box Plastic bottle Film, alu. Foil AIRPORT TERMINAL 0 A conceptual layout of Wooden box Cellophane a typical logistics hub
LITERATURE REVIEW : LOCATION THEORY THEORY MAJOR WORK HIGHLIGHTS Von Thunen (1826), Launhardt Focuses on presenting a general normative model of finding an optimal (1882), Weber (1909, 1929), location; Cost reduction factors are main driving force; MathematicalNEOCLASSICAL APPROACH Palander (1935), McCann (1993), models are adopted to explain the location of firms; Relocation is not Smith (1981), Isard (1956) necessary Pred (1967), Simon (1955), Cyert Settling for sub-optimal outcomes rather than maximum profits; Stresses and March, (1963), Townroe (1972), the importance of internal factors; Consider a limited number of choices;BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH Hayter (1997), Krumme (1969), Search and evaluate alternatives in a highly sequential way; Relocation Keeble (1976, 1978), Pellenbarg costs are taken into account; Relies on questionnaires and detailed (1985, Louw (1996), Ebels (1997) empirical work Martin (1999), Fukuyama (1995), Economic processes in space are mainly shaped by society’s cultural Cooke and Morgan (1998), Trigilia institutions; Focus is on the interaction between firms instead of theINSTITUTIONAL APPROACH (1986), Putnam (1993), Becattini behaviour of individual firms; Collective learning through formal & (1990,2002) Amin (2000) informal relationships between firms Nelson and Winter (1982), Brons Location and relocation applies concepts from Darwinian biology such as and Pellenbarg (2003), BoschmaEVOLUTIONARY APPROACH variation, selection and path dependence; Knowledge is primarily and Frenken (2004), Boschma, embodied within the routine of firms; Founded on routine behaviour Frenken, Lambooy (2002)
LITERATURE REVIEW : LOCATION THEORY Low cost Labour. CRITICAL FACTORS OF INDUSTRIAL LOCATION Pipeline facilities. Existing consumer market. Attitude of workers. TRANSPORTATION Existingfacilities. market. Airway producer AccessibilityLabour. Managerial of land. Water supply, cost and quality. LABOUR Highway consumer market. Potential Proximityfacilities. Colleges and supplies. institutions. to research Skilled Labour. land. Cost of industrial of of markets. Anticipation of growth industrial waste. Disposable facilities RAW MATERIALS Wage offacilities. Railroad Shippingsnow raw materials. Availability of to market areas. Attitude of community residents. Clarityrates.of fuels.investment laws. Amount costs fall. Building ordinances. park. Developed industrial corporate Availability Tax assessment basis. MARKETS Quality ofto component parts. Nearness schools. Trucking services. MarketingLabour. Unskilled services. Relations with the west. Zoningfor future expansion. Percentcodes. Space fuels.fall. Cost of rainof storage rates. Regulations competitivejoint ventures and mergers. INDUSTRIAL SITE Favourable concerning position. Religious facilities. taxfacilities for raw materials and Industrial property Availabilitytransportation. Waterwaycountry. History of Unions. Materialtrends.transfer Income Compensationelectric power. Livingcorporatelaws. material. Insurance rates. raw of earnings out of country. UTILITIES State conditions. Library facilities.tax structure. RegulationsofLabour. Availability on Standardandlevel components. of of Shipping cost Educational living. of Stability of regime. Labour. Population trends. Recreational facilities. institutions. GOVERNMENT ATTITUDE Protectionlaws.power. transportation. Insurance against Availability foreign of lending Locationhumidity. owned Relativeopportunities. Taxationoperations. Market electricof Labour. companies. Cost of of suppliers. Tax freefinished goods Consumer income.expropriation. Per capita characteristics. Dependability Attitude of community leaders. TAX STRUCTURE Treatiescost.of malelaws. Locationandforeign currency. Closeness to pacts. Freightinspections. Labour. Safety of of gas. services. Foreign ownership industries. Availability other postal Monthly average temperature. State sales competitors. Availability of capital. Availabilitytax. Strengthfacilities. Medical of CLIMATE Attitude in the Unitedpollution laws.projects. Nations. Future expansion opportunities. Communityofand storage facilities. Warehousing Requirementsstreamfacilities. Adequacyand female Labour. Nuisance ofindustrial development Air pollution.sewage Availability on Shopping centres.what percentage of employees may Balance of payment status. COMMUNITY Typeof market. alliances. markets. Size of military Proximity to international Cost of living be foreign. financing agents. Nearnessof related Attitude to Hotels and motels. industries. Coal and nuclear power generation facilities. Attitude toward foreign capital. Government aids. POLITICAL SITUATION OF FOREIGN COUNTRY Banks and credit institutions. Prevalence bureaucratic red tape. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND SURVIVAL Community position of future expansion. Regulations concerning price controls GOVERNMENT REGULATION ECONOMIC FACTORS
LITERATURE REVIEW : LOCATION THEORY MULTI-CRITERIA METHODS FOR LOCATION SELECTION:Criteria that influence manufacturing plant location 1. STATIC AND DETERMINISTIC MODELSplanning: Proximity to Customers Static and deterministic models have five basic purposes, which focus on: Business Climate How to minimize the average distance travelled Total Costs Infrastructure How to achieve maximum coverage Quality of Labour How to determine a centre that can maximize coverage and minimize the Suppliers Other Facilities distance travelled Free Trade Zones How to deal with multiple objectives Political Risk Government Barriers How to locate undesirable facility Environmental Regulation Host Community 2. DYNAMIC AND STOCHASTIC MODELS. Competitive Advantage Dynamic and stochastic models are mainly dealing with planning for futureCriteria that influence warehouse location planning : conditions under two core uncertainty situations Costs a) Planning with known model input parameters • Labour & handling costs b) Planning with imperfect information of input parameters. • Transportation cost, • Tax incentives & structure Formulating such real-world problems into either a single objective or multiple • Financial incentives objectives with an optimal or near-optimal solution & assume that future values Labour characteristics of inputs are uncertain Infrastructure Probabilistic approach focus explicitly on the probability distributions of random Market variables the scenario approach embraces models that help generate a set of Macro environment possible future values for the variables
STRUCTURING OF FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR IN INDIA CASE STUDY : AGRI EXPORT ZONE AGRI EXPORT ZONE: For Passion Fruit in Manipur STATE OR ZONAL LEVEL NETWORK OF FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES Convergence AGRI EXPORT ZONE PRODUCTION AREA Partnership Focus FOOD PROCESSING SEZ TERMINAL MARKETS • To take care of particular product/produces located in a contiguous area MEGA FOOD PARKS PRIMARY PROCESSING UNITS • Developing and sourcing the raw materials for its processing, packaging and leading to final export Functions: LOGISTICS / MARKET LINKAGES / TRANSPORTATION • Provisions of inputs like seeds fertilizers, pesticides, credit to farmers CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT COLD CHAIN STORAGE • The development of pre & post harvest storageFOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORT • Marketing of the product to retailer or export FOOD PACKAGING INDUSTRIES AIRPORT CARGO TERMINAL Passion fruit production 7853 Ha; 63,606 Mt QUALITY CONTROL & FPO LAB Europe, USA and Far Target markets Eastern countries RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Expected export volume 2000-3500 tonnes/year INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES: • FIREFIGHTING SERVICES 115.1 million INR from Incentives• POWER SUPPLY • WAREHOUSES MOFPI, NHB, APEDA• WATER SUPPLY • COLD STORAGE Juice Extraction• WASTE MANAGEMENT • TRANSPORT TERMINAL Equipment Treatment• EFFLUENT TREATMENT • COMMON UTILITIES Cold Storage
CASE STUDY : FOOD PROCESSING SEZPEARL CITY FOOD PORT (SEZ)Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, IndiaConnectivity• Tuticorin Port - 30 KM• Tuticorin Town - 23 KM• Tirunelveli Town - 27 KM• Tuticorin Airport - 15 KM• NH 7A - 5 KM• NH7 - 25 KM• Railhead at Tuticorin - 30 KM• Railhead at Tirunelveli - 35 KM (Major junction)• Madurai International Airport - 150 KM• Trivandrum Airport - 150 KMAdvantages of connectivity:• Strategically located near the East-West international sea route with access to many parts of the world• Offers weekly container services to Europe, USA and Red Sea ports and a daily service to Colombo• Already handles a substantial quantum of food imports and exports of raw food material.
CASE STUDY : FOOD PROCESSING SEZRaw materials from Tamil Nadu and Kerala:• Fruits & Vegetables,• Seafood• Spices and allied products• Poultry and livestock• Gherkins, milk and oil seedsTypes of industries for Food Processing Zone TOTAL AREA OF SEZ: 175 HECTARES• Food & vegetable processing PROCESSING ZONE FACILITIES NON-PROCESSING ZONE FACILITIES• Spice based products • Plots for food processing industries • Township security• Gherkin processing • Warehousing & Distribution • Conference centre• Seafood - including crabs, prawns, lobsters • Cold storage • Fitness facilities• Coconut based products • Testing labs • Entertainment facilities• Banana based products like pulp, powder • Truck weigh station • Outpatient medical clinic• Poultry and egg based products • Container terminal yards • Dental clinic• Biscuits and confectionery • Packaging centre • Pharmacy / drug store• Ethnic products like papads, pickles • Grain silo storage and tank farm • Grocery store• Health food and nutraceuticals • Orientation / training centre • Retail centre• Food enzymes, ingredients • Crèche • Apartments / condos / single• Canned products • Shuttle transit station • family detached housing• Soup powders • Bus transfer terminal • K-12 school• Tea and coffee products • Trucker lounge • Tennis, golf and swimming• Edible oil for exports • Visitor fuel stations • facilities• Frozen ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook products • Fire station • Banks• Vermicelli, noodles, pasta • Cafeteria with a food court • Restaurants• Pet food • Hospital • Multiplex
CASE STUDY : MEGA FOOD PARK SCHEMEJANGIPUR BENGAL MEGA FOOD PARK: Murshidabad, West Bengal, IndiaZone of Influence: Consists of the following districts:• Murshidabad, Nadia, Malda, Burdwan, Birbhum• Close proximity to the rich agro based zones of Jharkhand & BiharAdvantages of location:• Availability of large quantities of process able agro produce• Strategic locations in central West Bengal• Substantial trade with this neighbouring country• Has stable power supply and abundant water supply• Easy availability of skilled and unskilled workforceAvailable produce in the Zone of Influence:• Type of Fruits: Mango, Banana, Pineapple, Litchi, Guava, Orange, Sapota, Papaya• Type of Vegetables: Cauliflower, Cabbage, Tomato, Peas, Green Chilli, Okra, Ginger, Onion, Cucurbits• Type of crops: Rice, Wheat, Potato• Others: Milk
CASE STUDY : MEGA FOOD PARK SCHEME Collection Centres (CC) : 18 Nos. Central Processing Centre (CPC) Area : 0.35 acres eachDestination Market & Population Connectivity CPC Layout Area : 85.5 acres CC Facilities:Kolkata- 11.83 mn NH-34 Common Facilities: Work Sheds for receiving Multi-purpose ColdSiliguri- 4.8 mn NH-34 Weighing scale Storage, Warehouses, PulpingMalda- 3.3 mn NH-34 Primary sorting Unit, Weigh Bridge & TruckBurdwan-6.05 mn NH-34/ SH-7 Terminal, Standard DesignDurgapur-0.49 mn NH-34 / SH / NH 2 Primary Processing Centre (PPC) Factory, Building for small units, FactoryDescription INR in Lakhs PPC Layout Area : 1.2 acres ShedsLand of all sites & Site Development 876.10 PPC Facilities: Central Facilities Building:Buildings 3608.35 • Loading & Unloading Area Food Quality ControlWater Supply System 997.72 • Weighing Scale Laboratory, Training Centre, BusinessDrainage 665.30 • Sorting-Grading Area Centre, Bank Branch, Staff Canteen • Washing/Cleaning Area Infrastructure provisions:Truck Terminal 50.05 • Truck and Car Parking Area • Fully serviced 29 plots - 47.75 acresRoads & Culverts 399.81 • Cold Storage (50 MT each) • Factory sheds: 4.5 acresElectrical works 303.49 • Security Room • FPO / Quality control laboratoryPPCs & CCs Facilities 1134.69 • Warehouse (270 MT) • Incubation facilityPlant & Equipments 2755.14 • Other Utilities: • Modified atmosphere cold storagePreoperative expenses 313.54 •Administrative Office • 132KV/ 11 KV sub-station •Information Kiosk • Water supply & purificationTOTAL Rs.11,104.18Means of Finance Amount (Rs. in Lakhs) •Nursery • ETP/WWTP and STPMOFPI Grant 5,000.00 •Planting Material & Seed Sales • Composting yardEquity 3,052.00 •Fertilizer Centre • Road networkDebt @13% 3,052.18 •Training Hall •Micro-Finance CentreTotal 11,104.18
CASE STUDY : INDUSTRIAL FOOD PARKSUDHA RAS INDUSTRIAL FOOD PARK:Jaldhulaguri, Haorah, West BengalLayout of proposed food park: 50.29 acresPlots type Plot Size in acres Nos.Large 3.0 - 5.0 3Small to Medium 0.50-2.5 acres 26Infrastructure provisions :• 29 fully serviced plots for individual units• H.T. Power supply and distribution system• Road system• Area and street lighting• Potable water supply with treatment plant• Drainage and sewerage disposal system• Rain water harvesting system• Truck terminal Item Description INR in LakhsLand and Site Development 946.75Buildings 17.04Water Supply System 93.75Rain Water Harvesting 117.11Canal Development 3.43Roads & Pavement 288.27Power Supply System 150.24Pre Operative Expenses 40.02TOTAL PROJECT COST 1656.60
CASE STUDY : MMHLMULTI-MODAL LOGISTICS HUB:Pithampur-Dhar-Mhow Investment RegionSub-region of Delhi-Mumbai industrial corridor (DMIC)Functions:• Provide facilities and services for collection, distribution, storage and transportation of goods meant for exports and imports• Provide competitive cost and fast turnaround times• Improve efficiency of operations in the region• Improve strategic attractiveness as an investment destinationInfrastructure Development Strategy• Prioritization of Rail Projects: Conversion of metre gauge to broad gauge & extensions at required palces.• Entry from NH-3 to Proposed Site of MMLH• Promotion of Railway Sidings SITE DELINEATION CRITERIA: • Indore SEZ: Western side of the site for MMLH is delineated by Indore SEZ • NH-3 Bypass: Southern edge of the proposed site is delineated Bypass for NH-3 • Propose Indore-Dahod Rail Link: The northern edge of the proposed site for the MMLH is delineated by the proposed railway line between Indore and Dahod.
b Following table shows the various components of the MMLH and the area required CASE STUDY : MMHL ACTIVITY/PROJECT COMPONENT AREA (IN HA) Major support functions:Railway Siding 17.1 • Truck Terminal and Workshops • WarehousingStacking Area 29.3 • ProcessingCFS facility 23.0 • Packaging • Trade and Commercial FunctionsHazardous Container 3.8 • Basic amenities, utilities and services Major core activities performed :Workshop/Repair 8.3 • Receipt and dispatch / delivery of cargo.Processing/Packaging 6.2 • Transit operations by rail/road • Temporary storage of cargo and containers.Warehouses 10.5 • Customs clearance.Terminal Facilities(for 1000 trucks) 9.9 • Consolidation and desegregation of LCL cargo. • Container handling and stacking.Gate Complex and Administrative Facilities 5.1 • Stuffing / De-stuffing of containers.Commercial Complex 4.4 • Maintenance and repair of container units. Project costExpomart 4.7 • The overall project cost for the MMLH wasRoads 28.2 estimated as Rs 5,997 millions. • Infrastructure cost for the Logistics Hub as a wholeParking 1.3 is approximately Rs. 1800 millions.Green Buffer/Drain 21.2 • The building components and related cost for the site is Rs. 1,813 millions.Utilities 9.0 • Cost of the equipment is approximately Rs. 1713Total 182.0 millions including the replacement cost.
CASE STUDY : COMPARATIVE ANALYSISSPECIAL ECONOMICSCHEMES (MFPS) INDUSTRIAL FOOD PARKS (IFP) MEGA FOOD PARK ZONES (SEZ) AGRI EXPORT ZONES (AEZ) SEZs are verysimilarIndustrial areas divided into Processing (Industrial they primarily house food processing industries and IFP arehas a Central Processing Centre as the nuclei of allthat Infrastructure) & Nonfacilitated by Primary Processing MFPS large to normal industrial parks with the exception value addition activities Processing (Social Infrastructure).DESCRIPTIONDESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION allied industries. areasare point dedicated Logistics Hubs for handlingInvestment & Infrastructureadevelopment. They Centres, which will actdesignated for promotion of export depending to production potential of materials. The Central These are large They as with of aggregation and primary Foreign on development authority. particular product. They are developed phase wise designated areas which are administrated by aprovide ready to use rawThey area walled are Processing withdelineated to a specific small area. These are not planned an allotments and infrastructural number classified on basis of thewill beplotindustrialthat are developed in provisions for industries. enclosures facility types of industries park and will house a a SEZ. of processing units SEZs are geographical regions that have economic lawsthat area. from a parks areagenerally applicablefacilitate land acquisition They are an inclusivepromote these industries at establishing direct linkages mainly planned to processing laws, with the MFPS is planned to concept which is aimed in different These country’s from the farm to economic and on to thePURPOSE PURPOSE underlying objectiveindustries increase in economicThey areand activity the basisincreased foreignprocess ablelogistics facilities for setting markets, through providing them. growth centres and through Processing Centres. Efficient raw material & consumer product & area specific whichof collection located on Primary of availability of to other lines of activity up being an and a network investment. PURPOSE They are are developed mainly for sourcing of raw materials PURPOSE markets. will connect the collection centres to the primary processing centres, which in turn will be connected to a centralSTAKE HOLDERS such as Packaging, Processing & eventually export. Development authority, Units, Government, Developers, Financial Institutions processing centreSTAKE HOLDERS Development authority, Units, State Government, Central Government SEZ provide following mandatory industrial & social infrastructural provisions:STAKE HOLDERS Development authority, Units, State Government, Central Government, Farmers STAKE HOLDERS Farmers, State Government, Central Government, Exporters Power & Electricity Hotels IFP provide following infrastructuralinfrastructural provisions: MFPS provide following mandatory provisions (not mandatory): Water purification & supply Hospitals Power & Electricity Terminal market, Sorting and grading centre, Warehouses to store produce Powermanagement & Electricity INFRASTRUCTURE Solid waste Residential Water purification & supply Water purification & supplyINFRASTRUCTURE Waste water treatment Educational Institutions INFRASTRUCTURE Solid waste management Solid waste management INFRASTRUCTURE Effluent treatment Shopping Incentives are limited; Mostly incentives are for farmers in form of better seeds, equipment, finance, information. Waste water treatment & Effluent treatment Waste water treatment & Effluent treatmentFinancial institutions INCENTIVES Roads & Transport Exporter mayTransport financial incentives Roads & Transport Roads & also enjoy SEZ must have integrated Logistics Hub or any transportation facilities except parking facilities. The primary processing centres IFP do not generally have integrated Logistics Hub or any transportationfacilities except parking facilities. The primary IFP generally have integrated Logistics Hub or any transportation facilities except parking facilities. will provide facilities for storage, sorting grading cleaning etc. AssistanceUnits & Developers, Assistance to storage, sortingland acquisition for units developers except for for varying processing to developers for land acquisition by government; No cleaning etc. centres will provide facilities for grading Tax benefits for limitations; Gathering / collection point for surroundingincentives &area orExemptions from taxes financial developers for AREA INCENTIVES No area catchment finance,INCENTIVES INCENTIVES assistance from Units, Assistance to developers for land acquisition & finance for Government. Tax benefits rates periods at varying AREAAREA OF UNITS NO. Up to 50 - -300Hectares (depending on requirement) 150 100 Hectares (dependingtype, region & requirement) on requirement) 1000 specific; Depending on catchment / production area Not Hectares (depending on NO. OF UNITS 20 - - 150 units (depending on size) 100 50 units (depending on size)
BAGDOGRA SILIGURI RLY. STATION MUNICIPAL PHASE 3 AUTHORITY AREA RLY. CARGO PHASE 2 TERMINAL AIR CARGO SEZ: NON TERMINAL PHASE 1 PROCESSIN G AREA NEW JALPAIGURI MMHL AREA FOR RLY. STATION AIRPORT EXPANSION TRUCK TERMINAL SEZ : PHASE 3 RANGAPANI MULTI PRODUCT RLY. STATION SEZ : PHASE 1 FULBARI TRUCK SEZ : MEGA FOOD PARK TERMINALPROCESSING ZONE SEZ : PHASE 2 ALLIED INDUSTRIES
1. COMPANY DETAILS 2. PROCESSING DETAILS 4. INFRASTRUCTUREName of company Technology / Process Logistics DATA COLLECTION QUESTIONNAIREOwner Machinery Used Carrier vehicles ownedAddress Crew /Manpower Cost of operation PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION:Years of establishment Space requirement (m2)Current status No. of units Carrier vehicles contracted 1. Industrial Food Processing unit requirementsEmployee strength Material input Cost of operation « Material Requirements QuantityType of employees Output products Dedicated logistics area « Energy RequirementsNo of employees StorageArea of Plant / Factory Quantity « Processing Details Output rate Cost of operationDaily avg. working hours Time taken per batch / kg. Space requirement « Space requirements1.1 RAW MATERIAL PROCUREMENT DETAILS Power sources Electric sub station « Logistics requirements NameCatchment area / Market Requirement (per batch/day) Water supply reservoirs « Emission DetailsContractual Farms if any Water source 4.1 OTHER UTILITES SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION:Raw materials Water requirementName Other requirement Facility 1. Infrastructural provisions for Industrial ParkClassification / Grading 2.1 PACKAGING DETAILS Administration Building « Types of Services Stay facilitiesAmount Packaged products « Capacity of ServicesPrice of acquisition Name of product Central canteenSeasonal variation Packaging raw material Parking area « Planning parametersShelf life (in hours) Preservation process Security block 2. Infrastructural provisions for SEZ Cost per batch / unitAlternative market Machinery used Medical centre « Types of ServicesMode of transport1.2 FINAL PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION DETAILS Crew /Manpower Inland Container Depot « Capacity of ServicesArea of marketing Output rate Time taken per batch / unit R & D laboratory « Planning parametersSub-contracted from Space requirement (m2) Quality Control Lab 4. Data regarding agricultural & food processingDirect exportIndirect export No. of units 5. POLICY IMPLEMENTATION & REGULATIONS infrastructure in West Bengal 3. EMISSION DETAILS Incentives availed on raw materialsFinal Product Types « Block wise data Incentives availed on machineryName Description / QualityClassification (Fruits, vegetables, others) Incentives availed on logisticsAmount Emission rate / Amount Incentives availed on land EXPECTED SOURCES: Disposal technologyPrice of sale Space requirement Tax concessions availed WBIDC, APIIC, GIDC, FRITOLAY INDIA PVT LTD., DREAMSeasonal variationShelf life Disposal area Export concessions availed BAKE PVT LTD., WEST BENGAL STATE HORTICULTURE &Alternative market Recycling practices EIA implementation FOOD PROCESSING DEPARTMENT. End products of recyclingMode of transport Corporate social responsibility