Project management


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Definations of project and Project management

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Project management

  1. 1. Submitted to Submitted ByDr. Monika Aggarwal Arsh Koul1
  2. 2.  A project in business and science is typicallydefined as a collaborative enterprise,frequently involving research or design, thatis carefully planned to achieve a particularaim A project is a temporary endeavor with adefined beginning and end, undertaken tomeet unique goals and objectives, typically tobring about beneficial change or added value.2
  3. 3.  Project management is the discipline ofplanning, organizing, motivating andcontrolling resources to achieve specific goals Project management is the art of managingthe project and its deliverables with a view toproduce finished products or service.3
  4. 4. Project management includes:1. Identifying requirements.2. Establishing clear and achievable objectives.3. Balancing the competing demands from thedifferent stakeholders.4. Ensuring that a commonality of purpose isachieved.4
  5. 5. MandateIs there a clear, reliable mandate for thisproject, i.e.: Do the sponsors have the power to initiatethis project? Can the sponsors provide all the resourcesthat may be required (funding, people, time,etc)?5
  6. 6. Is it clear what is the purpose of the project? Are we able to define clear, measurableobjectives that identify what is to beachieved? Are the objectives reasonable, achievable andmeasurable? Do the sponsors and other stakeholders allunderstand and agree?6
  7. 7. What is the scope of the project, for example: Is the project addressing the overall businesschange (ie people, process and technologyelements), or just the technology? Which locations, divisions, departments? Will there be organizational change -restructuring, revised responsibilities, newstaff capability requirements, retraining,recruiting, redundancy etc?7
  8. 8.  At the earliest stages of a project it will bevery difficult to establish a solid benefit casefor the project. During the project startup, the ProjectManager will work with the sponsors todefine and agree a full model of anticipatedbenefits.8
  9. 9. The benefit model would normally be used tojustify commencement of the work. Beyond that,it forms an important yardstick against which theproject can be assessed. It may form:1. the basis for change decisions during theproject,2. a way of measuring the anticipated success ofthe project,3. the final assessment of the success of thecompleted project, and4. a way to monitor the continuing performance ofthe business function9
  10. 10. In what timescale should the benefit be delivered? Are there specific external requirements fortiming, eg new legislation, contracts with thirdparties? When do we expect to be able to commence? What is the initial expectation for the duration ofthe project (and any intermediate stages orphases)? Over what period of time should benefit beassessed for the purposes of prioritisation andthe benefit case?10
  11. 11. How will the project be managed andcontrolled? Who has ultimate responsibility,accountability and authority for the project? Who handles day-to-day ProjectManagement? Which people form the executive control bodysuch that they can deliver the fullstewardship, decision making, resourcing,and funding that is required for or on behalfof the sponsors?11
  12. 12. Do we definitely agree to start this project? Is it truly achievable? Can we get the people,resources, funding, and technology that it willtake? Are the main risks in doing this understoodand acceptable?12
  13. 13.  The Project Definition forms the projectsdefinitive definition and mandate It is used as a major input to the detailedplanning and resourcing that takes place aseach phase of work is planned, initiated andmobilized. It is also important that the projects purposeand goals are communicated to the teammembers and other participants13
  14. 14.  Remember that things change. The businesschanges, customers needs move on,departments are restructured, there may bemergers and acquisitions, there may bedemands to cut costs or drive change faster.At any time when the projects purpose mightbe challenged or the anticipated outcome issignificantly changed, the Project Definitionshould be re-examined to see in what ways ithas changed or should be changed to reflectthe new circumstances.14
  15. 15.  Where this has an impact on the benefit case,approach, planning, timing, resourcing, orexpected outcome, the Project Manager willneed to review and re-calculate the detailedchanges and present a revised definition foragreement by the projects sponsors andexecutive leaders.15
  16. 16.  Phase end is a good time to measure thesuccess of the project to date. See how well the projects original ambitionsare being adhered to and how the anticipatedbenefit matches up to the original definition. Report back successes, failures and revisedexpectations to the project sponsors andexecutive.16
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  19. 19.  Stages of a Conventional Project:◦ Slow beginning◦ Buildup of size◦ Peak◦ Begin a decline◦ Termination19
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  21. 21.  Time distribution of project effort is characterizedby slow-rapid-slow21
  22. 22. 22Definition Planning Implementation DeliveryLevelofeffort1. Goals2. Specifications3. Scope4. Responsibilities5. Teams1. WBS2. Budgets3. Resources4. Risks5. Schedule1. Status reports2. Change Orders3. Quality Audits4. Contingencies1. Train user2. Transfer documents3. Release resources4. Reassign staff5. Lessons learned
  23. 23. 23LevelofValueofEffortLowHighDefine Plan Implement DeliveryProject Evaluation (Audit) ProcessChange Management SystemProject Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesClosed-Loop Planning-Monitor-Control System
  24. 24.  Projects also exist which do not follow theconventional project life cycle Comprised of subunits that have little use asa stand alone unit, yet become useful whenput together24
  25. 25.  It is essential for the Project Manager tounderstand the characteristics of the life cyclecurve for his project The distinction between the two life cyclesplays a critical role in the development ofbudgets and schedules for the project25
  26. 26. Risk during project life cycle√With most projects there is some uncertaintyabout the ability to meet project goals√Uncertainty of outcome is greatest at the startof a project√Uncertainty decreases as the project movestoward completion26
  27. 27. 1. Control scope creep and manage change2. Deliver project results on time and on budget3. Focus the project team on the solution4. Obtain project buy-in from disparate groups5. Define the critical path to optimally complete yourproject6. Provide a process for estimating project resources,time and costs7. Communicate project progress, risks and changes8. Surface and explore project assumptions9. Prepare for unexpected project issues and10. Document, transfer and apply lessons learned fromyour project27
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