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Group Work Analysis

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    ​Urban plan & city analysis   city & countryside utrecht ​Urban plan & city analysis city & countryside utrecht Presentation Transcript

    • CITY & COUNTRYSIDE OF UTRECHTReach Density Uniqueness Mix-function Connectivity Accessibility Route Identity
    • Table of contentIntroduction 4North Reach 8 Density 10 Unique items 12 Mixed functions 14 Connectivity 16 Accessibility 18 Routing 20 Identity 22West Reach 28 Density 30 Unique items 32 Mixed functions 34 Connectivity 36 Accessibility 38 Routing 40South Reach 42 Density 44 Unique items 46 Mixed functions 48 Connectivity 50 Accessibility 52 Routing 54 Identity 56East Reach 62 Density 64 Unique items 66 Mixed functions 68 Connectivity 70 Accessibility 72 Routing 74 Identity 76Conclusions 82
    • Introduction Reach Density In order to know how far inhabitants can get into the landscape and what Here the amount of people that live within walking or cycling range of the amount of people is within range of the city border, a reach analysis was countryside is calculated. Based on the map of neighbourhood distribution made for the city border we defined. We took three scales of trips into of Utrecht and statistical data of these neighbourhoods form the CBS, the account: a pedestrian trip of 1,5 hour (small), a bicycle trip of 1,5 hour percentage of population that is covered by the range of the circle is measured; (medium), and a bicycle trip of 4 hour (large). This way, the success or then the density per neighbourhood and also the amount of people living failure of the contact with the landscape can be viewed in the case of the within the walking and cycling distance was taken. city of Utrecht. The number of inhabitants per neighbourhood ( source CBS Statline, ‘Kerncijfers The accessways along the boundary between urban area and landscape Wijken en Buurten 1999’, juli 2002 http://www.cbs.nl/) were used to compare on all sides of Utrecht were mapped. Then the three different kinds of the four different sides of the city in terms of the amount of the population the circle ranges for three different lengths of trips were drawn for each city border of that particular side would reach. accesspoint.Reach Density In the calculations, the average walking speed is estimated at 4km/h. The maximum time people would like to spend to get the border of landscape is taken as 15 min, and the time people spend in the countryside is one hour (30 minutes back and 30 min forth). So the radius of the circle for short trip of 1,5 hour walking is 1 km inside the border (15 min x 4 km/h = 1 km) and 2 km outside the border (30 min x 4 km/h =2 km). The same analysis was made for the 1,5 hour cycling trip. The average cycling within the city is estimated at 12 km/h, and 15km/h in the countryside. Here too, one would spend 15 min to get to the border and 1 hour in landscape. Then the radius will be 3km inside (15 min x 12 km/h =3 km) and 7,5 km outside the border (30 min x 15 km/h =7.5 km). The longest trip is taken at 4 hours, consisting of maximum of 30 min get to the border and 3 hours in landscape including one hour of no movement. The radius will be 6 km inside (30 min x 12 km/h =6 km) and 15 km outside the border (1 hour x 15 km/h =15 km). 4
    • Uniqueness Mixed FunctionsWe are trying to find the alternatives for the countryside available such as In the analysis of mixed functions the study is made to analyse how thelarge parks which can compete with countryside as recreational area within the trip to the countryside can be combined to with a visit to an attraction orborder. These parks should be large enough for people to take a longer trip café/restaurant. In this the attractions or attractive areas are the villagein a landscape-like area, and have good accessibility for serving more people. centres, cultural, transportation, shopping, catering industry and sports.If they are near the border of the landscape, it might be considered as an The number of these mixed functions is calculated and compared withentrance for the landscape of countryside. People that live within the range of the various functions. This helps to derive the density of each functionthese park areas can reach the countryside through these ‘green fingers’. and compare between them and also with other sides. Uniqueness Mixed functions 5
    • Introduction Connectivity Accessibility In the analysis of connectivity, the main approach is first – second – third The goal of the research on accessibility is to define how many alternatives step grade connectivity according to the space syntax method. It measures people have when they get into the landscape from the urban area. The the to-movement or accessibility potential of each street segment with research method was calculating the number of entrances to the landscape respect to all others. It helps to observe how spatial networks relate per kilometre, and compare ‘entrance density’ of the four different sides of the to functional patterns. The 3-steps analysis is done for three aspects: city. automobile system (car), biking system and pedestrian system. It helps In order to draw the various networks of accessibility, and also to show the to understand the influence of each transitional system and analyse how quality of the various entrances to the countryside, the type of entrances deep the countryside is anchored in the urban tissue. It is a set of theories is categorised by recreational activity, and the number of entrances wereConnectivity Accessibility about how countryside landscape networks relate in general to the social calculated per kilometre. cognitive factors which shape them and are affected by them. This is The length of the access lines from entrances to both sides of the urban and the carried out first by analysing the accessways to the urban area from the landscape were drawn to show which access is easier to reach the landscape countryside and then the 3-steps analysis from the border towards the by without turning points. A longer line means that it is easier to find your way city. The relationship of the four city fronts towards the landscape is a vital towards the accesspoint. quality for urban life. 6
    • Routing IdentityThe aim of the routing analysis is to show how many attractive landscapes or In assessing the identity of roads accessing the countryside and forminggreen routes are available, and which side of the city has more routes out of the its usage, the following system of criteria was formed.city for people who want to get into the countryside from the city as well as toget one hour recreational walking in the landscape. 1 Distinctiveness – the belonging of the road by its attributes andTo find out the various paths in the countryside and the city, the routes which morphological features. It is thought that the road serving the countrysideare suitable for recreational trips are defined mainly by bicycle and pedestrian should consequently have corresponding elements such as green inletsuse so that the highway routes were excluded for the calculating. and water elements.In order to estimate the quantity of the routing system as well as the density 2 Unique elements – the presence and amount of the environmentalof routes in four sides of the landscape, the length of recreational routes and a elements (manmade and natural) that can be put forth as an elementnumber of intersections are measured. For this, the pedestrian, cycling and car composing the unique character of the particular territory.routes that fall within the reach of 10 km outside are considered. 3 Identification – this sets forward the possibilities of the territory to offer Routing Identity diverse activities to people with different interests, backgrounds, etc. ThisDensity > length of recreational routes > km recreational route per square is what enables people to identify themselves with the certain place.kilometre 4 Recognisability (or: the 5 aspects of Kevin Lynch) – this consists of 5Density > Number of intersections > the number of intersections says parameters: path or road clarity & fluency, edges, districts, nodes, andsomething about the possibility to make different routes. The occurrence of landmarks (see picture).more intersections means more options to form a unique route. 5 Social and cultural heritage criteria shows the amount of socially and culturally valuable elements present in the territory. As additional criteria for the evaluation we considered it to be essential to add the classification of the roads by its vehicle and landscape domination with regard to its significance to the road’s attraction. Thus, the roads with prevailing car traffic would be less attractive than the roads assigned primarily for bicycle and pedestrian movement and vice versa. 7
    • North Legend reach Reach inside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (1 km) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km reach of pedestrian trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 mi- reach of cycling trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 minutes to Reach cycle short (3 km) nutes to get to border get to borderReach Reach cycle long (6 km) reach of cycling trip of max 4 hour, with max 30 minutes to get to border Reach outside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (2 km) Reach cycle short (7,5 km) Reach cycle long (15 km) 8 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • ReachThis shows the reach of the accesspoints at the north border; the pedestrianreach shows that only the outer edge of the city is covered within 15 minutes.The short cycling reach shows the reach of the same 15 minutes, but now bybike; even from the city centre the border can be reached.The large cycling reach covers the whole city can be covered if taking 15minutes to cycle. 9
    • North Zuilen Noord 2980 Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 Neckardreef e.o. 4180 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 2350 4150 Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek 5 800 790 Tuindorp West Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk population figures per area with reach of pedestrian 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 Bokkenbuurt 4093 trip Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid 6203 8419 Leidsche Rijn 152 covers Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 legend 30 089 inhanitants 10,1% of UtrechtDensity Binnenstad-West 17 650 neighbourhoods reach radii - pedestrian reach radii - cycling city border Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 78 project side border Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 7 127 Zuilen Noord 4 338 Zambesidreef e.o. 11 372 urban area Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 5 480 Neckardreef e.o. De Muinck Keizerin 7 681 7 667 highway Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 11 362 7 508 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 5 847 7 805 Geuzenwijk 16 009 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 7 230 Elinkwijk Voordorp 2 141 water 9 785 Terwijde De Driehoek 1 557 9 950 Tuindorp West Vleuten 9 282 3 399 Julianapark e.o. 10 531 Tuindorp-Oost 4 202 Binnenstad-Noord 11 330 Zeeheldenbuurt 13 844 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Wittevrouwen 5 930 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 4 042 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 2 801 4 250 Binnenstad-West 12 866 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 7 311 1 355 Wilhelminapark 5 355 Oudwijk 14 646 Binnenstad-Zuidwest 3 751 Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 148 13 017 8 962 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 377 11 538 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 4 585 9 211 8 125 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 2 455 Kanaleneiland Noord 7 198 2 717 Transwijk 381 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 4 103 172 Tolsteegsingel 1 771 Bokkenbuurt Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 2 118 81 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid population figures per area with reach of cycling trip 1 430 0 957 Leidsche Rijn 10 covers Nieuw Hoograven 1 111 Lunetten Zuid 0 260 105 810 inhanitants 10 35,3% of Utrecht
    • Districts and neighborhoods 1999 Density Population Population Reach by population inhabitants Density walk % within walking These maps show the reach diagrams based on the accesspoints with populationWijk 02 Noordwest 41070 8.973 data of Utrecht per neighbourhood.Pijlsweerd-Zuid 3310 11.247 0 0 On the left, the reached areas area calculated by the percentage of area thatPijlsweerd-Noord 2020 9.875 0 0 is covered, and added up. This gives an estimate on the amount of inhabitantsOndiep 6320 10.963 0 0Tweede Daalsebuurt e.o. 3570 10.722 0 0 that is reached on foot.Egelantierstraat-Mariendaalstraat e.o 2980 13.182 0 0 For the walking reach, about 30.089 people can reach the border on foot withinGeuzenwijk 3500 16.009 0 0 15 min, which corresponds to 28,4% of the total population of the north sideDe Driehoek 790 9.95 0 0Julianapark e.o. 2810 10.531 0 0 of the city.Elinkwijk e.o. 4460 9.785 0 0 For the cycling reach, the whole north area is covered, indicating that allPrins Bernhardplein e.o. 3160 11.362 0 0 inhabitants can reach the boundary by bike within 15 min.Schaakbuurt e.o. 2580 7.508 0 0J.M. de Muinck Keizerlaan e.o. 1850 7.667 0 0Zuilen-Noord 2980 4.338 85 2533Loevenhoutsedijk e.o. 750 2.011 0 0Wijk 03 Overvecht 30340 3.75Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 7.23 70 2681Zamenhofdreef e.o. 2350 5.847 55 1292.5Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 4150 7.805 100 4150Neckardreef e.o. 4180 7.681 100 4180Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 5.48 25 1520Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 11.372 100 4240Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 7.127 100 5160Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 0.078 90 126Poldergebied Overvecht 230 0.109 100 230Wijk 04 Noordoost 34400 7.094Vogelenbuurt 3760 20.678 0 0Lauwerecht 1760 7.723 0 0Staatsliedenkwartier 1480 11.332 0 0Tuinwijk-West 2430 12.614 0 0Tuinwijk-Oost 2550 8.183 0 0Tuindorp Van Lieflandlaan-West 6430 9.282 45 2893.5Tuindorp-Oost 2430 4.202 30 729Huizingalaan K. Doormanlaan e.o. 760 3.609 0 0Zeeheldenbuurt Hengeveldstraat e.o. 3330 13.844 0 0Wittevrouwen 5930 13.84 0 0Voordorp Voorveldsepolder 3540 2.141 10 354total 30089 11
    • North legendUniqueness park area around with 1km city border project side border highway water 12 map showing the green areas on the east side that compete with the countryside as recreative areas
    • Districts and neighborhoods 1999 Population Population unicity population covered inhabitants Density % by the parkWijk 02 Noordwest 41070 8.973Pijlsweerd-Zuid 3310 11.247 0 0 UniquenessPijlsweerd-Noord 2020 9.875 0 0 The map shows that about half of the population of the north side can reachOndiep 6320 10.963 85 5372Tweede Daalsebuurt e.o. 3570 10.722 0 0 the park within 15 min on foot.Egelantierstraat-Mariendaalstraat e.o 2980 13.182 0 0 The green belt goes along with the river deep into the inner city, which coversGeuzenwijk 3500 16.009 100 3500 the highest density part of the north side. Thanks to the shape of the greenDe Driehoek 790 9.95 100 790Julianapark e.o. 2810 10.531 10 281 area, the accessibility of it is very good.Elinkwijk e.o. 4460 9.785 15 624Prins Bernhardplein e.o. 3160 11.362 85 2686Schaakbuurt e.o. 2580 7.508 100 2580J.M. de Muinck Keizerlaan e.o. 1850 7.667 100 1850Zuilen-Noord 2980 4.338 100 2980Loevenhoutsedijk e.o. 750 2.011 0 0Wijk 03 Overvecht 30340 3.75Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 7.23 30 1149Zamenhofdreef e.o. 2350 5.847 80 1880Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 4150 7.805 0 0Neckardreef e.o. 4180 7.681 0 0Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 5.48 100 6080Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 11.372 20 848Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 7.127 40 2064Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 0.078 65 91Poldergebied Overvecht 230 0.109 0 0Wijk 04 Noordoost 34400 7.094Vogelenbuurt 3760 20.678 0 0Lauwerecht 1760 7.723 0 0Staatsliedenkwartier 1480 11.332 0 0Tuinwijk-West 2430 12.614 0 0Tuinwijk-Oost 2550 8.183 0 0Tuindorp Van Lieflandlaan-West 6430 9.282 30 1929Tuindorp-Oost 2430 4.202 95 2308.5Huizingalaan K. Doormanlaan e.o. 760 3.609 100 760Zeeheldenbuurt Hengeveldstraat e.o. 3330 13.844 100 3330Wittevrouwen 5930 13.84 70 4151Voordorp Voorveldsepolder 3540 2.141 100 3540total 48793.5 13
    • North Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic PlacesMixed functions Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations -Gas station Shopping(orange) -shops Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels Village center(brown Culture(blue) -monument & archite -Museum Sports (green) -Touristic Places Transportation(grey) -Sports indoor -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations -Gas station -Sports outdoor Shopping(orange) -shops Catering industry(red Parks -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor Parks 14
    • Mixed Functions Looking at the mixed functions in the area of North, we can see that there is quite a lot of cultural elements in the landscape. These elements are all historical fortresses which used to belong to the waterdefense-line, a unique watersystem in holland that controlled the waterlevel over a huge area in order to cover the land by water if enemy’s neared the urban area’s in the western part of Holland, especially Amsterdam. In the landscape there are a few old villages that contains some basic facilities Town Catering of which some are interesting for recreational use, such as the small café’s and restaurants. Especially Maarssen has a nice old village centre, which can attract recreational users of the landscape. Apart from the village centres, there are also some catering industry on the edges of the villages, and some in the Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum landscape. A special type of mixed functions that distinguishes the area of the Village center(brown) North from the other sites of the city is waterrecreation. These waterrecreational Culture(blue) -Touristic Places -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic Places Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Parking Transportation(grey) -Stations -Bike lenting -Gas station mixed functions are located a long site the various lakes in the area. Especially -Parking -Stations Shopping(orange) -Gas station -shops Shopping(orange) Catering industry(red) -shops -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club Catering industry(red) -Hotels -Restaurant in summertime these mixed functions are attracting a lot of people. -Cafe/ Bar & Club 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) -Hotels -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) Parks -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor Parks If we look at the location of the mixed functions, we can say that most of theCulture Transport catering industry’s, shopping, attractive village centres, and cultural elements are in or in the surrounding of the Vecht area. Village center(brown) Culture(blue) Village center(brown) -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic Places Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum Transportation(grey) -Touristic Places -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations Transportation(grey) -Gas station -Bike lenting -Parking Shopping(orange) -Stations -shops -Gas station Catering industry(red) Shopping(orange) -Restaurant -shops -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels Catering industry(red) -Restaurant Sports (green) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Sports indoor -Hotels -Sports outdoor Parks 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor ParksNature Sport Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture Village center(brown) -Museum -Touristic Places Culture(blue) -monument & architecture Transportation(grey) -Museum -Bike lenting -Touristic Places -Parking -Stations -Gas station Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting Shopping(orange) -Parking -shops -Stations -Gas station Catering industry(red) -Restaurant Shopping(orange) -Cafe/ Bar & Club -shops -Hotels Catering industry(red) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) -Restaurant -Sports indoor -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Sports outdoor -Hotels Parks 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor Parks Water Shop 15
    • NorthConnectivity Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 16
    • Connections In order to understand how much of the urban tissue of Utrecht is connected with the city border in the north, a 3 step analysis has been made. Looking at the first step, immediately there are 2 important lines that reach deeply into the urban tissue of Utrecht. Those 2 lines are embodied by the ‘Einsteindreef’ and the ‘Amsterdamsestraatweg’. Mainly because of this lines, a lot of urban tissue is attached to the cityborder. Beside of the long lines, there are some smaller lines which are attached to aOne step analysis few entrances to the landscape. These entrances are now working only for a small part of the city. Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivityOne step analysis Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivityOne step analysis 17
    • NorthAccessibility 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 18 0 0.5 1 2
    • AccessibilityIn the northern part of Utrecht the entrances are spread quite equally along theborder of the city. There is just a small concentration in the Vecht/Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal area. The density of entrances is 1,30 entrance points per kilometreof city border. This is quite high and guarantees a certain kind of flexibility whentrying to leave the city and enter into the landscape in this part of Utrecht.If we look at the roads that the entrance points in this area are situated on, we cansee a clear difference between the Vecht/Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal area and thearea along the northern traffic ring of Utrecht. In the Vecht area the accesspointsare mostly situated on long lines reaching both deep into the city as well asinto the landscape. These long, often historical, lines offer great recognisabilityand structure to navigate. Along the ring though, the accesspoints are locatedon roads going only into the landscape. They do not continue into the city andthis makes them harder to locate coming from the city. 19
    • NorthRouting 20
    • RoutingThe road system in the north mostly consists of roads accessible to cars. Thereare few special bicycle tracks and very few pedestrian paths. If we look at thedensity we can see that there is a higher concentration of roads in the Vechtarea and a low one in the polder area in the northeast. In this part there is evena strip which is impossible to cross by car. It is only possible to go around. Eventhough there is a bicycle route and a pedestrian path trough it, this zone posesa barrier in the area.The general density of the recreational network in the area is 1,57 km/km²,which is quite ok. The density of intersections is 0,64 int./km. This means thatevery 1,57 kilometres there is a possibility to change course. This is enough toguarantee a certain flexibility in navigation by bike. 21
    • NorthIdentity Unite characteristic features: what makes a route distinctive from other roads? North part has unique characters and identity that has at its natural elements and routes closely connecting between nature and settlement features. These routes through distinguish landscape area such as polder, river and lake landscape. The distinctive is described by different kinds of landscape elements and the urban congestion. The quality and attractiveness of the route is evaluated by the features of nature, border or settlement area. To measure the distinctive routes focuses on three main routes. Firstly, the route along the river Vecht and through Maarssen district is attractive with highlighting river landscape, polder, park, woods and residential area. It come from central city to West-North of Utrech with natural attraction closely connecting to water element. The quality is high with more percentage of nature than building area. Another route comes to Maarssen polder, Molen polder and large lakes in Tienhoven friendly link to natural landscape and open space. Furthermore, the route goes to Westbroek, which stretches through a few of villages, highlighting natural attractions and a range of cultural heritage and natural treasures and accesses to green and polder landscape. 22 Landscape quality of countryside’s Northern Utrecht is generally good and surroundings rich, creating well welcome to the rural area.
    • North IdentityIdentify what is unique about Northern Utrecht’s countryside that defines the nature, urban design and socio-cultural heritage elements range along the route. There are various functions in North part increase impressionsand feelings, especially, with using elements, river landscape, open landscape linking to water and polder. Theseelements including windmills, churches, parks, special buildings, castles, coffee shops and restaurants help bringquality and attraction to countryside. Analyzing North of Utrecht built and open environment are remembered bycommunication and heritage images. 23
    • NorthIdentity Identification the way users may identify themselves with “their” route. How people to find their way around and understand how a place works? They find the special various route by a range of attractions includes aesthetic features, urban congestion, history, natural assets and unique features. The route along the river Vecht and through Maarssen district’s setting is uniquely attractive because of special river landscape, windmills, churches, villages. The route comes to Maarssen polder, Molen polder and large lakes in Tienhoven have potential high value waterfront and open landscape. Others is highlighting in natural and cultural assets. 24
    • North Paths Edges Districts Nodes Landmarks Quality IdentityRecognizability:The aspects of Kevin Lynch (path, edges, districts, nodes, landmarks)The feeling of entering countryside may occur long before one sees the building shapes of the central district andsurroundings. A variety of elements help identify and achieve a sense of place for a community. A sense of placeresults from the combination of urban design elements and special features include gateways, corridors, nodes,districts, edges and landmarks. The relationships between the elements that help bring definition and identity tocreate the image of Utrecht.Northern Utrecht has constrained legibility with only a few distinctive landmarks or spatial structures. However,the North has clear border between urban and suburban area that help the reading of countryside as one movesthrough it although the nodes play a key role in this. It has very clear paths which go to natural area, lakes and alongriver. 25
    • NorthIdentity Socio - cultural heritage of the route: the meaning of the route or the landscape; attractions and program. The recognition of socio-cultural features explored to reflect both their historic role and perceptual importance within the city and countryside. In Northern Utrecht, the windmills and churches provide a strong point of identity and reference within urban and rural area. However it is less in terms of the quality, attractive and use. These could be improved to enhance the overall significance and identity of the area. 26
    • North IdentityNorth part of Utrecht has diversity with unique natural characters and special cultural heritages which provide richidentity for routes. The route along Vetch River has deep identity welcoming to river landscape, natural and culturalfeatures. Moreover, Molen and Maarssen polder bring attractive with cultural and open landscape. Analysis hasshowed that this part offers rich distinctiveness of routes with potential green and blue elements and range ofattractive functions. There are clearly major and minor routes that can move out city and well recognizable route ashaving identifying characters and landscape. However, these routes do not stand in real quality because they stilllack good route network and active functions. As far as, North part is great image for identity and quality of Utrechwith its natural characters and cultural features. 27
    • West Legend reach Reach inside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (1 km) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmReach reach of pedestrian trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 mi- reach of cycling trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 minutes Reach cycle short (3 km) nutes to get to border to get to border reach of cycling trip of max 4 hour, with max 30 minutes to Reach cycle long (6 km) get to border Reach outside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (2 km) Reach cycle short (7,5 km) Reach cycle long (15 km) 28 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • Reach The reach of the country side on the western edge of Utrecht is concentrated around the 8 entry points between the city and the country side. Three of these entry points are just accessible for pedestrians; this means that in the reach calculations these entry points are only taken in to account for the pedestrian reach. Pedestrian reach, the pedestrian reach for the western side of Utrecht is mainly concentrated around the north. In the north there are three entry points in close proximity to each other, these all enter in the green area around the Haarijnseplas.0 0.5 1 2 3 5km The reach of the pedestrians inside the city is very limited due to the rectangular shape with a short edge facing the landscape. Of the different area’s the old town of Vleuten is the best coffered by the reach. Reach by bicycle, for the bicycle only the five access points on the west side are accessible. This means that even though the radius of the reach is dramatically increased (3 times) by the higher speed, the number of people is not that much more. This is mainly due to the shape of the urbanization as mentioned before and the presence of a large landscape park in the middle of the leidsche rijn development, this part will be. The reach out into the countryside is limited on the north and south by the highways these highways are so hard to cross for the cyclist and pedestrians that realistically you can not speak of reach beyond these barriers. We also did a reach research for a long trip of 2,5 hours this trip has a reach of 15 km in to the countryside and 6 km in to the city this means that almost half the city falls under the reach.0 0.5 1 2 3 5km0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 29
    • West Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 Zuilen Noord 2980 Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 Neckardreef e.o. 4180 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 2350 4150 Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek 5 800 790 Tuindorp West Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 Bokkenbuurt 4093 Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid 6203 8419 Leidsche Rijn 152 Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 legend neighbourhoodsDensity Binnenstad-West 17 650 reach radii - pedestrian 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km reach radii - cycling city border project side border urban area highway water Zuilen Noord 2980 Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 Neckardreef e.o. 4180 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 2350 4150 Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek 5 800 790 Tuindorp West 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 Bokkenbuurt 4093 Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid 6203 8419 Leidsche Rijn 152 Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 30 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • DensityThe density of the new developments of leidsche rijn lay around the figure of30 dwellings per hectare; this is, although not uncommon for developmentsunder the Vinex legislation,not very high. The low density figure and poor urban shape, when it com’s tocountryside reach, are together the cause of the low amount of people livingin reach of the countryside on the west side of Utrecht. The calculations of thenumber of people that are within reach of the countryside by bike and on footare visible in the table. 31
    • West legendUniqueness park area around with 1km city border project side border highway water 32 map showing the green areas on the east side that compete with the countryside as recreative areas
    • Unique itemsIn the area of Leidsche rijn there is one park that fits the qualification of uniqueitems. This is the central park of Leidsche rijn, the park is a large area witch runsfrom the edge of the urbanization in the north to the (geographical) centre ofthe new district. It consists mainly of sports facilities and the accompanyingsport fields. These are not part of the public spaces and not of the landscape,still we feel that this part is a real addition of the countryside as set out in thegeneral introduction. This is mainly due to a large circular path that surroundsthe whole area and makes it possible to make a circuit around it. This makes itpossible to walk around it and spend an hour our more. It could also be arguedthat people will use this park to get into the ‘real’ countryside. In this view thereach of the park could be adept to the reach of the country side. This wouldgreatly increase to number of people living under the reach of the countrysidein the west. 33
    • West Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic PlacesMixed functions Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations -Gas station Shopping(orange) -shops Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor Parks 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 34
    • Mix functions The West part is developed as an urban extension of Vinex, namely, Leidsche Rijn. Since this area is under construction, it is hard to say that it has enough attractions. At this moment, it could be said that there is lack of attractions. However, since there are some small villages around the boarder, the few attractions are reachable from the landscape. Also, there are some attractive heritage sites such as old windmill and castle on the way. 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmVillage center Sports 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmCulture Shopping 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmTransport Catering 35
    • WestConnectivity Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 36
    • Connectivity The Western area is the weakest part as any step could not reach the city centre of Utrecht. However, in the 4th or 5th step it could reach centre area. Because visitors have to turn around over the bridges since there are strong barriers such as the highways and canals. But, the two main routes could connect with the city centre directly though they have 4th or 5th steps to reach there because the routes have continuity and consistency. As it is under construction in order to cover the strong highway by new city centre, Leidsche Rijn new centre, it 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km could be expected in future that connectivity would be improve.One step anlysis 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmTwo step anlysis 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmThree step anlysis 37
    • WestAccessibility 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 38
    • Accessibility:In the west side of the Utrecht, there is a largest residential and businessdevelopment in the Netherlands which is named Leidsche Rijn including theLeidsche Rijn Park plan with an area of no less than 300 hectares planned forthe centre of the district. From the master plan several entrances and routesto the landscape will be coming into being so that on this report, the planwas applied to measure.There are 6 entrances which are allowing to access by car, bicycle as well aswalk and 2 of entrances are for bicycle and walkonly. Specially, there are only2 pedestrian entrances, because of the west border line is adjacent to oneof the recreational area named Haarrijnseplas.The 3 of longer access lines from entrances are showing that there are easierways to find access points towards the landscape.We can conclude that the accessibility of the landscape at the west side isquite good compared to the other sides by calculating the entrance numbersand length of access lines. . 39
    • WestRouting 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 40
    • RoutingThe various paths in the west countryside were defined by routing type ofrecreational way which is by bicycle, walk and car and the length of pedestrianby only routes, bicycle and walk routes and bicycle and walk included carroutes were estimated for each 23.41km,, 16.5353 km and 164.1474 km. Fromthe specified walking route, several areas are available for recreational tripswithin 1 hour walking.By using 2 of the measurement of routing density, one of the values of densityis estimated to1.80 km recreational route per square km and another value isestimated to 0.60 intersections per km. 41
    • South Legend reach Reach inside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (1 km) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmReach reach of pedestrian trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 mi- reach of cycling trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 minutes Reach cycle short (3 km) nutes to get to border to get to border reach of cycling trip of max 4 hour, with max 30 minutes to Reach cycle long (6 km) get to border Reach outside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (2 km) Reach cycle short (7,5 km) Reach cycle long (15 km) 42 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • ReachThere are nine accessways along the boundary between urban and landscapein the southern part.Firstly, circles were drawn from the accessways with a radius of 1 km inside thecity and 2 km in the countryside for the small pedestrian trip of 1.5 hour tripincluding 15min to reach the boundary and 1 hour walking in landscape (backand forth).From the map, we can see that the accessways distribute unevenly; there aremore accessways in the middle of the border; this part leads to another urbanarea (Nieuwegein). However, there are less accessways on the west and eastside of the boundary which can lead to landscape area, especially in the west.Some of the people that live there cannot get into the landscape if a maximumof 15 minutes to reach the border is taken.In the same way, the medium trip of 1,5 hours of cycling is analysed. Theradius is 3 km inside and 7,5 km outside the border. From the map we canlearn that the range can cover almost all of the southern part of Utrecht inside.Compared with the small pedestrian reach, people can go to much deeperinto the landscape if they cycle there, within the same time.In the third step, circles were drawn for the long cycle trip of 4 hours. Thismeant 30 minutes to get the border of the city and 3 hours inside the landscapeincluding 1 hour stay without movement. From the map we can see that therange is extremely large compared with the former two. Almost all the peoplelive in the city of Utrecht can get to the southern part of landscape in 30 mincycling if they want to. And they can get much deeper into the landscape ifthey take 1 hour to go further. 43
    • Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 Zuilen Noord 2980 Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 South Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 Neckardreef e.o. 4180 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 2350 4150 Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek 5 800 790 Tuindorp West Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 Bokkenbuurt 4093 Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid 6203 8419 Leidsche Rijn 152 Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 population figures per area with reach of pedestrian trip Covers legend 22524 inhabitants 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 7,5% of Utrecht neighbourhoodsDensity Binnenstad-West 17 650 reach radii - pedestrian reach radii - cycling Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 Zuilen Noord 2980 city border Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 Neckardreef e.o. 4180 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 2350 4150 project side border Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek 5 800 790 Tuindorp West Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 urban area Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk highway 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest water Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 Bokkenbuurt 4093 Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid 6203 8419 Leidsche Rijn 152 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 population figures per area with reach of cycling trip Covers 136968 inhabitants 44 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 53,4% of Utrecht
    • Walk -short trip Density                  Total      Walk percent   Walk populationVeldhuizen           8690      25%          217.25 Here is shown how many people are living within walking and bicycling distanceDe meern &          10550      50%         5257 from countryside. Based on the map of population distribution of Utrecht, theRijnenhurg percentage of population that is covered by the range of cycles according toLeidsche Rijn         152      30%           45.6Kanaleneiland zuid   8419      60%         5051.4 different kinds of trip is estimated, and then the amount of people living withinTranswijk            9277      25%         2319.25 the boundary is calculated.Nieuw Hoograven      7573      10%          757.3Luneteen Zuid        3513      90%         3161.7Lunetten Noord       6203      90%         5582.7 The density shows to be much higher in Kanaleneiland Noord , TolsteegsingelMaarschalkermeerd    190        60%        114 , Oud Hoograven and Kanaleneiland Zuid. From the calculation, it is clear that                                total     22524.4  the density is much higher near the city centre and there are much less people                                              7.5% living near the boundary; that is to say, there are less people can benefit from the short or medium trip.Cycle-long trip                      Total    cycle percent  cycle populationVleuterweide           8520         50%          4260Veldhuizen             8690        100%          8690De meern &            10550        100%         10550RijnenhurLangerak               3820        100%          3820Rarkwijk               9100         60%          5460Binnenstad Westzuid   17650         30%          5295Binnenstad            15240         30%          4572Wilheimina park        3050         50%          1525Rijnsweerd             2060         50%          1030Oudwijk                4510         100%         4510Schildersbuurt         3460         100%         3460Galgenwaard             170         100%          170Watervogelbuurt        1920         100%         1920L Napoleonplautsoen     910         100%          910Maarschalkerweerd       190         100%          190Luneteen Zuid          3513         100%         3513Lunetten Noord         6203         100%         6203Bokkenbuurt            4093         100%         4093Tolsteejsingel        11538         100%        11538Oud Hoograven          9839         100%         9839Rivierenwijk           1124         100%         1124Nieuw Hoograven        7573         100%         7573Transwijk              9277         100%         9277Kanaleneiland zuid     8419         100%         8419Kanaleneiland Noord   13395         100%        13395Leidsche Rijn           152         100%          152                                   total       136968 45                                                45.6%
    • South legendUniqueness park area around with 1km city border project side border highway water 46 map showing the green areas on the east side that compete with the countryside as recreative areas
    • UniquenessIn the southern part, there are some small city parks distributed separately inthe urban fabric. There are five small parks in Lunetten Noord and LunettenZuid; the people live in Tolsteegsingel , Bokkenbuurt , Oud Hoograven , NieuwHoograven , Lunetten Noord and Lunetten Zuid can benefit from these parks ifthey take 10 mins walk to get there.However, these parks are not big enough to have the attraction to compete withthe landscape in the countryside. Therefore, there will be no alternative placeinside the city for people who want to recreate in a large landscape area. 47
    • South Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic PlacesMixed functions Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations -Gas station Shopping(orange) -shops Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor Parks 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 48
    • Mixed functions On the south side, five different functions (culture, transport, sports, shopping and catering industry) are settled not one-sided in a particular place but spread over all the landscape. However, near the urban area of the city functions are concentrated, but also in the landscape area many functions are located especially along the canals and rivers. Compared to other functions, the number of catering industry is high in this area. To see the settled place, many of them are along canals or rivers.Village center Sports 0 0.5 1 2 3 Speaking of cultural facilities, there is no museum in this area but windmills and 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km fortress are located both in the city centre and in the landscape. One fortress was closed for visitors; another was used as wine seller, in the future it will be used as a restaurant. In conclusion, though the distance between two functions is large on the south side (density is quite low), functions are not one-sided and are attractive in combination with landscape such as rivers or canals.Culture Shopping 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmTransport Catering 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 49 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • SouthConnectivity Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 50
    • Connectivity On the south side there are 9 entrances to the landscape from the urban area. The paths which can be uses by bicycle are counted as connection in this research and connections by car only are excluded. From the map it is seen that none of the 1st grade connectivity are reaching the city centre. Two east side entrances stop at the residential area, the next three stop at the industrial area, and two in the west stop also in a residential area. Only two paths continue, of which one along the Amsterdam-RijnkanaalOne step anlysis and one near the Merwedekaanal; they are continuing rather far, but still not reaching the city centre. Also these two paths are not directly connected to landscape, but to Nieuwegein. In the 2nd grade connection each area path is extending mostly west-east way, but connectivity towards the city centre or north side of the city is still poor. At the 3rd grade connection, it reaches around the station but not to the Entrance to the landscape 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km historical city centre. However, some lines reach up to the north landscape. First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Speaking of south-east side connections, it stopped at the train line. Main Third grade connectivity street Waterlineweg and train line become strong borders for this area. In conclusion, the connection of the south side towards the city is not strong. Especially the 1st grade connectivity is quite poor. This may be because the paths that connect to the landscape are made for particular area which are alongTwo step anlysis the landscape and not for connection between city centre and landscape. Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivityThree step anlysis 51
    • SouthAccessibility 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 52
    • AccessibilityThe south side of the city of Utrecht is characterised by a lot of infrastructureand urban extensions. This also defines the accessibility of the landscape. Thereare some paths that cross the border, the A12 highway, but don’t reach thelandscape. These lines go from the city of Utrecht to industry areas or the townof Nieuwegein. We didn’t include these entrances because they don’t bringthe people to the landscape. This leaves 9 entrances to reach the landscape.One of these crossings is only available for pedestrians and cyclists. The otherones are also available for cars.The lines leading towards these entrances are not very long in the south part.Only the path alongside the Amsterdam-Rijn canal is reaching far inside thecity. However, this line doesn’t give a direct connection with the landscape.We can conclude that the accessibility of the landscape at the south side of thecity is quite poor. There are relatively little entrances, which also have a poorreach. 53
    • SouthRouting 54 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • RoutingThe south side of the city of Utrecht is characterized by a lot of infrastructureand urban extensions. This more or less divides the landscape into two sides.Because of the large number of infrastructural borders the routing system isa bit fragmented. The highways, the Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal, a rail line and alarge river are forming big barriers in the routing system.The recreational routes on the south bank of the river are only reachable bymeans of a ferry. There are some recreational paths that cross the urban areas.These lines follow historic patterns, like a small river or an old canal. There aresome areas where there is a separate pedestrian network. 55
    • South Unite character 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmIdentity Unique characteristic features: what makes a route distinctive from other roads? South part have rather few entrances to the countryside landscape and most of them are difficult to recognize in the urban pattern. Most recognizable element along the path is water which is present only on the routes along the Rijn canal but none of these routes go directly to countryside due to industrial activities spread along the banks of the canal. Green elements like parks, open spaces, trees are visible and recognizable along all the routes but they do not make the routes exceptional from others since none of them are strong enough to stand as special route. 56
    • South 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Pedestrian routes Identity Pedestrians + bicycles Pedestrians + bicycles + cars Pedestrians + bicycles + intensive car useUnique characteristic features:what makes a route distinctive from other roads?This analysis shows the quality of the routes within the landscapes. Since mostof the landscapes are used for agricultural purposes and there are few roadsthat connects bigger villages or settlements together most of the routes havenormal quality. The traffic is not so heavy, there is enough space for the bicyclepath and the surroundings are not so fragmented. Along the rivers most of theroads are already made for touristic purposes and they are only for pedestriansand bicycles. 57
    • South Identification 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmIdentity Identification: the way users may identify themselves with “their” route. By walking or cycling along the routes in the south part you will not find many functions and activities. Most of them are situated in bigger villages and very few of these activities use the landscape qualities and features. It is obvious that most of recriational activities are addapted for short stay (caffes, restaurants, sport fields, historical places..) but along the river Hollandse IJssel there are long stay activities like camping site, jacht harbour. 58
    • South Recognizability 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Clear Path Paths Recognizable Path Fragmented Path Strong Node Normal Node Weak path Edges Districts Strong Border Districts Normal Border Weak Border Landmarks Nodes Clear Path Landmarks Recognizable Path Quality Fragmented Path Strong Node Normal Node Identity Districts Strong Border Normal BorderRecognizability: Weak BorderThe aspects of Kevin Lynch (path, edges, districts, nodes, landmarks)Path: most of the paths are clearly recognizable in the landscape. There are big number of old routes that leads from Landmarksone village to the other. Shorter roads usually connects these roads in between making the system of shortcuts.Edges: The edges are strongest in the north part of the landscape where highway is. It creates clear and strongborder.Districts: on the west side there are few districts but on the east side the landscape is fragmented in divided intosmaller parts which helps to orientate.Nodes: there are very few nodes in comparison of crossings of the roads. Most of these nodes are located inside thevillages or in more urban intersection.Landmarks: Rijn canal have very strong, big and recognizable bridges that are seen from far distance. Old churchtowers are distributed within all area. 59
    • South Socio - cultural heritage of the route 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Socio - cultural heritageIdentity Parks Water elements Multiple functions and activities Open green spaces Urban areas Socio - cultural heritage of the route: the meaning of the route or the landscape; attractions and program. These routes standout among the others. Natural elements that are found along them are strong enough to enrich the quality of them. Most of them are in close relationship with water. Also the elements that are found along the routes make them interesting to follow and use for recreational activities. 60
    • South ConclusionsSouth part of Utrecht have quite poor quality of the routes that leads to thecountryside’s landscapes. Most of these routes are not recognizable as leadingout of the city. Although these routes do not go deep in the city structurebut they are clear and recognizable from the countryside as routes leadingto the city. Roads inside the landscapes have normal recreational quality.The landscapes are used mostly for agriculture and there are few roads thatconnects bigger villages so most of the roads are used only for local usesthat makes them rather attractive. There are some routes that goes along theriver or canal and they are already used as recreational routes by local people.Along these routes and roads there are not so many functions and activitiesthat makes countryside more attractive. Most of the functions are concentratedin villages and they do not take advantages from the landscapes. Majority ofthese functions and activities are concentrated on short stay customers but still Identityin the landscape there are some long stay activities (camping, yacht harbour).Kevin Lynch analysis showed that west and east side of this part of the Utrechtdiffer in many ways. East part is more fragmented, have more Landmarks thatmakes it easier to orientate meanwhile west side is rather unified and not soconnected in between itself. Socio - cultural heritage can be recognized insome of the routes that have strong relationship with elements that are alongthese routes. Rijn canal, Lek river and Hollandse IJssel river makes these routesattractive with natural environment. Old historic elements like fortificationsor castles give historical value. Functions located along these routes give ameaning and reason to go along these paths.Although the South part does not have many natural and historical elementsthat can attract people for recreational reasons it has strong and clear structureof the landscapes that can be explored and adopted to the needs of recreationalactivities. The identity of this side cannot be expressed by one or two words.This side have many elements that can be called as unique for this side butnone of them is dominant and explored to maximum use. 61
    • East Legend reach Reach inside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (1 km) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km reach of pedestrian trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 reach of cycling trip of max 1,5 hour, with max 15 minutes toReach Reach cycle short (3 km) minutes to get to border get to border reach of cycling trip of max 4 hour, with max 30 minutes to Reach cycle long (6 km) get to border Reach outside urban fabric Reach pedestrians (2 km) Reach cycle short (7,5 km) Reach cycle long (15 km) 62 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Reach This shows the reach of the accesspoints at the east border; the pedestrian reach shows that only the outer edge of the city is covered within 15 minutes. The short cycling reach shows the reach of the same 15 minutes, but now by bike; even from the city centre the border can be easily reached. The large cycling reach covers the whole city - except the western part, Leidse Rijn. 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 63
    • East Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 Zuilen Noord 2980 Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 Neckardreef e.o. 4180 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 2350 4150 Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek 5 800 790 Tuindorp West Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & population figures per area with reach of pedestrian Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 trip Bokkenbuurt 4093 Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid 6203 8419 Leidsche Rijn 152 Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 legend 14 958 inhabitants 5,0% of Utrecht neighbourhoodsDensity Binnenstad-West 17 650 reach radii - pedestrian reach radii - cycling Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 140 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 5160 city border Zuilen Noord 2980 Zambesidreef e.o. 4240 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 6080 project side border Neckardreef e.o. 4180 De Muinck Keizerin 1850 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. 3160 2580 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. urban area 2350 4150 Geuzenwijk 3500 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 3830 Elinkwijk Voordorp 4460 3 540 Terwijde De Driehoek highway 5 800 790 Tuindorp West Vleuten 6430 6 960 Julianapark e.o. 2810 Tuindorp-Oost 2 430 water Binnenstad-Noord 30 130 Zeeheldenbuurt 3 330 Wittevrouwen 13 840 Vleuterweide Parkwijk 8 520 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 9 100 8 778 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Binnenstad-West 17 650 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 15 240 2 060 Wilhelminapark 3 050 Oudwijk 4 510 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 820 1 280 3 460 Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 170 830 Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 8 690 940 2 400 De meern & Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt 1 0550 Kanaleneiland Noord 1920 13395 Transwijk 9277 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 910 1124 Tolsteegsingel l1538 Bokkenbuurt 4093 Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd 9839 190 Kanaleneiland Zuid 8419 Lunetten Noord 6203 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Leidsche Rijn 152 Nieuw Hoograven 7573 Lunetten Zuid 3513 population figures per area with reach of cycling trip 160 178 inhabitants 64 53,4% of Utrecht
    • fiets wandel fiets Density Aantal inwoners wandel % middel % absoluut absoluutEAST These maps juxtapose the reach diagrams based on the accesspoints with population data of Utrecht per neighbourhood.Tigris-Bostondreef 5160 15 774 On the left, the reached areas area calculated by the percentage of area thatZambesidreef 4240 100 4240 is covered, and added up. This gives an estimate on the amount of inhabitantsZamenhofdreef 2350 100 2350 that is reached.Neckardreef 4180 100 4180Wolga-Donaudreef 4150 20 100 830 4150Taag-Rubicondreef 3830 100 3830 For the pedestrian reach, about 15 000 people areTuindorp-West 6430 10 100 643 6430 reached - this comes down to about 5% of the total population of Utrecht.Voordorp 3540 100 100 3540 3540 For the cycling reach, about 160 000 people are reached, which corresponds toTuindorp-Oost 2430 60 100 1458 2430 53,4% of the total population.Zeeheldenbuurt 3330 15 100 499,5 3330Wittevrouwen 13840 100 13840 This shows the effectiveness of the east border particularly on the cyclingBuiten Wittevrouwen 8778 100 8778 scale.Binnenstad 15240 100 15240Binnenstad-Zuidwest 9130 65 5934,5Binnenstad-Noord 30130 65 19584,5Wilhelminapark 3050 5 100 152,5 3050Rijnsweerd 2060 100 100 2060 2060Oudwijk 4510 100 4510Schildersbuurt 3460 5 100 173 3460Galgenwaard 170 85 100 144,5 170Abstede 1280 100 1280Tolsteegsingel 830 100 830Sterrenwijk 940 100 940Rubenslaan 2400 100 2400Watervogelbuurt 1920 100 1920L. Napoleonplantsoen 910 20 100 182 910Maarschalkerweerd 190 100 100 190 190Lunetten-Noord 6203 65 100 4031,95 6203Bokkenbuurt 4093 100 4093Tolsteegsingel 1538 100 1538Lunetten-Zuid 3513 30 100 1053,9 3513Nieuw Hoograven 7573 100 7573Oud Hoograven 9839 100 9839Rivierenwijk 1124 100 1124Transwijk 9277 55 5102,35Kanaleneiland Zuid 8419 10 841,9 total 14958 160178 65 5,0% 53,4%
    • East legendUniqueness park area around with 1km city border project side border highway water 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 66 map showing the green areas on the east side that compete with the countryside as recreative areas
    • Unique itemHere the areas on the east side of the city, that are large enough to competewith the countryside as a recreative area, are displayed. This is mostly applicablefor the pedestrian mode of transport, as cycling covers a much larger area. Themap shows the amount of city covered by these park-like areas, and shows thatthey are highly useful in bringing the countryside into the city.It also improves the effective catchment area of the pedestrian reach; peoplecan enter the countyside much more quickly through these green areas, therebyadding inner city areas to the catchment of the countryside. 67
    • East Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic PlacesMixed functions Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations -Gas station Shopping(orange) -shops Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor Village cen Culture(blu Parks -monumen -Museum -Touristic P Transporta -Bike lenti -Parking -Stations -Gas statio Shopping( -shops 68 Catering in -Restaura -Cafe/ Bar 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km -Hotels Sports (gr -Sports ind -Sports ou Parks
    • Mixed functions In east side, five different functions (village centers, culture, transport, sports, and catering industry) are settled not one-sided in particular place but spread whole over landscape. However, in the village area and surroundings the functions are concentrated but also in landscape area many functions are located especially along the roads and canals. 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Compare to other functions, the number of catering industry is very high in the 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmVillage Center Sports east area. Speaking of cultural facility, there are no museums in this area but Village center(brown) fortress are located in the landscape in proximity of the urban boundary. Village center(brown) Culture(blue) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -monument & architecture -Museum -Museum -Touristic Places -Touristic Places In the transportation there are many gas stations along the roadway and Transportation(grey) Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Bike lenting -Parking -Parking -Stations -Stations -Gas station -Gas station Shopping(orange) Shopping(orange) -shops -shops also in the village centers which add a plus point for the visitors visiting the Catering industry(red) Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels -Hotels Sports (green) Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor -Sports outdoor countryside. The sports facilities are near the urban boundary but also spread Parks Parks in the landscape of the country side. There are no shopping centers separately in this side but are clubbed with the village centers. There is quite a well balance of the mixed functions, distributed over the countryside and the distance between there is not very far in the east side. 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Culture Catering Industry Village center(brown) Village center(brown) Culture(blue) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -monument & architecture -Museum -Museum -Touristic Places -Touristic Places Transportation(grey) Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Bike lenting -Parking -Parking -Stations -Stations -Gas station -Gas station Shopping(orange) Shopping(orange) -shops -shops Catering industry(red) Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels -Hotels Sports (green) 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Sports (green) -Sports indoor -Sports indoor -Sports outdoor -Sports outdoor Parks Parks 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmTransportation 69 Village center(brown) Culture(blue) -monument & architecture -Museum -Touristic Places Transportation(grey) -Bike lenting -Parking -Stations -Gas station Shopping(orange) -shops Catering industry(red) -Restaurant -Cafe/ Bar & Club -Hotels Sports (green) -Sports indoor
    • EastConnectivity Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 70
    • Connectivity In east side there are seven entrances to landscape from urban area. The paths which bike can use are counted as connection in this research and only connection by car is excluded. From the map it is seen that any of 1st grade connectivity there are two roads that reach directly to the city center while two more roads each almost to the edge of city center. While the other One setp analysis there roads are very short and do not penetrate much in the city. In 2nd grade connection two areas paths are extending towards the south. The Connection towards the city in very strong but the connection with the north side is still very poor. At 3rd grade connection, it reaches around station and also to historical city center. However, some are reaching up to north Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Second grade connectivity access ways and one is also reaching the southern urban area. The other east Third grade connectivity - south side connections stop at the train line. Main street Waterlineweg and train line becomes strong border for this area. In conclusion, east side connection towards the city is quite strong. Two setp analysis Entrance to the landscape First grade connectivity 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km Second grade connectivity Third grade connectivityThree setp analysis 71
    • EastAccessibility 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 72
    • AccessibilityThe east side of the city of Utrecht is connected with the country side trough 8access points. One of this is just for biking and walking, while the rest of sevenare accessible also for car. All these accesses to the country side are crossingthe A27 highway in two ways trough a bridge or trough a viaduct.The lines leading towards these entrances are not all long. However, two ofthem are of them are entering into the city until close to the centre, while otherfour are offering clear routes towards the city centre.Six of the lines from these access points to thelandscape are providing an obvious impression of the farmlandimmediately after crossing the highway, while the other two of them are crossingtrough the campus of the University of Utrecht.We can conclude that the accessibility to the country side on the east part ofthe city is quite good and is offering directroutes from the city centre and towards the most attractive points in thelandscape (the forest). However to reach theseattractive points you are forced to cross the trough urbanized areas. 73
    • EastRouting 74 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km
    • RoutingThe east side of the city of Utrecht is characterized by aquite dense greed of roods. These are giving the flexibility ofchoosing the desired route through the landscape by having the possibility ofchanging the direction at each 1,4km. Although, most of the routes are quitedirect towards the most attractive points into the landscape (the forest) theyare crossing trough villages.An exceptional characterizing point of the recreational routes from this part ofthe city of Utrecht is the very dense grid of pedestrian routes in the landscape.This is can be easily explained trough the existence of forest where the accessof the cars bikes is very narrow. 75
    • EastIdentity Unite characteristic features: From the position of Distinctiveness the roads on the east side of Utrecht can be divided into two parts. The part of the road within the city and directly on the countryside. So some roads can be assessed as being perfectly distinctive on the countryside (the road to the south of the highway) and the other ones as having outstanding possibilities for distinctiveness within the city but failing on the countryside. The last ones are the roads leading to De Bilt and Zeist urban agglomerations. The roads to the University Campus located to the south-east of the A 28 are not considered as having a sufficient level of distinctiveness at all. 76
    • East Foresty landscape Identity Polder landscape Fructured and agricultural landscape Intensive car use + Bicycles Bicycle Accessability Only Cars+Bykes+Pedestrians Pedestrians OnlyUnique elements here are combined with the points of attraction, mixed functions, objects of social and culturalheritage, and other places of personal identification. From the diagram we can see that they form a dense areaaround the roads on the south of the East side of the city. In total I would give the Identity of the Unique elementsand Identification of the North part + +. And the south: Unique elements: + -; and the Identification: -. 77
    • EastIdentity Identification Domination scheme shows that the roads on the north part by having the car traffic, as prevailing type reveals the primal functions of the roads, connects the city with nearby urban clusters rather than the city and the countryside. The situation is of the different character on the south part (not taking the campus roads into account) where the roads directly serve the connection with the countryside. The landscape diagram depicts the landscape type the particular road is running through. 78
    • East strong node Identity normal nodeRecognizabilityThe analysis of the Kelvin Lynch elements reveal the different parameters. I. Fluency&Clarity of the roads may beassessed as “+ +” on the hole east side. It forms a fairly clear structure with only a few confusing road crossings andundesirably intersections in some places. II. Situation with the districts can also be evaluated as being a “+ +” asthe territory itself has a very fractured and fragmented character. I might say that the countryside on the East side iscomposed out of many districts with different values and include small woods as well as big wooden masses? Waterelements (lake, small river), villages, urban clusters, agricultural fields, recreational zones, polder areas (to the north),and combinations of elements. III. Edges. Some districts have highly defined edges and the edge between the cityand the countryside is formed by the highway. However it does not come out as an absolutely clear visual edge,especially at a distance, due to the green inlet within the scope of the city. IV. Nodes. The qualities of the nodescan be seen as positive (+) with the only remark that the capacity for improvement can still be found. V. Landmarks.The landmarks bear a low-rise character (e.g. they cannot be noted from a distance) however they form an overallsufficiently dense structure and in their majority are bounded to the roads. 79
    • EastIdentity Identity:++ Identity:+ - Identity: - - Socio - cultural heritage of the route: The last scheme shows the general evaluation of the particular road network and the locations of social and cultural heritage. The gradation goes from the routes with high Identity level on the south to the low Identity level with fewer icons to the north. 80
    • EastOverall Identity level of the East side of Utrecht might be assessed as high (++). The roads of this part earn for their distinctiveness and high recognisabilityas a countryside routes both within the city and outside. The concentration ofthe unique elements and objects of cultural and social heritage make this sideutterly attractive to the people. Identity 81
    • Conclusion In the research on the reach of the border of the countryside, three scales were taken to compare; a pedestrian trip of 1,5 hour, and cycling trips of 1,5 and 4 hours. The diagram to the right summarises the most legible results; the map on the far right shows the total reach of the pedestrian scale of the four sides of the city combined. It became apparent that the east and the north side of the city have the broadest connection from urban area to countryside. This has to do with the geometry of the city; the distance from the centre to the edge is relatively small on the north and east side, compared to particularly the west side (and the south side to a lesser degree). The result of this ‘unbalance’ of Utrecht’s geometry is that the city centre is in good connection to the east and north edge, but less to the south edge, and is even completely isolated from the west edge.Reach diagram of reach per side 82
    • 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmmap showing small range reach (pedestrian trip ofmax 1,5 hour) of four sides 83
    • Conclusion The density research connects the reach radii of the accessways to the population in the border area. By looking at specific amounts of inhabitants and density figures, an insight is gained into the amount of people that can effectively use the countryside. 60% Looking at the graph showing the data, it becomes clear that the numbers don’t vary a lot on the pedestrian scale, i.e. a small amount of people 50% living in the outer areas is reached (about 5-10% of the total population per side). But with the bicycle range, the difference becomes very clear; 40% the north, south and east all cover about or over 50% of the population, 30% while the west side has very little extra coverage. This can be explained looking at the geometry; where the other sides 20% also reach the dense centre of the city, the west only reaches its own area, 10%Density that of Leidsche Rijn. With this it has to be noted that the population of the Leidsche Rijn area is still developing; possible future recalculations 0% will show a smaller contrast with the rest. However, it will then still be clear North West South East that the west side lags behind on the rest. amount of population within reach of border pedestrian, 15 min bicycle, 15 min amount of population within reach of border (%) pedestrian, 15 min 84 bicycle, 15 min
    • Bedrijvengebied Overvecht Bedrijvengebied Overvecht 78 78 Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. Tigris-Bostondreef e.o. 7 127 7 127 Zuilen Noord Zuilen Noord 4 338 4 338 Zambesidreef e.o. Zambesidreef e.o. 11 372 11 372 Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. Amazone-Nicaraguadreef e.o. 5 480 5 480 Neckardreef e.o. Neckardreef e.o. De Muinck Keizerin 7 681 De Muinck Keizerin 7 681 7 667 7 667 Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Pr. Berhardpin Schaakwijk Zamenhofdreef e.o. Zamenhofdreef e.o. 11 362 7 508 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 11 362 7 508 Wolga-Donaudreef e.o. 5 847 5 847 7 805 7 805 Geuzenwijk Geuzenwijk 16 009 16 009 Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. Taag-Rubicondreef e.o. 7 230 7 230 Elinkwijk Voordorp Elinkwijk Voordorp 9 785 2 141 9 785 2 141 Terwijde De Driehoek Terwijde De Driehoek 1 557 9 950 Tuindorp West 1 557 9 950 Tuindorp West Vleuten 9 282 Vleuten 9 282 3 399 Julianapark e.o. 3 399 Julianapark e.o. 10 531 10 531 Tuindorp-Oost Tuindorp-Oost 4 202 4 202 Binnenstad-Noord Binnenstad-Noord 11 330 11 330 Zeeheldenbuurt Zeeheldenbuurt 13 844 13 844 Wittevrouwen Wittevrouwen 5 930 5 930Vleuterweide Parkwijk Vleuterweide Parkwijk 4 042 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 4 042 & ‘t zand Buiten Wittevrouwen 2 801 4 250 2 801 4 250 Binnenstad-West Binnenstad-West 12 866 12 866 Binnenstad Rijnsweerd Binnenstad Rijnsweerd 7 311 1 355 7 311 1 355 Wilhelminapark Wilhelminapark 5 355 5 355 Oudwijk Oudwijk 14 646 14 646 Binnenstad-Zuidwest Binnenstad-Zuidwest 3 751 3 751 Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt Langerak Abstede Schildersbuurt 3 148 13 017 8 962 3 148 13 017 8 962 Galgenwaard Galgenwaard Tolsteegsingel 377 Tolsteegsingel 377 11 538 11 538 Veldhuizen Veldhuizen Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan Sterrenwijk Rubenslaan 4 585 8 125 4 585 9 211 8 125 9 211 De meern & De meern & Rijnenburg Rijnenburg Watervogelbuurt Watervogelbuurt 2 455 Kanaleneiland Noord 7 198 2 455 Kanaleneiland Noord 7 198 2 717 Transwijk 2 717 Transwijk 381 L. Napoleonplantsoen 381 L. Napoleonplantsoen Rivierenwijk 4 103 Rivierenwijk 4 103 172 172 Tolsteegsingel Tolsteegsingel 1 771 1 771 Bokkenbuurt Bokkenbuurt Oud Hoograven Oud Hoograven Maarschalkerweerd Maarschalkerweerd 2 118 81 2 118 81 Lunetten Noord Lunetten Noord Kanaleneiland Zuid Kanaleneiland Zuid 0 957 1 430 0 957 1 430 Leidsche Rijn Leidsche Rijn 10 10 Nieuw Hoograven Nieuw Hoograven 1 111 Lunetten Zuid 1 111 Lunetten Zuid 0 260 0 260 population per neighbourhood with reach circles density per neighbourhood 85
    • Conclusion The uniqueness shows the areas in the city that are substantial enough to compete with the countryside as a recreative area. Clearly visible is the large impact of these areas on the reach of green in the city. Through these areas, the north and east side are almost completely covered. The west, which proved to have a very poor reach to the countryside, is improved by the consideration of this large park. It cuts as a finger into the urban tissue, thereby greatly improving the reach of the surrounding city. The south side lacks substantial urban green, and therefore many of its neighbourhoods remain poor in reach to the countryside or any green area.Uniqueness diagram of unique areas within the 86 city borders
    • 0 0.5 1 2 3 5kmmap showing unique areas within the borderswith reach in the city 87
    • 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 SHOPPING West Conclusion East South North 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 Without attractions, the trip into the landscape would be boring and VILLAGE CENTER CATERING INDUSTRY exhausting. By counting the amount of attractions such as cultural West heritages and restaurants, mixed functions with landscape would be West persuasive in a possibility in the value of countryside as a recreation East East place. South South North North For clarity, this analysis includes several countryside villages around the city as attractions. In the countryside, small village centres can play a role 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 as service facilities including restaurants, cafes and commercial functions. CULTURE TRANSPORTATION Therefore, we calculate these small centers as an attraction as well. West WestMixed functions East East In the north, there are abundant cultural heritages, including fortress and historical architecture comparing other parts. South South In the east area, even though it does not have any shopping areas, North North there are catering industries such as restaurants and cafes much more 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 than other areas. Furthermore, regarding catering, transportation and sports facilities, the east part could be explained as mixed functions with SHOPPING SPORTS landscape. West West Since the west part has been extended as an urban development East East continuously, at this moment, it could be considered to have a lack of South South attractions. However, there are some possibilities to attract people to enjoy the landscape such as widen meadow and an old castle. North North In the south area, the size of survey is the biggest area among four areas. 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 There are small villages around Utrecht, so that it is well mixed with other CATERING INDUSTRY functions. Especially, there are a lot of attractive spots including cafes West and restaurant along the river. East South North 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 TRANSPORTATION 88 West East South
    • 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 Wes Eas 0.1 0.5 Sout 0.05 0.45 Nort 0.2 0 0.40.15 N 0.35 Wes Eas 0.1 0.3 Sout Nort0.05 0.25 village center 0 0.2 culture W Wes shopping 0.15 Eas catering industry 0.1 Sout sports Nort 0.05 trnasportation 0 Wes E 0.3 Eas Sout 0.25 Nort 0.2 0.15 Wes Eas 0.1 Sout 0.05 Nort 0 S Wes Eas Sout 89 Nort
    • Conclusion The north area could be said to be the most well connected with city centre since 27 routes could reach in the 3rd step. Though the first step could not meet the city centre directly, it has a strong connectivity to reach urban tissue overall if considered by the 3rd step. The east part has strong and well connection in the first step and also 6 approaches could arrive in the 3rd step. The South part has some connections as the 3rd step, which could be counted 3 routes. However, it would be reconsidered that the strong connection of right side is the highway. The weakest part is western area since no steps could reach at once theConnectivity city centre of Utrecht but in the 4th or 5th step owing to physical barriers including the highway and canal. But, since the two main routes could connect with the city easily and the Leidsche Rijn new city centre will play a role of connection with the existing city area, it would be improved. 90
    • 27 N 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1st step 2nd step 3rd step E7 7 W6 65 54 43 32 21 10 0 1st step 2nd step 3rd step 1st step 2nd step 3rd step 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1st step 2nd step 3rd step S Though North and East parts are considered well connected with urban tissue and south part has some connections, West area is the weakest part as connectivity. 91
    • Conclusion When we look at the solid figures, we can see that the density of entrance points is the highest in the north area, closely followed by the east. After this comes the west, and the south is by far the lowest. This image repeats itself when we look at the quality of the ‘lines’ the entrance points are on. It the north and the east (some) entrance points are located on roads reaching both deep into the landscape as well as all the way into the city centre. This offers great advantages to navigation and also creates structure. In the west, some long lines exist as well, but the do not make it all the way into the city centre. They all stop at the border between Leidsche Rijn and the ‘old’ city. The south is mostly characterised by the absence of longAccessibility entry lines. Here, accesspoints are mostly located on ‘in between’ roads and not on long main routes. This makes access into the landscape tricky, because it is hard to find the entrances. 92
    • 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 93
    • Conclusion The density of the road network usable by bikes is the highest in the east. The north and east side are quite comparable and the south clearly has the lowest density. If we look at the pedestrian network the differences are much bigger. The east has by far the highest density here, mostly in the form of pedestrian walking areas in the woods. North, south and west are close to each other. The density of intersections is also the highest in the east side, and also here the north has the lowest density. This means that the east side offers not only the highest density of roads, but also the most flexible structure. Overall we can say that the east is clearly the best in terms of routing. TheRouting north and west side are quite comparable, with the north being a little bit better. The south finishes last in both density of roads as well as density of intersections and is therefore the most problematic side for this topic. 94
    • 0 0.5 1 2 3 5km 95
    • Conclusion Unite characteristic features Socio-cultural heritage - identity All parts of Utrecht have a different number of “Landscape represents heritage entrances that lead towards the countryside. The in which the collective identity quality of these entrances differ from each other but and memory of its population are there is a big difference in the south part which has expressed” (‘The Landscapes of a rather poor quality of the entrance routes. Green symbols’, Klaas Kerkstra). elements are visible all over the city but there is Dutch countrysides have changed little strong and recognisable green elements that over time with great improvement distinct the route leading to the countryside. Water of agricultural activities. Nowadays, routes are visible in te north side. The south and the countryside is used by three east sides have a rather poor recognisability and main groups: farmers, industries continuity of green and blue elements. and visitors for recreational purpose. Throughout the history landscapes along cities were fragmented due to expansion and sub-urbanisation. It created areas that have very lowIdentity quality of recreational use but have other qualities that are less related to the landscapes themselves. Historic elements like fortifications, windmills, old castles and others are Unique characteristic features well preserved and commonly used The majority of routes and roads inside countryside for recreational purposes. Natural landscapes have quality that does not differ so much elements like lakes, canals, ditches, on each side. Countryside roads are used for local rivers, woods are not so obviously needs and there are very few roads that connect used for recreational activities but bigger populated areas and are unpleasant to cycle they improve value of the landscape. or walk along them. The east side has most of these Old villages which are spread in all roads. The south part differs from east and west by countryside strengthen routes which the proximity of roads with high quality environment throughout history connected them from the border of the city. Most of these roads are in between. fragmented and not connected in between. The north and east side have routes that starts from the city center and already have good recreational quality. Most outstanding route is along river Vecht in the North side of Utrecht. 96
    • Identification Each side has similar functions and natural or historical elements that are spread in all of the countryside. The majority of these functions are spread in more populated areas and they focus on short stay services. Also there are some long stay activities in all sides of the city. By eliminating common activities that do not identify importance of landscape or route we found main historical and natural elements that creates identity for the four sides. The north side has polder landscapes where lakes and windmills emphasize them. The south east side is a former defence line with a number of fortifications and defence elements spread along different areas. The south part doesn’t have any special elements which can create identity. It is clearly visible that north and east side have a rather strong identity in comparison with south.Kevin Lynch methodThis method shows the way users might orientate themselves in the countryside.Analysis of paths showed that there is big difference in the north and southside from east side, where paths are more dense and easier to recognise. Thesouth part has stronger borders which mark the edges. The size and number ofdifferent districts is different in each side but the east side has most of them andvariety is created. Landmarks are visible in each side but the strongest of themare on the south side along the Rijn canal crossing bridges. Fortifications arealso very strong in east side which seems to be most easy to orientate yourselfand create a mental map of the area. 97
    • Sources The research that forms the basis for this publication has been mainly done in subject groups, these groups have depending on the subject all used the same sources. That is why the sources are not revered to a specific image our text but to a subject. Each subject is divided in the booklet over the four different area’s Reach density and unique items www.utrecht.nl CBS Statline, ‘Kerncijfers Wijken en Buurten 1999’, juli 2002 http://www.cbs.nl/ CBS Statline, ‘Kerncijfers Wijken en Buurten 1999’, 2008 http://www.cbs.nl/(leidscherijn) Access to destinations, (study by university of Minneapolis) http://www.cts.umn.edu/access-study/ Boeijenga. J; mensink. J(Vinex atlas),2008,010 publishers, Rotterdam Mixed functions and connectivity Google earth and map material of the geoloket.sources Accessibility and routing www.utrechttevoet.nl www.fietsenindeprovincieutrecht.nl http://maps.live.com http://maps.google.nl   Google earth and map material of the geoloket. Identity Lörzing, H, (Vinex een morfologische verkenning), 2006, NAI Publisher, Rotterdam Groen plan utrecht