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  • 1. A First Book of ANSI C Fourth Edition Chapter 3 Processing and Interactive Input
  • 2. Objectives
    • Assignment
    • Mathematical Library Functions
    • Interactive Input
    • Formatted Output
  • 3. Objectives (continued)
    • Symbolic Constants
    • Case Study: Interactive Input
    • Common Programming and Compiler Errors
  • 4. Assignment
    • The general syntax for an assignment statement is
      • variable = operand;
      • The operand to the right of the assignment operator (=) can be a constant, a variable, or an expression
    • The equal sign in C does not have the same meaning as an equal sign in algebra
      • length=25; is read “length is assigned the value 25”
    • Subsequent assignment statements can be used to change the value assigned to a variable
        • length = 3.7;
        • length = 6.28;
  • 5. Assignment (continued)
    • The operand to the right of the equal sign in an assignment statement can be a variable or any valid C expression
      • sum = 3 + 7;
      • product = .05 * 14.6;
        • The value of the expression to the right of = is computed first and then the calculated value is stored in the variable to the left of =
    • Variables used in the expression to the right of the = must be initialized if the result is to make sense
    • amount + 1892 = 1000 + 10 * 5 is invalid!
  • 6. Assignment (continued) If width was not initialized, the computer uses the value that happens to occupy that memory space previously (compiler would probably issue a warning)
  • 7. Assignment (continued)
    • = has the lowest precedence of all the binary and unary arithmetic operators introduced in Section 2.4
    • Multiple assignments are possible in the same statement
      • a = b = c = 25;
        • All = operators have the same precedence
        • Operator has right-to-left associativity
          • c = 25;
          • b = c;
          • a = b;
  • 8. Implicit Type Conversions
    • Data type conversions take place across assignment operators
      • double result;
      • result = 4; //integer 4 is converted to 4.0
    • The automatic conversion across an assignment operator is called an implicit type conversion
      • int answer;
      • answer = 2.764; //2.764 is converted to 2
      • Here the implicit conversion is from a higher precision to a lower precision data type; the compiler will issue a warning
  • 9. Explicit Type Conversions (Casts)
    • The operator used to force the conversion of a value to another type is the cast operator
      • (dataType) expression
        • where dataType is the desired data type of the expression following the cast
    • Example:
      • If sum is declared as double sum; , (int) sum is the integer value determined by truncating sum ’s fractional part
  • 10. Assignment Variations sum = sum + 10 is not an equation—it is an expression that is evaluated in two major steps
  • 11. Assignment Variations (continued)
  • 12. Assignment Variations (continued)
  • 13. Assignment Variations (continued)
    • Assignment expressions like sum = sum + 25 can be written using the following operators:
      • += -= *= /= %=
    • sum = sum + 10 can be written as sum += 10
    • price *= rate is equivalent to price = price * rate
    • price *= rate + 1 is equivalent to price = price * (rate + 1)
  • 14. Accumulating
    • The first statement initializes sum to 0
      • This removes any previously stored value in sum that would invalidate the final total
      • A previously stored number, if it has not been initialized to a specific and known value, is frequently called a garbage value
  • 15. Accumulating (continued)
  • 16. Accumulating (continued)
  • 17. Counting
    • A counting statement is very similar to the accumulating statement
      • variable = variable + fixedNumber;
    • Examples: i = i + 1; and m = m + 2;
    • Increment operator (++): variable = variable + 1 can be replaced by variable++ or ++variable
  • 18. Counting (continued)
  • 19. Counting (continued)
  • 20. Counting (continued)
    • When the ++ operator appears before a variable, it is called a prefix increment operator ; when it appears after a variable, it is called postfix increment operator
      • k = ++n; is equivalent to
        • n = n + 1; // increment n first
        • k = n; // assign n's value to k
      • k = n++; is equivalent to
        • k = n; // assign n's value to k
        • n = n + 1; // and then increment n
  • 21. Counting (continued)
    • Prefix decrement operator: the expression k = --n first decrements the value of n by 1 before assigning the value of n to k
    • Postfix decrement operator: the expression k = n-- first assigns the current value of n to n and then reduces the value of n by 1
  • 22. Counting (continued)
  • 23. Mathematical Library Functions
  • 24. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
    • The argument to sqrt must be floating-point value; passing an integer value results in a compiler error
      • Return value is double-precision
    • Must include #include <math.h>
  • 25. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
  • 26. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
  • 27. Mathematical Library Functions (continued) Argument need not be a single constant
  • 28. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
    • The step-by-step evaluation of the expression
      • 3.0 * sqrt(5 * 33 - 13.91) / 5
    • is (see next slide)
  • 29. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
  • 30. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
    • Determine the time it takes a ball to hit the ground after it has been dropped from an 800-foot tower
      • time = sqrt(2 * distance/g), where g = 32.2 ft/sec2
  • 31. Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
  • 32. Interactive Input
  • 33. Interactive Input (continued)
    • This program must be rewritten to multiply different numbers
    • scanf() is used to enter data into a program while it is executing; the value is stored in a variable
      • It requires a control string as the first argument inside the function name parentheses
  • 34. Interactive Input (continued)
    • The control string passed to scanf() typically consists of conversion control sequences only
    • scanf() requires that a list of variable addresses follow the control string
      • scanf(&quot;%d&quot;, &num1);
  • 35. Interactive Input (continued)
  • 36. Interactive Input (continued) This statement produces a prompt Address operator (&)
  • 37. Interactive Input (continued)
    • scanf() can be used to enter many values
      • scanf(&quot;%f %f&quot;,&num1,&num2); //&quot;%f%f&quot; is the same
    • A space can affect what the value being entered is when scanf() is expecting a character data type
      • scanf(&quot;%c%c%c&quot;,&ch1,&ch2,&ch3); stores the next three characters typed in the variables ch1 , ch2 , and ch3 ; if you type x y z , then x is stored in ch1 , a blank is stored in ch2 , and y is stored in ch3
      • scanf(&quot;%c %c %c&quot;,&ch1,&ch2,&ch3); causes scanf() to look for three characters, each character separated by exactly one space
  • 38. Interactive Input (continued)
    • In printing a double-precision number using printf() , the conversion control sequence for a single-precision variable, %f , can be used
    • When using scanf() , if a double-precision number is to be entered, you must use the %lf conversion control sequence
    • scanf() does not test the data type of the values being entered
    • In scanf(&quot;%d %f&quot;, &num1, &num2) , if user enters 22.87 , 22 is stored in num1 and .87 in num2
  • 39. Caution: The Phantom Newline Character
  • 40. Caution: The Phantom Newline Character (continued)
    • The following is a sample run for Program 3.10:
      • Type in a character: m
      • The keystroke just accepted is 109
      • Type in another character: The keystroke just accepted is 10
  • 41. Caution: The Phantom Newline Character (continued)
  • 42. Caution: The Phantom Newline Character (continued)
  • 43. A First Look at User-Input Validation
  • 44. A First Look at User-Input Validation (continued)
    • As written, Program 3.12 is not robust
    • The problem becomes evident when a user enters a non-integer value
      • Enter three integer numbers: 10 20.68 20
      • The average of 10, 20, and -858993460 is -286331143.333333
    • Handling invalid data input is called user-input validation
      • Validating the entered data either during or immediately after the data have been entered
      • Providing the user with a way of reentering any invalid data
  • 45. Formatted Output
    • 6
    • 18
    • 124
    • ---
    • 148
    Output is not aligned
  • 46. Formatted Output (continued) 6 18 124 --- 148 Field width specifier
  • 47. Formatted Output (continued)
  • 48. Format Modifiers
    • Left justification: printf(&quot;%-10d&quot;,59); produces the display 59 ٨٨٨٨٨٨٨٨
    • Explicit sign display: printf(&quot;%+10d&quot;,59); produces the display ٨٨٨٨٨٨٨ + 59
    • Format modifiers may be combined
      • %-+10d would cause an integer number to both display its sign and be left-justified in a field width of 10 spaces
        • The order of the format modifiers is not critical
          • %+-10d is the same
  • 49. Other Number Bases [Optional]
    • The decimal (base 10) value of 15 is 15.
    • The octal (base 8) value of 15 is 17.
    • The hexadecimal (base 16) value of 15 is f.
  • 50. Other Number Bases (continued)
  • 51. Other Number Bases (continued)
    • The decimal value of the letter a is 97.
    • The octal value of the letter a is 141.
    • The hex value of the letter a is 61.
  • 52. Other Number Bases (continued)
  • 53. Symbolic Constants
    • Literal data refers to any data within a program that explicitly identifies itself
    • Literal values that appear many times in the same program are called magic numbers
    • C allows you to define the value once by equating the number to a symbolic name
      • #define SALESTAX 0.05
      • #define PI 3.1416
      • Also called symbolic constants and named constants
  • 54. Symbolic Constants (continued) # sign is a signal to a C preprocessor
  • 55. Case Study: Interactive Input
  • 56. Case Study: Interactive Input (continued)
  • 57. Common Programming Errors
    • Forgetting to assign initial values to all variables before the variables are used in an expression
    • Calling sqrt() with an integer argument
    • Forgetting to use the address operator, &, in front of variable names in a scanf() function call
    • Not including the correct control sequences in scanf() function calls for the data values that must be entered
    • Including a message within the control string passed to scanf()
  • 58. Common Programming Errors (continued)
    • Terminating a #define command to the preprocessor with a semicolon
    • Placing an equal sign in a #define command when equating a symbolic constant to a value
    • Using the increment and decrement operators with variables that appear more than once in the same expression
    • Being unwilling to test a program in depth
  • 59. Common Compiler Errors
  • 60. Common Compiler Errors (continued)
  • 61. Summary
    • Arithmetic calculations can be performed using assignment statements or mathematical functions
    • The assignment symbol, =, is an operator
    • C provides the +=, -=, *= and /= assignment operators
    • The increment operator, ++, adds 1 to a variable
    • The decrement operator, --, subtracts 1 from a variable
    • C provides library functions for calculating square root, logarithmic, and other mathematical computations
  • 62. Summary (continued)
    • Mathematical functions may be included within larger expressions
    • scanf() is a standard library function used for data input
    • When a scanf() function is encountered, the program temporarily suspends further statement execution until sufficient data has been entered for the number of variable addresses contained in the scanf() function call
  • 63. Summary (continued)
    • It is good programming practice to display a message, prior to a scanf() function call, that alerts the user as to the type and number of data items to be entered
    • Field width specifiers can be included with conversion control sequences to explicitly specify the format of displayed fields
    • Each compiled C program is automatically passed through a preprocessor
    • Expressions can be made equivalent to a single identifier using the preprocessor #define command