The operand to the right of the assignment operator (=) can be a constant, a variable, or an expression
The equal sign in C does not have the same meaning as an equal sign in algebra
length=25; is read “length is assigned the value 25”
Subsequent assignment statements can be used to change the value assigned to a variable
length = 3.7;
length = 6.28;
5.
Assignment (continued)
The operand to the right of the equal sign in an assignment statement can be a variable or any valid C expression
sum = 3 + 7;
product = .05 * 14.6;
The value of the expression to the right of = is computed first and then the calculated value is stored in the variable to the left of =
Variables used in the expression to the right of the = must be initialized if the result is to make sense
amount + 1892 = 1000 + 10 * 5 is invalid!
6.
Assignment (continued) If width was not initialized, the computer uses the value that happens to occupy that memory space previously (compiler would probably issue a warning)
7.
Assignment (continued)
= has the lowest precedence of all the binary and unary arithmetic operators introduced in Section 2.4
Multiple assignments are possible in the same statement
a = b = c = 25;
All = operators have the same precedence
Operator has right-to-left associativity
c = 25;
b = c;
a = b;
8.
Implicit Type Conversions
Data type conversions take place across assignment operators
double result;
result = 4; //integer 4 is converted to 4.0
The automatic conversion across an assignment operator is called an implicit type conversion
int answer;
answer = 2.764; //2.764 is converted to 2
Here the implicit conversion is from a higher precision to a lower precision data type; the compiler will issue a warning
9.
Explicit Type Conversions (Casts)
The operator used to force the conversion of a value to another type is the cast operator
(dataType) expression
where dataType is the desired data type of the expression following the cast
Example:
If sum is declared as double sum; , (int) sum is the integer value determined by truncating sum ’s fractional part
10.
Assignment Variations sum = sum + 10 is not an equation—it is an expression that is evaluated in two major steps
11.
Assignment Variations (continued)
12.
Assignment Variations (continued)
13.
Assignment Variations (continued)
Assignment expressions like sum = sum + 25 can be written using the following operators:
+= -= *= /= %=
sum = sum + 10 can be written as sum += 10
price *= rate is equivalent to price = price * rate
price *= rate + 1 is equivalent to price = price * (rate + 1)
14.
Accumulating
The first statement initializes sum to 0
This removes any previously stored value in sum that would invalidate the final total
A previously stored number, if it has not been initialized to a specific and known value, is frequently called a garbage value
15.
Accumulating (continued)
16.
Accumulating (continued)
17.
Counting
A counting statement is very similar to the accumulating statement
variable = variable + fixedNumber;
Examples: i = i + 1; and m = m + 2;
Increment operator (++): variable = variable + 1 can be replaced by variable++ or ++variable
18.
Counting (continued)
19.
Counting (continued)
20.
Counting (continued)
When the ++ operator appears before a variable, it is called a prefix increment operator ; when it appears after a variable, it is called postfix increment operator
k = ++n; is equivalent to
n = n + 1; // increment n first
k = n; // assign n's value to k
k = n++; is equivalent to
k = n; // assign n's value to k
n = n + 1; // and then increment n
21.
Counting (continued)
Prefix decrement operator: the expression k = --n first decrements the value of n by 1 before assigning the value of n to k
Postfix decrement operator: the expression k = n-- first assigns the current value of n to n and then reduces the value of n by 1
22.
Counting (continued)
23.
Mathematical Library Functions
24.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
The argument to sqrt must be floating-point value; passing an integer value results in a compiler error
Return value is double-precision
Must include #include <math.h>
25.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
26.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
27.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued) Argument need not be a single constant
28.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
The step-by-step evaluation of the expression
3.0 * sqrt(5 * 33 - 13.91) / 5
is (see next slide)
29.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
30.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
Determine the time it takes a ball to hit the ground after it has been dropped from an 800-foot tower
time = sqrt(2 * distance/g), where g = 32.2 ft/sec2
31.
Mathematical Library Functions (continued)
32.
Interactive Input
33.
Interactive Input (continued)
This program must be rewritten to multiply different numbers
scanf() is used to enter data into a program while it is executing; the value is stored in a variable
It requires a control string as the first argument inside the function name parentheses
34.
Interactive Input (continued)
The control string passed to scanf() typically consists of conversion control sequences only
scanf() requires that a list of variable addresses follow the control string
scanf("%d", &num1);
35.
Interactive Input (continued)
36.
Interactive Input (continued) This statement produces a prompt Address operator (&)
37.
Interactive Input (continued)
scanf() can be used to enter many values
scanf("%f %f",&num1,&num2); //"%f%f" is the same
A space can affect what the value being entered is when scanf() is expecting a character data type
scanf("%c%c%c",&ch1,&ch2,&ch3); stores the next three characters typed in the variables ch1 , ch2 , and ch3 ; if you type x y z , then x is stored in ch1 , a blank is stored in ch2 , and y is stored in ch3
scanf("%c %c %c",&ch1,&ch2,&ch3); causes scanf() to look for three characters, each character separated by exactly one space
38.
Interactive Input (continued)
In printing a double-precision number using printf() , the conversion control sequence for a single-precision variable, %f , can be used
When using scanf() , if a double-precision number is to be entered, you must use the %lf conversion control sequence
scanf() does not test the data type of the values being entered
In scanf("%d %f", &num1, &num2) , if user enters 22.87 , 22 is stored in num1 and .87 in num2
39.
Caution: The Phantom Newline Character
40.
Caution: The Phantom Newline Character (continued)
The following is a sample run for Program 3.10:
Type in a character: m
The keystroke just accepted is 109
Type in another character: The keystroke just accepted is 10
41.
Caution: The Phantom Newline Character (continued)
42.
Caution: The Phantom Newline Character (continued)
43.
A First Look at User-Input Validation
44.
A First Look at User-Input Validation (continued)
As written, Program 3.12 is not robust
The problem becomes evident when a user enters a non-integer value
Enter three integer numbers: 10 20.68 20
The average of 10, 20, and -858993460 is -286331143.333333
Handling invalid data input is called user-input validation
Validating the entered data either during or immediately after the data have been entered
Providing the user with a way of reentering any invalid data
Left justification: printf("%-10d",59); produces the display 59 ٨٨٨٨٨٨٨٨
Explicit sign display: printf("%+10d",59); produces the display ٨٨٨٨٨٨٨ + 59
Format modifiers may be combined
%-+10d would cause an integer number to both display its sign and be left-justified in a field width of 10 spaces
The order of the format modifiers is not critical
%+-10d is the same
49.
Other Number Bases [Optional]
The decimal (base 10) value of 15 is 15.
The octal (base 8) value of 15 is 17.
The hexadecimal (base 16) value of 15 is f.
50.
Other Number Bases (continued)
51.
Other Number Bases (continued)
The decimal value of the letter a is 97.
The octal value of the letter a is 141.
The hex value of the letter a is 61.
52.
Other Number Bases (continued)
53.
Symbolic Constants
Literal data refers to any data within a program that explicitly identifies itself
Literal values that appear many times in the same program are called magic numbers
C allows you to define the value once by equating the number to a symbolic name
#define SALESTAX 0.05
#define PI 3.1416
Also called symbolic constants and named constants
54.
Symbolic Constants (continued) # sign is a signal to a C preprocessor
55.
Case Study: Interactive Input
56.
Case Study: Interactive Input (continued)
57.
Common Programming Errors
Forgetting to assign initial values to all variables before the variables are used in an expression
Calling sqrt() with an integer argument
Forgetting to use the address operator, &, in front of variable names in a scanf() function call
Not including the correct control sequences in scanf() function calls for the data values that must be entered
Including a message within the control string passed to scanf()
58.
Common Programming Errors (continued)
Terminating a #define command to the preprocessor with a semicolon
Placing an equal sign in a #define command when equating a symbolic constant to a value
Using the increment and decrement operators with variables that appear more than once in the same expression
Being unwilling to test a program in depth
59.
Common Compiler Errors
60.
Common Compiler Errors (continued)
61.
Summary
Arithmetic calculations can be performed using assignment statements or mathematical functions
The assignment symbol, =, is an operator
C provides the +=, -=, *= and /= assignment operators
The increment operator, ++, adds 1 to a variable
The decrement operator, --, subtracts 1 from a variable
C provides library functions for calculating square root, logarithmic, and other mathematical computations
62.
Summary (continued)
Mathematical functions may be included within larger expressions
scanf() is a standard library function used for data input
When a scanf() function is encountered, the program temporarily suspends further statement execution until sufficient data has been entered for the number of variable addresses contained in the scanf() function call
63.
Summary (continued)
It is good programming practice to display a message, prior to a scanf() function call, that alerts the user as to the type and number of data items to be entered
Field width specifiers can be included with conversion control sequences to explicitly specify the format of displayed fields
Each compiled C program is automatically passed through a preprocessor
Expressions can be made equivalent to a single identifier using the preprocessor #define command