Lecture 5

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Hydrosphere and Atmosphere

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  • Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • Lecture 5

    1. 1. The Earth: Atmosphere and Hydrosphere
    2. 2. Hydrosphere <ul><li>Water portion of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>¾ of the Earth is covered by water </li></ul><ul><li>sustains living things on earth </li></ul><ul><li>97% of water is found in the major oceans </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic </li></ul></ul></ul>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    3. 3. Hydrosphere Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    4. 4. Water <ul><li>made up of 2 hydrogen atoms (H) and 1 oxygen atom (O) </li></ul><ul><li>Thus its chemical symbol H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Exists as </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid (ice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas (water vapor) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Properties of Water <ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains positive and negative spheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this makes water a good solvent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissolution </li></ul><ul><li>process of forming a homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>like dissolves like (i.e. polar solvents can </li></ul><ul><li>only dissolve polar substances) </li></ul>http://www.marinebiology.org/images/watermolecule.jpg
    6. 6. Properties of Water <ul><li>Density of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ice is less dense than water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice floats in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saltwater are denser than pure water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 25 o C, water has a density of 1 g/ml </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Water cycle Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    8. 8. Properties of Water <ul><li>Heat capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heat and temperature are different! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water has a relatively high heat capacity </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Oceans <ul><li>largest reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>of water </li></ul><ul><li>vast and deep </li></ul>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    10. 10. Ocean Profiling <ul><li>SONAR </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Navigation and Ranging </li></ul><ul><li>Use of sound to study deep-water objects and marine lives </li></ul>
    11. 11. SONAR <ul><li>Passive Sonar </li></ul><ul><li>- made use of the sound waves emitted by the deep-water object </li></ul><ul><li>Active Sonar </li></ul><ul><li>- sound is emitted into the ocean and its reflection/echo is studied </li></ul>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    12. 12. Ocean Currents <ul><li>Deep-ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>- currents generated due to difference in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Surface currents </li></ul><ul><li>- currents generated just below the surface of the water </li></ul><ul><li>Wave </li></ul><ul><li>- regular undulation caused by the wind </li></ul>
    13. 13. Wave Properties Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    14. 14. Tides <ul><li>Movement of Earth’s water due to its gravitational attraction towards the Sun and the moon </li></ul><ul><li>SPRING TIDE </li></ul><ul><li>- the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon add up together resulting to very high high tide and and very low low tide . </li></ul>
    15. 15. Tides <ul><li>Neap tide </li></ul><ul><li>- the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon counteract resulting to very low high tides and very high low tides . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Atmosphere <ul><li>gas portion of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>A blanket of gases, water vapor and dust surrounding the earth </li></ul><ul><li>No exact boundary, it just gets thinner </li></ul><ul><li>Air = mixture of gases in the atmosphere </li></ul>
    17. 17. Properties of Gas <ul><li>it has mass and volume occupies space </li></ul><ul><li>it diffuses </li></ul><ul><li>expands and compress (change in gas’ volume) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – force exerted on a surface divided by its area </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure – force exerted on a surface divided by its area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is affected by volume, amount of gas and temperature </li></ul></ul>Properties of Gas
    19. 19. Properties of Gas <ul><li>Boyle’s law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relationship between Pressure and Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As pressure increases, volume decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct result of gas’ tendency to diffuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charle’s law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relationship between temperature and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As temperature increases, volume increases as well </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Layers of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Divided according to change </li></ul><ul><li>in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature changes </li></ul><ul><li>with altitude </li></ul>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    21. 21. Composition of atmosphere Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    22. 22. Weather and Climate <ul><li>Fickle as a weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>- condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place </li></ul><ul><li>- interaction of various properties of the atmosphere (temperature, pressure, clouds, precipitation) </li></ul><ul><li>- varies </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Average weather conditions in a region </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Winds <ul><li>Movement of air due to difference in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Cold air sinks and warm air floats (recall: density) </li></ul><ul><li>example: Land breeze and sea breeze </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land and seawater have different heat capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seawater has higher heat capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land heats and cools faster than seawater </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Sea breeze Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    25. 25. Land Breeze Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    26. 26. Humidity <ul><li>amount of water vapor in the air </li></ul><ul><li>humid is somehow synonymous to moist </li></ul>
    27. 27. Cloud <ul><li>water vapor that condenses </li></ul><ul><li>around airborne particles </li></ul><ul><li>like dust and smoke particles </li></ul>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    28. 28. Precipitation <ul><li>Occurs when the air is saturated with too much water vapor </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of precipitation: rain, snow, sleet </li></ul>
    29. 29. Weather disturbances <ul><li>Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>- bring lightning, thunder and rains </li></ul><ul><li>- associated with cumulonimbus clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclones in the tropics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical storm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoon </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Air pollutants Air pollutants Description Particulate matter (suspended particles) Bits of solid matters that are suspended in the air (smoke and dust) Carbon Monixide (CO) Results from incomplete combustion of fuels Colorless and oxygen gas that binds with hemoglobin. Prevents Oxygen from being absorbed Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Affects the respiratory tract Cause acid rain Ozone (photochemical smog) Ground level ozone
    31. 31. Ozone depletion <ul><li>Ozone is found in the stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun (UV light) </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of ozone is associated to the following pollutants: </li></ul><ul><li>- CFC (found in refrigerators, hair net sprays) </li></ul>
    32. 32. References <ul><li>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House </li></ul><ul><li>Rabago, Lilia M., et al. Dynamic Science. 2003. QC: vibal Publishing House </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Figure for questions 17-20 </li></ul>

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