Lecture 4
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  • http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/
  • Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House

Transcript

  • 1. The Earth: Lithosphere
  • 2. The Earth
    • Biosphere – living things
    • Lithosphere – land
    • Atmosphere – air
    • Hydrosphere - water
    • Cryopshere - ice
    http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/
  • 3. Lithosphere
    • The solid portion of the earth
    • Rocks and its different forms
  • 4. Layers of the earth
    • According to composition
    • According to physical composition
  • 5. According to Composition
    • Crust
      • Outermost layer
      • Continental and oceanic crusts
    • Continental crust – directly underneath
    • the continents
    • Oceanic crust – landmass underneath
    • the oceans
    • – seafloor
    http://www.av1611.org/images/inside_ earth.jpg http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/ scientific_illustration /earth_layers.jpg
  • 6. According to Composition
    • Mantle
    • - the layer next to the crust
    • Trivia: the boundary between the crust and the mantle is called Mohorovicic discontinuity
    • Core
    • - made up of metallic ball (nickel and iron)
    • Trivia: the boundary between the core and the mantle is called Gutenberg discontinuity
  • 7. According to Physical Properties
    • Lithosphere
      • entire crust + uppermost mantle
      • coolest layer of the earth
      • cool and rigid
    • Athenosphere
      • rocks are near their melting
      • points
      • this layer is flowing
    • Melting Point – the temperature at
    • which an object melt
    http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/anastaj/OC%2015%20web%20page/Layers%20of%20Earth.jpg
  • 8. According to Physical Properties
    • Low-velocity zone
    • - seismic waves slow down when they pass this region
    • Mesosphere
    • - despite its high temperature, the rocks remained solid
    • - very high pressure prevents rocks from melting
  • 9. According to Physical Properties
    • In terms of physcial state, the core has two
    • parts:
    • Outer Core
      • Liquid portion of the core
    • Inner core
      • - Metallic portion of the core
  • 10. Movements in the earth
    • Continental drift – movements of the continents
    • Seafloor Spreading – movements of the oceanic crust
  • 11. Continental drift
    • Alfred Wegner
    • - proponent of the continental drift theory
    • Pangeae : when the continents were just one
    • land mass
  • 12. Continental drift
    • Alfred Wegner proposed that the continental crusts move
    Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • 13. Evidences supporting continental drfit
    • Geographical evidence
    • continents fit like a jigsaw puzzle
    Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • 14. Evidences supporting continental drfit
    • Geological evidence
    • - three old mountain zones
    • traversing different
    • continents
    • -rocks along the matching
    • coastlines are similar
  • 15. Evidences supporting continental drfit
    • Biological evidence
    • - identical fossil of plants and animals were found in different continents
  • 16. Evidences supporting continental drfit
    • Biological evidence
    • - identical fossil of plants and animals were found in different continents
  • 17. Seafloor Spreading
    • oceanic crusts
    • are usually younger
    • than continental
    • crust
    • oceanic crusts
    • are recycled
    http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect2/platespread.jpg
  • 18. Plate tectonics theory
    • Lithosphere are
    • divided into plates which
    • are in motion
    • movement is due to
    • convection current
    • Convection current
      • rising and sinking of rocks due to difference in temperature
      • hot temperature rocks rise and low temperature rocks sink
    http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/physical/earth/images/plates.gif
  • 19. Natural Tragedies
    • Volcanoes
    • - opening in the ground where molten rock comes out.
      • Active
      • Dormant
      • Extinct
  • 20. Natural Tragedies
    • Earthquakes
      • -due to movement of plate boundaries
      • Squeezing of rocks may cause breakage which results to release of energy
      • Magnitude vs. Intensity
  • 21. Seismic Waves
    • Body waves – travel through
    • the interior of the earth
      • Primary waves
      • Secondary waves
    • Surface waves – reaches the
    • surface of the earth and causes
    • the earth to shake
    • 1. Love waves
    • 2. Rayleigh waves
    http://s3.images.com/huge.96.481081.JPG
  • 22. Rocks
    • Rock cycle
    http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/lithosphere/rock_cycle.gif
  • 23. Soil formation
    • Weathering of rocks
    • - breaking down of rocks into
    • smaller pieces
    • Physical weathering
    • - ice wedging, temperature changes
    • and organic activity
    • Chemical weathering
    • - oxidation, change in acidity and dissolution
    • Erosion
      • -trasportation of weathered rocks
    http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/149767/ http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/149767/
  • 24. Superposition theory
    • If the layers of rocks were left undisturbed, the age of the rock increases from top to bottom
    Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • 25. How old is the earth Figure 2 Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • 26. How old is the earth Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • 27. References
    • Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    • Rabago, Lilia M., et al. Dynamic Science. 2003. QC: vibal Publishing House