The Earth: Lithosphere
The Earth <ul><li>Biosphere – living things </li></ul><ul><li>Lithosphere – land </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere – air  </li>...
Lithosphere <ul><li>The solid portion of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks and its different forms </li></ul>
Layers of the earth <ul><li>According to composition </li></ul><ul><li>According to physical composition </li></ul>
According to Composition <ul><li>Crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental and oc...
According to Composition <ul><li>Mantle  </li></ul><ul><li>- the layer next to the crust </li></ul><ul><li>Trivia: the bou...
According to Physical Properties <ul><li>Lithosphere  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>entire crust + uppermost mantle </li></ul></ul...
According to Physical Properties <ul><li>Low-velocity zone </li></ul><ul><li>- seismic waves slow down when they pass  thi...
According to Physical Properties <ul><li>In terms of physcial state, the core has two </li></ul><ul><li>parts:  </li></ul>...
Movements in the earth  <ul><li>Continental drift – movements of the continents </li></ul><ul><li>Seafloor Spreading – mov...
Continental drift <ul><li>Alfred Wegner  </li></ul><ul><li>- proponent of the continental drift theory </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Continental drift <ul><li>Alfred Wegner proposed that the continental crusts move </li></ul>Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Eart...
Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Geographical evidence </li></ul><ul><li>continents fit like a jigsaw puzzle...
Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Geological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>- three old mountain zones  </li></ul...
Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Biological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>- identical fossil of plants and anim...
Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Biological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>- identical fossil of plants and anim...
Seafloor Spreading <ul><li>oceanic crusts  </li></ul><ul><li>are usually younger  </li></ul><ul><li>than continental  </li...
Plate tectonics theory <ul><li>Lithosphere are  </li></ul><ul><li>divided into plates which  </li></ul><ul><li>are in moti...
Natural Tragedies <ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>- opening in the ground where molten rock comes out. </li></ul><ul><...
Natural Tragedies <ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-due to movement of plate boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Seismic Waves <ul><li>Body waves – travel through  </li></ul><ul><li>the interior of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prima...
Rocks <ul><li>Rock cycle </li></ul>http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/lithosphere/rock_cycle.gif
Soil formation <ul><li>Weathering of rocks </li></ul><ul><li>-  breaking down of rocks into  </li></ul><ul><li>smaller pie...
Superposition theory <ul><li>If the layers of rocks were left undisturbed, the age of the rock increases from top to botto...
How old is the earth Figure 2 Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
How old is the earth Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
References <ul><li>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House </li></ul><u...
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Lecture 4

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Lithosphere

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  • http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/
  • Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • Lecture 4

    1. 1. The Earth: Lithosphere
    2. 2. The Earth <ul><li>Biosphere – living things </li></ul><ul><li>Lithosphere – land </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere – air </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere - water </li></ul><ul><li>Cryopshere - ice </li></ul>http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/
    3. 3. Lithosphere <ul><li>The solid portion of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks and its different forms </li></ul>
    4. 4. Layers of the earth <ul><li>According to composition </li></ul><ul><li>According to physical composition </li></ul>
    5. 5. According to Composition <ul><li>Crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental and oceanic crusts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continental crust – directly underneath </li></ul><ul><li>the continents </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanic crust – landmass underneath </li></ul><ul><li>the oceans </li></ul><ul><li> – seafloor </li></ul>http://www.av1611.org/images/inside_ earth.jpg http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/ scientific_illustration /earth_layers.jpg
    6. 6. According to Composition <ul><li>Mantle </li></ul><ul><li>- the layer next to the crust </li></ul><ul><li>Trivia: the boundary between the crust and the mantle is called Mohorovicic discontinuity </li></ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><li>- made up of metallic ball (nickel and iron) </li></ul><ul><li>Trivia: the boundary between the core and the mantle is called Gutenberg discontinuity </li></ul>
    7. 7. According to Physical Properties <ul><li>Lithosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>entire crust + uppermost mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coolest layer of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cool and rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Athenosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rocks are near their melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this layer is flowing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melting Point – the temperature at </li></ul><ul><li>which an object melt </li></ul>http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/anastaj/OC%2015%20web%20page/Layers%20of%20Earth.jpg
    8. 8. According to Physical Properties <ul><li>Low-velocity zone </li></ul><ul><li>- seismic waves slow down when they pass this region </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul><ul><li>- despite its high temperature, the rocks remained solid </li></ul><ul><li>- very high pressure prevents rocks from melting </li></ul>
    9. 9. According to Physical Properties <ul><li>In terms of physcial state, the core has two </li></ul><ul><li>parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid portion of the core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inner core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Metallic portion of the core </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Movements in the earth <ul><li>Continental drift – movements of the continents </li></ul><ul><li>Seafloor Spreading – movements of the oceanic crust </li></ul>
    11. 11. Continental drift <ul><li>Alfred Wegner </li></ul><ul><li>- proponent of the continental drift theory </li></ul><ul><li>Pangeae : when the continents were just one </li></ul><ul><li>land mass </li></ul>
    12. 12. Continental drift <ul><li>Alfred Wegner proposed that the continental crusts move </li></ul>Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
    13. 13. Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Geographical evidence </li></ul><ul><li>continents fit like a jigsaw puzzle </li></ul>Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
    14. 14. Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Geological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>- three old mountain zones </li></ul><ul><li>traversing different </li></ul><ul><li>continents </li></ul><ul><li>-rocks along the matching </li></ul><ul><li>coastlines are similar </li></ul>
    15. 15. Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Biological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>- identical fossil of plants and animals were found in different continents </li></ul>
    16. 16. Evidences supporting continental drfit <ul><li>Biological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>- identical fossil of plants and animals were found in different continents </li></ul>
    17. 17. Seafloor Spreading <ul><li>oceanic crusts </li></ul><ul><li>are usually younger </li></ul><ul><li>than continental </li></ul><ul><li>crust </li></ul><ul><li>oceanic crusts </li></ul><ul><li>are recycled </li></ul>http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect2/platespread.jpg
    18. 18. Plate tectonics theory <ul><li>Lithosphere are </li></ul><ul><li>divided into plates which </li></ul><ul><li>are in motion </li></ul><ul><li>movement is due to </li></ul><ul><li>convection current </li></ul><ul><li>Convection current </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rising and sinking of rocks due to difference in temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hot temperature rocks rise and low temperature rocks sink </li></ul></ul>http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/physical/earth/images/plates.gif
    19. 19. Natural Tragedies <ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>- opening in the ground where molten rock comes out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dormant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinct </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Natural Tragedies <ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-due to movement of plate boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeezing of rocks may cause breakage which results to release of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude vs. Intensity </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Seismic Waves <ul><li>Body waves – travel through </li></ul><ul><li>the interior of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface waves – reaches the </li></ul><ul><li>surface of the earth and causes </li></ul><ul><li>the earth to shake </li></ul><ul><li>1. Love waves </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rayleigh waves </li></ul>http://s3.images.com/huge.96.481081.JPG
    22. 22. Rocks <ul><li>Rock cycle </li></ul>http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/lithosphere/rock_cycle.gif
    23. 23. Soil formation <ul><li>Weathering of rocks </li></ul><ul><li>- breaking down of rocks into </li></ul><ul><li>smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Physical weathering </li></ul><ul><li>- ice wedging, temperature changes </li></ul><ul><li>and organic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical weathering </li></ul><ul><li>- oxidation, change in acidity and dissolution </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-trasportation of weathered rocks </li></ul></ul>http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/149767/ http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/149767/
    24. 24. Superposition theory <ul><li>If the layers of rocks were left undisturbed, the age of the rock increases from top to bottom </li></ul>Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
    25. 25. How old is the earth Figure 2 Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    26. 26. How old is the earth Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    27. 27. References <ul><li>Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House </li></ul><ul><li>Rabago, Lilia M., et al. Dynamic Science. 2003. QC: vibal Publishing House </li></ul>
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