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Lecture 4

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Lithosphere

Lithosphere

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  • http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/
  • Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Earth: Lithosphere
    • 2. The Earth
      • Biosphere – living things
      • Lithosphere – land
      • Atmosphere – air
      • Hydrosphere - water
      • Cryopshere - ice
      http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/
    • 3. Lithosphere
      • The solid portion of the earth
      • Rocks and its different forms
    • 4. Layers of the earth
      • According to composition
      • According to physical composition
    • 5. According to Composition
      • Crust
        • Outermost layer
        • Continental and oceanic crusts
      • Continental crust – directly underneath
      • the continents
      • Oceanic crust – landmass underneath
      • the oceans
      • – seafloor
      http://www.av1611.org/images/inside_ earth.jpg http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/ scientific_illustration /earth_layers.jpg
    • 6. According to Composition
      • Mantle
      • - the layer next to the crust
      • Trivia: the boundary between the crust and the mantle is called Mohorovicic discontinuity
      • Core
      • - made up of metallic ball (nickel and iron)
      • Trivia: the boundary between the core and the mantle is called Gutenberg discontinuity
    • 7. According to Physical Properties
      • Lithosphere
        • entire crust + uppermost mantle
        • coolest layer of the earth
        • cool and rigid
      • Athenosphere
        • rocks are near their melting
        • points
        • this layer is flowing
      • Melting Point – the temperature at
      • which an object melt
      http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/anastaj/OC%2015%20web%20page/Layers%20of%20Earth.jpg
    • 8. According to Physical Properties
      • Low-velocity zone
      • - seismic waves slow down when they pass this region
      • Mesosphere
      • - despite its high temperature, the rocks remained solid
      • - very high pressure prevents rocks from melting
    • 9. According to Physical Properties
      • In terms of physcial state, the core has two
      • parts:
      • Outer Core
        • Liquid portion of the core
      • Inner core
        • - Metallic portion of the core
    • 10. Movements in the earth
      • Continental drift – movements of the continents
      • Seafloor Spreading – movements of the oceanic crust
    • 11. Continental drift
      • Alfred Wegner
      • - proponent of the continental drift theory
      • Pangeae : when the continents were just one
      • land mass
    • 12. Continental drift
      • Alfred Wegner proposed that the continental crusts move
      Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
    • 13. Evidences supporting continental drfit
      • Geographical evidence
      • continents fit like a jigsaw puzzle
      Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
    • 14. Evidences supporting continental drfit
      • Geological evidence
      • - three old mountain zones
      • traversing different
      • continents
      • -rocks along the matching
      • coastlines are similar
    • 15. Evidences supporting continental drfit
      • Biological evidence
      • - identical fossil of plants and animals were found in different continents
    • 16. Evidences supporting continental drfit
      • Biological evidence
      • - identical fossil of plants and animals were found in different continents
    • 17. Seafloor Spreading
      • oceanic crusts
      • are usually younger
      • than continental
      • crust
      • oceanic crusts
      • are recycled
      http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect2/platespread.jpg
    • 18. Plate tectonics theory
      • Lithosphere are
      • divided into plates which
      • are in motion
      • movement is due to
      • convection current
      • Convection current
        • rising and sinking of rocks due to difference in temperature
        • hot temperature rocks rise and low temperature rocks sink
      http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/physical/earth/images/plates.gif
    • 19. Natural Tragedies
      • Volcanoes
      • - opening in the ground where molten rock comes out.
        • Active
        • Dormant
        • Extinct
    • 20. Natural Tragedies
      • Earthquakes
        • -due to movement of plate boundaries
        • Squeezing of rocks may cause breakage which results to release of energy
        • Magnitude vs. Intensity
    • 21. Seismic Waves
      • Body waves – travel through
      • the interior of the earth
        • Primary waves
        • Secondary waves
      • Surface waves – reaches the
      • surface of the earth and causes
      • the earth to shake
      • 1. Love waves
      • 2. Rayleigh waves
      http://s3.images.com/huge.96.481081.JPG
    • 22. Rocks
      • Rock cycle
      http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/lithosphere/rock_cycle.gif
    • 23. Soil formation
      • Weathering of rocks
      • - breaking down of rocks into
      • smaller pieces
      • Physical weathering
      • - ice wedging, temperature changes
      • and organic activity
      • Chemical weathering
      • - oxidation, change in acidity and dissolution
      • Erosion
        • -trasportation of weathered rocks
      http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/149767/ http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/149767/
    • 24. Superposition theory
      • If the layers of rocks were left undisturbed, the age of the rock increases from top to bottom
      Adams, S. and Lambert, E. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science,2006. NY: Chelsea House
    • 25. How old is the earth Figure 2 Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    • 26. How old is the earth Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
    • 27. References
      • Adams and Lambert. Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide To Science, 2006. NY: Chelsea House
      • Rabago, Lilia M., et al. Dynamic Science. 2003. QC: vibal Publishing House