flying kites in the ghetto
an approach to urban liminality
The problem The method The forecast
Today Lines of flight Tomorrow
Rosengård is home for 22.000 people, many of whom Introduced by Deleuze and Guattari, I read this concept When a person moves to another country, what do they want?
endured wars, the death of loved ones, ethnic as the trail left by a person throughout their life. As Do they want things for free and the never-ending sympathy
violence and days, weeks or years of walking, individual beings, no two lines of flight can be the of their new countrymen?
hiding in train wagons, human smuggling rings same: they are the marks of our experience in life.
and the like, before arriving here. As an immigrant myself, I believe that what one needs in
1. How does a community reflect the lines of flight of their adoptive countries, is the tools to make a life for
To paraphrase Mustafa Can, exile is both a bless- its inhabitants? oneself...
ing and a curse: being in Sweden implies that one
has escaped the circumstances which forced the 2. Is a graffiti-bombed wall an act of vandalism, or a ...an education, a job.
migration, but more often than not, one is faced manifestation of territoriality?
with a set of barriers: Next to social strategy and public housing façade paint-
3. Can the lines of flight extend and fill the spaces in jobs, a person ultimately wants to achieve self-determina-
- discrimination in different levels between and buildings of Rosengård? tion, the chance to decide and the opportunity to fullfill
- isolation your own goals in your own way in a dignifying way.
- lack of skills in the Swedish language Background
- slow adaptation to the new culture Following a proverb:
- unemployment Following Sartre, people are defined for what they do.
Using space as a tool than as a solution, lines of flight “Give a man a fish and you feed him once; teach a man to
fish and you feed him for a lifetime.”
How can this gap be bridged? become evident in everyday life.
Experience is what architecture does. Allow people to help themselves.
The Million Programme
“when you move in to Rosengård it’s not only a move in to the city, you move in to the modern time”
The “Chinese Wall” of Kryddgården: each of these two buildings is 250m long Impersonal architecture: buildings that look all the same are found across hundreds of The plan of Rosengård is characteristic of modernism, with sectorized functions, vast
and 9 stories high. They are currently used as student homes. meters. In which one do you live? open areas and a well-defined centre.
Modernism in the 1960’s Futurism and disenchantment White flight and substitution
In the 1960’s, Sweden faced a large Rosengård was initially seen as futuristic. Residents soon moved out. The balance of
housing deficit. white Swedes arriving and leaving continues
Its first residents were mostly white being negative.
The social democratic govern- Swedes. One third of them came from Malmö
ment started a programme to build and the surroundings. Compared to 1971, by 1991 Rosengård was 20-
1.000.000 new homes in 10 years. 25% under-occupied.
Rosengård was one such effort. However, reality soon stroke. The architec-
ture was abrupt and oppresive, green areas However, wars (from both Europe and else-
Known as The Million Programme, were largely empty and the buildings were where), famine, the search for a better life
it ultimately built 1.000.006 new regarded as gray boxes. and other events brought new residents to
homes. Many of these were det- the buildings of Rosengård.
tached, single-family dwellings. Due to cases like Rosengård’s, the Mil-
Others were apartment blocks, lion Programme stopped building high-rise Rosengård is especially vulnerable to global
which were cheap to build though apartment blocks. events.
often at the expense of aesthetics
and human scale. Rosengård became the future that wasn’t.
Rosengård is often on the news due to its riots. The last was this year.
The new tenants: attraction/rejection
1 2 3
Migration in Scandinavia
yearly average 2003 - 2007
per 1.000 inhabitants
*Or so I was warned.
the black veil
In the heart of it all,
yet separated by a black veil
After the white Swedish population began to leave Rosengård, the
neighborhood became underpopulated. By 1991, it was 20% under its cur-
rent capacity. However, wars, famine and other international crises
saw the arrival in Sweden of thousands of refugees, asylum seekers and
other kinds of migrants. Many of them ended up in Rosengård.
Progressively, the once-futuristic neighborhood became a ghetto with
its set of foreign, non-Western habits. Despite being only 10min
away from downtown Malmö, Rosengård became increasingly isolated from
<0 Swedish life, and today it is a place that some avoid, others ignore
and relatively few know in detail.
When you come to Sweden and end up in places like this, can you call
03 The Human Element
Who lives where?
Yugoslavia An excercise in sticking together
Bosnia The biggest minorities
Denmark in Rosengård’s districts
’t Iraq Iraq
e i Yugoslavia
n C Yugoslavia Somalia
# Rosengård Malmö
% of the population under 24 44 29
Young and unemployed
% of unemployed 6 3
io 7 50
ra 7 An x-ray of the new Swedes
34 57 44% of the population is under 24; a majority are women but
they are less visible in the streets.
Th 86% of the nearly 22.000 people here are first or second
32 po e y generation Swedes; white Swedes continue to leave.
un pul oun
3 em at ge
pl ed st The average person lives in Rosengård some 5 years; most
ed and mo units can be rented but not owned.
mo st Why be in a place you can’t own?
Scholarity and employment lag behind Malmö’s average. 20%
less people finish high school in Rosengård.
Many arrived as refugees from armed conflicts from coun-
tries like Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Afghanistan etc.
Football is very popular: FC Barcelona and Sweden National
Here’s the p Team striker Zlatan Ibrahimovic hails from Rosengård.
Parents and children: the other gap
When families migrate, a dichotomy is often present: while parents may feel
lonely and have trouble learning the language or habits of their new land
and find their culture to be relegated, migrant children (if they are young
enough) will often adapt quickly to their new land, and might consider it
their true home, over their country of origin. How does this gap feel?
t o tr
of p roducti
To close, I will say that silence would be a brutal denial. A silence that is now my curse and my punishment.
Til slutt vil jeg si at stillhet vil være en brutal fornektelse. En stillhet som nå blir min forbannelse og straff.
04 The neighborhood
Divide and use: functions in space
The soft walls Where have all the teachers gone? Meet me at the crossroads Spiritual growth
Sports facilities Open areas Places for education Residential areas Commerce Major road Intersection Worship Agriculture Religious
Open areas: cushion between the Kids go to school, but Trade is almost non-existant Activities of growth require
Million Programme and Malmö. schools stay away from them. away from the main roads. a pilgrimage.
The feeling of being there
1 2 3 1
and Limit and connection
2 cold 2
The fortress: building as boundary
1 Strangers confined. 2 Inner garden. 3 No-Man’s land.
The three Rosengårds South North
01 02 Monoliths in the desert
2. Inhuman scale
concepts 1. Lack
of identity 5. Abruptness
Initially intended to be interconnected with the rest of Malmö’s commercial life (such Though technically not in Rosen-
as Triangeln), Rosengård Centrum has become an architectural metaphore of its home com- gård (it lies in Hyllie, across
munity: in spite of its centric location, it is blind to its outside. the Inre Ringvägen, a few hundred
meters South of the Herrgården
As of 2010, there are plans within the commune of Malmö to open this blinded box to its district), the Mosque of Malmö is
surroundings, though it is worth mentioning that among its commercial offer, it has a the biggest in the entire city,
Middle Eastern gift shop and an Arabic book shop. and is the spiritual landmark for
the muslims of Rosengård, the
“RoCent” is built on a bridge that crosses Amiralgatan, and it contains one of Rosen- city and neighboring communities.
gård’s most important bus stops (located in a tunnel) which, ironically, is what most
Malmöers ever see of Rosengård. The mosque has been targeted by
arsonists a number of times.
05 Conceptual proposal
Planning the future... together
Today First effects of solidary trade
school + agriculture
Schools can teach basic urban
gardening. There’s plenty of
space in Rosengård to make
The great amount of open
space available in Rosengård
can be slowly converted to
a productive ground. People
can grow vegetables there,
and if there’s a surplus,
maybe even sell it. the shop
Due to the solidary trade
scheme operating in Rosen-
gård, now the neighbors can
co-finance small home busi-
nesses. Being the most pop-
ulated district, Herrgården
would be a good place to make
active solidary collaboration
Million Worship and Agri- Open
Major insertion trade
Programme Sports Education Commerce pedestrian
Programme spirituality culture areas
Issues to address
Active insertion Solidary trade
It involves a joint ef- The patchwork of Rosengård offers skills and experience for
fort and commitment. So activities such as having your clothes mended by a tailor or
far, the relationship getting your shoes fixed by a seasoned shoemaker.
has been mostly one sid- Solidary trade implies that this trade can happen in a
ed: a paint job here, a fair way: small businesses can find it difficult to compete
Inflexibility Distance Identity The gap Seclusion new park there. against traditional commerce, so Rosengård can become an
area of the city where its registered residents can enjoy tax
Monofunctionality. Lack of attachment Rosengård, the More unemployment. Not Sweden. Not
Active insertion im- exemptions for a period of time.
Little room for and identification place of riots. Less education. The home. So where is
plies that the people
change. Modernist between residents What more does it language and cul- Rosengård in the
of Rosengård WORK for For example:
urbanism in action. and community. have to offer? tural barrier. How local and national
achieving their goals,
to overcome it? psyche?
be it economic - reduced sales tax and business taxation for a period of 10
progress, self- years, available only to registered residents.
something else. - micro-businesses can be jointly financed between the Swed-
ish government, the EU and the residents in proportional
06 The lush neighborhood
Wind of change
The promenade of Kryddgården
2015 Currently a straight path connecting McDon-
ald’s with Rosengård Centrum, this strip of
Growth underway land (which, according to projections from
Malmö Stad, will be the place in Rosengård
to see the most growth in the years to come)
can tear down its fences and activate its ex-
isting basketball court, which can act as an
urban stage for buskers, preachers or break
teach your kids dancers. Chess boards or small shops can ca-
ter to everyone from a senior citizen to a
Small newspaper and maga- dog-lover.
zine libraries are opened
in the neighborhood. Maga-
zines appeal to youngsters
and newspapers to an older
audience, and they can func-
tion in apartments scattered
around the neighborhood. The
kommune can fund the project
and the neighbors can oper-
The bazaar of Herrgården
The most populated district
will continue growing. The
creation of jobs in this area
is vital and can be aided by
Rosengård-Games the presence of many skilled,
yet jobless people. Its cen-
Sports like BMX or skate- tric location between the
board have been around for Örtagården’s Skatepark mosque and Rosengård Centrum
over 20 years. Just like it also means an advantage in
happened in Västra Hamn (near With a population project- space.
the Turning Torso), a skate- ed to grow in the coming
park could be built here. years, Örtagården is a spe-
Being outdoors and made of cial place. Its many small
concrete, it requires rela- hills and large central open
tively little maintenance, space allow for a project
and the next Tony Hawk could of reconnection: reconnect-
come from Rosengård. ing the 9th floor with the
top of the world
street level, reconnect-
ing the old people with the
Rooftop gardening is another young people, and the arts
way to use an existing build- with sports.
ing. Smaller buildings (3
floors or so) would have more
benign temperatures and less
wind than 9-floor buildings,
and when they are not in the
shadows of high-rise build-
ings, they can receive an
entire day’s sunlight. This
would also allow for more di-
rect contact with the activ-
ity as Rosengård farmers may
not even have to leave their
buildings (useful, for exam-
ple, if you have small chil-
dren or reduced mobility).
Recovering the spirituality of the public space.
07 Map of lost experiences
the walk as a method
believe in yourself
A bedouin tent.
Get some walls dirty.
08 The Orchard
A place called Herrgården
A The commercial and administra-
ir tive centre of Rosengård.
It has been attacked by unknown
persons and its library and com-
puter room are understaffed.
Foreign shops in Sweden: a surprise box. The only personalized (?) feature are the antennae.
X Why here?
& sports place - Population: 4.900 people increase.
(probably higher), expected to
Includes football fields, skat-
ing rink, indoor gym, etc. riots in recent years.
- It’s one of the places that has seen
- It is the youngest and most unemployed neighborhood.
- 96% with foreign background.
- Large muslim population.
D The gardening area with shacks
to keep tools. Its eventual sur-
plus could be traded.
E The biggest mosque in Malmö.
Victim of arson several times.
A X D E
Land use concept
Conceptual proposal five actions to introduce on site
Connection Cohesion Transition Attachment Appropriation
Past, present and future.
Top row: exploratory models. Each model shows a conceptual intention to be introduced in the project.
Second row: the paintings derive from the models previously mentioned. They aim to explore architectural and compositional intentions.
Bottom: collages of spatial intentions, made using all the previous material.
hide and seek shopping centre = bazaar ?
locally grown run
locksmith vegetables jump
blacksmith grain climb
Snacks “ethnic” products
seamstress GROCERIES trust
share Taken from “The Persian Bazaar, veiled space of desire”
Halal HANDWORK games
talk by Mehdi Khansari & Minouch Yavari
home-made Mementos preach
bootlegged merchandise 1 2
FOOD newspapers and magazines crafts sing
dance “...In the modern world, manufacturing has “The other difference between traditional ba-
books graffiti disappeared from the shopping center. In the zaars and contemporary centers lies in the na-
SOUVENIRS skateboard traditional world, things were made in ba- ture and quality of their respective architec-
INFO BMX zaars. (...) ture. (...)
see & be seen
and new smoke Making things was not simply a technical ac- The architecture of the bazaar was an experience
traditional stroll tivity now gone from shopping centers, it was of discovery, it created a mystery in which
walk the dog a continuous sensory experience for the eyes, both men and things played a strange role, only
mending etc... the nose, the ears, at times the taste buds and partly defined through their specific function
even touch.” of selling and making or of buying and waiting
CLOTHING THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE to be bought.”
09 Happy Bomb
Chronology of growth
1 Today: transit space.
2 Use the existing first! -
Private spaces activate. 3 Transited areas come alive.
New ways to use space. 4 New activities bring new
ways to engage the place.
All over the place.
H ere you n,
m the rai
leave a message
n’t tell an
There was once a S but please
named Abdul Alha
and be seen
He had read so ma
books that he ha
mad. Mad like th
of the desert...
show Plan of suggested activities and spatial diagramation
Long section A-A
City of Malmö
public and private complexity and order management intimacy growth the veil
A bazaar alternates private and Bazaars feature a highly complex The bazaar is managed by both the munic- A number of islamic buildings The organizational scheme al- 1. The place used in different
public space. Private space al- structure, where activities are ipality and the community. This aims at (including souqs -markets-) lows for growth to happen as it ways by different people.
ready exists, while public space located according to their needs: balancing the economic interests with are organized around a central is needed. This is very impor-
is a blank sheet of paper. leather workers need ventilation what’s best for the community. court. In Rosengård, this has tant in a neighborhood, a place 2. A module showing its guts:
while food shops need open space. Want to open a small business? the effect of creating intimacy which can only be understood workshops, sales areas, shopper
Ask the neighbors! in a naked landscape. with time. areas, advertising, seeing...
3. Smell, touch, see, taste...
Skateboard repair shop. With over 10.000 youngsters, businesses like this have a potential market.
loss of control
Rosengård is a strict place. Its inhabitants are constantly told what
NOT to do. But what CAN they do? Architecture and development are
only successful when they transfer control and operation completely
to their user. Different from previous effort, involving the popu-
lation as part of the solution means that the ultimate fate of the
neighborhood will be in their hands.
Enjoying your neighborhood and making money in it have the advantage of improving your
bond to it. Rosengård is an impersonal neighborhood: all the buildings look the same,
most walls are clean, the architecture is completely anonymous. Re-conquering the space
and making the walls dirty (be it with graffiti or dirt) is the biggest act of pride.
Leaving my name on the wall means I wanna be identified with it.
Making the land produce: small, economic interventions can offer a point of social meeting and an option to work and produce, as well as other unplanned uses.
Rosengård has a negative Migrating is like growing up. You must make a name
reputation and it is for yourself, leave behind your home and flourish in
avoided by most people. a difficult environment.
By having the means to
make a decent living can Therefore, active insertion and the chance to work
offer the opportunity to offer that one thing which we find in successful
erase some myths. adults: emancipation.
The people of Rosengård, Emancipation means that you have succeeded in your
like the people of Västra quest for a better life.
Hamn, Stockholm or São
Paulo want, essentially,
one thing: the possibil-
ity to live in peace.
Not the end.
Instead of being known
for its riots, Rosengård
can be known for the hard
work of its people.
3 Lost and Found: in times of economic strife and unemployment, bartering offers the chance to exchange skills and goods.