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Analysis of Water observation Organization Based on GSM and Wireless Sensor Technology

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The idea of ‘Wireless Sensor Network’ (WSN) is the basic building block of a water quality monitoring using wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. To monitor water quality over different sites as a …

The idea of ‘Wireless Sensor Network’ (WSN) is the basic building block of a water quality monitoring using wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. To monitor water quality over different sites as a real-time application, an excellent system architecture constituted by distributing sensor nodes and a base station is suggested. The nodes and base station are connected using WSN technology like Zigbee. Base stations are connected via Ethernet. Design and implementation of a prototype model using WSN technology are the challenging work. Data collected by various sensors on the node side such as pH, turbidity and oxygen level is sent via WSN to the base station. Data collected from the remote site can be displayed in visual format as well as it can be analyzed using different simulation tools at the base station. This novel system has advantages such as no carbon emission, low power consumption, more flexible to deploy at remote sites and so on.

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  • 1. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Networking (IJWAMN)Vol. 2, No. 1(May 2014) 21 www.arpublicaion.org Analysis of Water observation Organization Based on GSM and Wireless Sensor Technology V.Karthikeyan Assistant professor Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SVS College of Engineering, Coimbatore karthick77keyan@gmail.com Abstract The idea of ‘Wireless Sensor Network’ (WSN) is the basic building block of a water quality monitoring using wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. To monitor water quality over different sites as a real-time application, an excellent system architecture constituted by distributing sensor nodes and a base station is suggested. The nodes and base station are connected using WSN technology like Zigbee. Base stations are connected via Ethernet. Design and implementation of a prototype model using WSN technology are the challenging work. Data collected by various sensors on the node side such as pH, turbidity and oxygen level is sent via WSN to the base station. Data collected from the remote site can be displayed in visual format as well as it can be analyzed using different simulation tools at the base station. This novel system has advantages such as no carbon emission, low power consumption, more flexible to deploy at remote sites and so on. Keyword: wireless sensor network, water quality monitoring, Zigbee technology, GSM. 1. INTRODUCTION: The 21st century of development, century of globalization and the lot much else, but the same coin has second side too, that is nothing but the 21st century is said to be the century of inventions, warming, insecurity and helpless health factors! One of the important and basic barrier is world’s population does not have safe water for drinking. The situation is even worse in some developing countries, where dirty or contaminated water is being used for drinking without any proper & prior treatment. One of the reasons for this happening is the ignorance of public & administration and the lack of water quality monitoring system and which creates serious health issues. [5] [6] This work started after considering the critical situation of the polluted natural water resources in Malaysia. Keeping our water resources so that it is always within a standard determined for domestic usage is a crucial task. As the country is making its progress through industrialization, our water resources are prone to a threat of pollution especially from the industrial activities. It is a challenge in the enforcement aspect as it is impossible for the authorities to continuously monitor the location of water resources due to limitation especially in manpower, facilities and the cost of equipment. This often leads to a too late to be handled situation. For that, it is important to have such a monitoring system with the characteristics of autonomy, lower cost,
  • 2. 22 www.arpublicaion.org reliable and flexible. The use of automation in monitoring task will reduce the reliance on man power at the monitoring site thus reducing the cost. This project focuses on the use of multiple sensors as a device to check the level of water quality as an alternative method of monitoring the condition of the water resources. Several sensors that are able to continuously read some parameters that indicate the water quality level such as chemical substances; conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity will be used to monitor the overall quality level. As the monitoring is intended to be carried out in a remote area with limited access, signal or data from the sensor unit will then be transmitted wirelessly to the base monitoring station. In a system of this kind, there are several nodes and a base station. Each node contains a group of sensors and the nodes are distributed in different water bodies. Data collected by sensors is sent to the base station via WSN channel. The base station is usually a PC with Graphic User Interface (GUI) for users to analyze water quality data or alarm automatically when water quality detected is below preset standards. The recorded data can be analyzed using various simulation tools for future correspondence and actions. [1][3][7]. 2. VARIOUS METHODOLOGIES: 2.1. Remote Water Pollution Monitoring System The sensor pH, turbidity and DO will be kept in the river water surface and the data captured by the sensor will be given to the PIC Micro controller, and then the data are transmitted wirelessly using a Zigbee module. The system is constituted by a base station and several sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are powered by Piezoelectric/Wind Energy module, while the data connection between the node and a base station is realized using WSN technology (IEEE 802.15.4). The modules included in the system architecture are as follows, 1. PIC microcontroller 2. ZIGBEE transceiver 3. GSM a) PIC Microcontroller A PIC microcontroller is a processor with built in memory and RAM and you can use it to control your projects. So it saves you build a circuit that has separate external RAM, ROM and peripheral chips. b) Zigbee Network Zigbee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks [4]. Applications include wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, and other consumer and industrial equipment that require short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low rates. The technology defined by the Zigbee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. Zigbee has a defined rate of 250 kbps best suited for periodic or intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or input device [4] [9].
  • 3. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Networking (IJWAMN)Vol. 2, No. 1(May 2014) 23 www.arpublicaion.org c) GSM A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone. 2.2 Water Quality Wireless Sensor Network (WQWSN): For the initial deployment of the system, we are interested in studying fluctuations in pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Sensor data need to be gathered at intervals of one hour, and data collection has to be automated and the data easily retrievable at the end of the observation period. The ultimate purpose of the WQWSN is to automate the monitoring of drinking water quality. The general work flow of the system to be designed consists of (1) taking water quality samples at a pre-defined time of the day, (2) sending and storing sampled data at the gateway station, (3) going to sleep afterwards and (4) waking up and repeating the previous steps. a) The wireless sensor gateway layer The gateway is one of the most important components upon which the efficiency of the sensing activity of a WSN depends. It collects all the information received from the motes in a database and makes this information available usually via a wireless network. The scenario requires a device designed around the following constraints: low-power consumption, high storage capabilities, flexible connectivity, low cost. b) The wireless sensor node layer The wireless sensor nodes were assembled from commercially available SunSPOT motes [8] with an additional board. The Sun SPOT system uses JavaTM technology to up-level programming. The Sun SPOT drops into a power saving mode (”shallow sleep”) to reduce power consumption and extend battery life whenever all threads become idle. A Sun SPOT kit comes with two free- range Sun SPOT units and one base station unit. The base station unit is thinner, does not have a battery board, communicates wirelessly with the free-range units and streams the data via a USB connection. The Sun SPOTs were selected for their ease of use and available interfaces. c) The water sensor board layer All data can be saved and downloaded directly to a computer via the standard RS232 port. The 90-FLT water quality sensor is composed of a main unit and some sensor probes: turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The probes are the parts to be immersed in water, while the main unit must be outside. The main actor in the system is the wireless sensor node. During a measurement, it 1) wakes up, 2) fetches the latest data from the 90-FLT and 3) passes the data to the SunSPOT base station. Fetching data is the process of communicating with the 90-FLT sensor. It includes waking up the sensor by sending a specific string via the serial connection, reading data from the sensor, and turning the sensor off by sensing another string. Passing data to the SunSPOT base station, on the other hand, include assembling data in a more readable format and sending it via radio to the host station. The SunSPOT base station is connected via USB to the gateway and data coming from the free-range Sun SPOTs reach the SunSPOT base station via an 805.14 wireless link. The Java code running on the base station connects to the MySQL database that runs on the gateway and stores the received data in the database. The SunSPOT base station is also responsible for 1) sending the configuration files to the free-range Sun SPOTs (containing the measurement times) and 2) synchronizing the clocks.
  • 4. 24 www.arpublicaion.org d) Performance evaluation: We considered different performance parameters. These include: (1) the power consumption and (2) the lifetime of the sensor network in different sensing scenarios. While the power consumption is a parameter that measures the power utility of a wireless sensor device, a wireless sensor network lifetime is expressed by the battery levels of its components. A lower power consuming wireless sensor network is preferable to a higher power consuming wireless sensor network. 3. Water Quality Monitoring By Means of Sensing Node: The 1 sensing node and data transmission of wireless network design Water environment monitoring network is divided into four parts, underwater monitoring node, underwater communication network, the communication network, information early warning system. a) Underwater Sensor Node: The sensor module comprises a temperature sensor, pH sensors, oxygen sensors, copper ion sensor, iron ion sensors and other components; underwater buoy is mainly used to control the depth of a node; the sensor monitoring data for low frequency analog signal, amplified and converted into digital signals need, such that the microprocessor can identify. The underwater wireless sensor networks are based on the acoustic signal of wireless communication requires the use of the electrical signal and sound signal conversion of the underwater acoustic transducer. Fig .1 Underwater Sensor Node system b) The Surface of Sensor Node: Deployed on the surface of the wireless sensor network node using solar energy storage power supply, using GPS precise positioning, direct and satellite communications Wireless sensor network is mainly responsible for the surface and underwater sensor network information transmission, and the automatic network, and the associated data transmission ZigBee coordinator, then by the GPRS transmit data as shown in figure 10.
  • 5. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Networking (IJWAMN)Vol. 2, No. 1(May 2014) 25 www.arpublicaion.org Fig. 2 Surface Sensor Nodes Constructed system 4. Water Environment Monitoring System a) System Block Diagram Different data monitoring node’s distributed in water to measure water parameter such as pH, turbidity, water level and temperature of water. Fig 3. System Block Diagram Data monitoring node’s store all measured parameter and also performing functions such as temperature compensation, linearization and data packaging, the parameter measured by different node’s are analog in nature. Data monitoring node’s store all measured parameter and also performing functions such as temperature compensation, linearization and data packaging, the parameter measured by different node’s are analog in nature. b) Data Monitoring Node The measuring functions of data monitoring nodes are collecting the parameter such as temperature, turbidity, water level and the pH of the water to be monitored. Four sensor temperature sensor, Water level sensor, Turbidity sensor and pH sensor installed onto a monitoring node can meet the above needs and realize the linearization and temperature compensation for the data collected Setting up the wireless sensor network based on Zig-bee protocol. [16]
  • 6. 26 www.arpublicaion.org Fig .4 System Architecture of Data Monitoring Node c) Data Base Station: The processor is the main hardware for the data base station. It also uses the co-processor to transmit monitoring data based on the Zig-bee protocol between the data base station and data monitoring sub-network, a Zigbee module is used to realize remote data communication between the data monitoring center and data base station. The Flash memory is used to Store the historical data and also provided with man-machine interface. The main hardware processor improves the real time performance of the system. [16] Fig .5 Hardware for Data Base Station 5. Water Monitoring With UV Light Fluorescence Method: Most small water bodies are contaminated by bacterial e.g. Fecal contamination, total coli form, etc. [17,18]. Thus there is a need for the development of a more direct, rapid, remote and sensitive techniques for detection of bacterial contamination in water. To develop a novel water monitoring system using WSN technology, UV light and Fluorescence as a monitoring tool for observing water quality and show the feasibility of the developed novel system as a working model for remote detection and monitoring of bacterial contamination in open water bodies.
  • 7. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Networking (IJWAMN)Vol. 2, No. 1(May 2014) 27 www.arpublicaion.org Fig.6 Water quality monitoring design based on UV Light, Fluorescence and WSN. TABLE-1 S.No. Various Methods Performance 1 Zigbee based wireless sensor network 98% 2 GSM based remote water pollution monitoring system 96% 3 Design of water quality wireless sensor network (WQWSN) 91% 4 WSN and GSM technology 92% 5 Water Monitoring With UV Light Fluorescence Method 94% 6. CONCLUSION: In this paper, a novel water quality monitoring system Zigbee based on wireless sensor network offering low power consumption with high reliability is presented. The use of high power WSN is suitable for activities in industries involving large area monitoring such as manufacturing, constructing, mining etc. Another important fact of this system is the easy installation of the system where the base station can be placed at the local residence close to the target area and the monitoring task can be done by any person with minimal training at the beginning of the system installation. The system is constituted by a base station and several sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are powered by Piezoelectric/Wind Energy module, while the data connection between the node and a base station is realized using WSN technology (IEEE 802.15.4). On the node side, water quality data are collected by different sensors such as pH, DO and turbidity. UV light Fluorescence Bacteria characterization and Quantification Body of water
  • 8. 28 www.arpublicaion.org REFERENCES: [1] Web Based Water Quality Monitoring with Sensor Network: Employing ZigBee and WiMax Technologies by Steven Silva, Hoang N Ghia Nguyen , Valentina Tiporlini and Kamal Alameh, 978-1-4577-1169-5/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE [2] Coronet, ZMN2405/HP ZigbeeTM Module Developer’s Kit User Manual, Rev A 2007. [3] F.Akyildiz lan, Su Weilian, Sankarasubramaniam Yogesh etc. A Survey on Sensor Networks 0163- 6804/02 2002 IEEE. [4] Li pengfei, Li is joking, Jing junfeng” Wireless Temperature Monitoring System Based on the Zigbee Technology”2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology 2010.100 [5] F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 393-422, 2002. [6] Tuan Le Dinh; Wen Hu; Sikka, P.; Corke, P.; Overs, L.; Brosnan, S,“Design and Deployment of a Remote Robust Sensor Network: Experiences from an Outdoor Water Quality Monitoring Network,” Local Computer Networks, 32nd IEEE Conference on, pp 799-806, 2007. [7] Puccinelli, D.; Haenggi, M., “Wireless sensor networks: applications and challenges of ubiquitous sensing,” Circuits and Systems Magazine, IEEE, Vol.5, Issue 3, 2005. [8] Sunspot world. Available: http://www.sunspotworld.com [9] Deng Yu, when Juan “Application of Remote Sensing Monitoring System in the Yellow River” 2nd international conference on signal processing system (ICSPS) 2010 [10] Akyildiz I F, Pompili D, Melodia T. St ate of the art in protocol research for underwater acoustic sensor networks [c] Proc of the 1s t ACM In t Workshop on Underwater Networks . New York: ACM, 2006: 7- 16. [11] Rice J, Green D. Underwater acoustic communications and networks in the US Navy’s Sea web program [c] Proc of the 2nd Int Conf on Sensor Technologies and Applications .Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2008: 715- 722. [12] Vasil escu I, Kot ay K, Rus D, et al. Data collection, storage, and retrieval with an underwater sensor network [c] Proc of the ACM SenSys 05. New York: ACM, 2005:154- 165. [13] United Nations, ”Water, a shared responsibility”, The 2nd UN World Water Development Report, March 2006. [14] J. Bartram and R. Balance, ”Water Quality Monitoring - A Practical Guide to the Design and Implementation of Freshwater Quality Studies and Monitoring Programs”, Edited by Published on behalf of the United Nations Environment Program and the World Health Organization, ISBN 0 419 22320 7 (Hbk) 0 419 21730 4 (Pbk), 1996. [15] Wills J, Ye Wei, Heidem Ann J. Low power acoustic modem for dense underwater sensor networks [c] Proc of the 1st ACM Int Workshop on Underwater Networks. New York: ACM, 2006: 79- 85. [16]. Gold, “Steve. Cracking GSM,” Network Security, 2011, 4: 12-15. [17] K.G, Lamka M. W. LeChevallier and R. J. Seidler, “Bacterial contamination of drinking water supplies in a modern rural neighborhood,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., Vol. 39, pp. 734-738,1980. [18] R. Henderson, A. Baker, K. Murphy, A. Hambly, R. States and khan, “Fluorescence as a potential monitoring tool for recycled water systems: A review,” Water Res., Vol. 43, pp. 863-881, 2009. [19] Peng Jiang, Zheming Wang, “Design of a water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor network”IEEE 2nd International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, pp., 2010 [20] Jin, Liu, Y-W An overview of the water Environment water resource. 2009, 27, 33-36.
  • 9. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Networking (IJWAMN)Vol. 2, No. 1(May 2014) 29 www.arpublicaion.org Author Prof.V.Karthikeyan has received his Bachelor’s Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from PGP college of Engineering and Technology in 2003, Namakkal, India, He received Masters Degree in Applied Electronics from KSR college of Technology, and Erode in 2006 He is currently working as Assistant Professor in SVS College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore. He has about 8 years of Teaching Experience