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  1. 1. Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking, Language, and Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Thinking <ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>study these mental activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concept formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>judgment formation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Thinking <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental image or best example of a category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Thinking <ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Thinking <ul><li>Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually speedier than algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more error-prone than algorithms </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Thinking <ul><li>Unscramble </li></ul><ul><li>S P L O Y O C H Y G </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all 907,208 combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>throw out all YY combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other heuristics? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Thinking <ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasts with strategy-based solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inability to see a problem from a new perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Matchstick Problem <ul><li>How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Candle-Mounting Problem <ul><li>Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thinking <ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Matchstick Problem <ul><li>Solution to the matchstick problem </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Candle-Mounting Problem <ul><li>Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container </li></ul>
  13. 13. Heuristics <ul><li>Representativeness Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may lead one to ignore other relevant information </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Heuristics <ul><li>Availability Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: airplane crash </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Thinking <ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to be more confident than correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Thinking <ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the way an issue is posed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief Perseverance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Language <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Language <ul><li>We are all born to recognize speech sounds from </li></ul><ul><li>all the world’s languages </li></ul>100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 months 10-12 months English- speaking adults Infants from English-speaking homes
  19. 19. Language <ul><li>Babbling Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning at 3 to 4 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from about age 1 to 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Language <ul><li>Two-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning about age 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.
  22. 22. Language <ul><li>Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain </li></ul>
  23. 23. Language <ul><li>New language learning gets harder with age </li></ul>100 90 80 70 60 50 Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 17-39 Percentage correct on grammar test Age at school
  24. 24. Language <ul><li>Linguistic Determinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Language <ul><li>The interplay of thought and language </li></ul>
  26. 26. Animal Thinking and Language <ul><li>Gestured Communication </li></ul>
  27. 27. Animal Thinking and Language <ul><li>Is this really language? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Mental Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Stanford-Binet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>revised by Terman at Stanford University </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence Quotient (IQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ = ma/ca x 100 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. What is Intelligence? <ul><li>Factor Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Intelligence (g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measured by every task on an intelligence test </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Are There Multiple Intelligences? <ul><li>Savant Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drawing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Are There Multiple Intelligences? <ul><li>Social Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Intelligence and Creativity <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>imaginative thinking skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>venturesome personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creative environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most widely used intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subtests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>verbal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance (nonverbal) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Aptitude Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a test designed to predict a person’s future performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aptitude is the capacity to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a test designed to assess what a person has learned </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal Curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The Normal Curve
  40. 40. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test yields consistent results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed by consistency of scores on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two halves of the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alternate forms of the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Content Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>driving test that samples driving tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Predictive Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called criterion-related validity </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. The Dynamics of Intelligence <ul><li>Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a condition of limited mental ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indicated by an intelligence score below 70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varies from mild to profound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. The Dynamics of Intelligence
  45. 45. Genetic Influences <ul><li>The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores </li></ul>
  46. 46. Genetic Influences <ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variability depends on range of populations and environments studied </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Genetic Influences
  48. 48. Environmental Influences <ul><li>The Schooling Effect </li></ul>
  49. 49. Group Differences <ul><li>The Mental Rotation Test </li></ul>Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at the left? Standard Responses
  50. 50. Group Differences <ul><li>Stereotype Threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype </li></ul></ul>