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Myers’  EXPLORING   PSYCHOLOGY   (6th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin...
Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience </...
Association <ul><li>We learn by association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequenc...
Association <ul><li>Learning to associate two events </li></ul>Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail sho...
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>We learn to associate two stimuli </li></ul>
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>We learn to associate a response and its consequence </li></ul>
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1849-1936 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian physician/...
Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulu...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Pavlov’s device for recording salivation </li></ul>
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organism comes to associate two stimuli </li><...
Behaviorism <ul><li>John B. Watson   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viewed psychology as objective science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus that unconditionally--automatic...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originally irrelevant stimulus that, after ...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the initial stage in classical conditioning </li></ul></u...
Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate  kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion  breath) CR (sexual arousal...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing of a CR  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in classic...
Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous r...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reappearance, after a rest period, of an extingu...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in classical conditioning, the learned ability to dist...
Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Pa...
Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting  room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug)...
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type of learning in which behavior is strengthened...
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operates (acts) on environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>B.F. Skinner  (1904-1990) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></u...
Operant Chamber <ul><li>Skinner Box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a...
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any event that strengthens the behavior it follows </li></ul...
Operant Conditioning
Principles of Reinforcement <ul><li>Primary Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>innately reinforcing stimulus </li></ul></ul>...
Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcing the desired response each ti...
Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Ratio (FR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response only after a specified num...
Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Variable Ratio (VR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response after an unpredictable ...
Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Interval (FI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response only after a specified ...
Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Variable Interval (VI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response at unpredictable tim...
Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of  responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) F...
Punishment <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows </li></ul><...
Punishment
Cognition and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Cognitive Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental representation of the layout of one’...
Cognition and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to perform a behavior for its...
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
Observational Learning <ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning by observing others </li></ul></ul><u...
Observational Learning <ul><li>Mirror Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain...
Observational Learning <ul><li>Alfred Bandura’s Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo doll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we ...
Observational Learning <ul><li>Prosocial Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive, constructive, helpful behavior </li></ul...
Observational Learning <ul><li>This 14-month-old boy is imitating behavior he has seen on TV </li></ul>
Television and Observational Learning
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Ch7

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  1. 1. Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Association <ul><li>We learn by association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle 2000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Associative Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning that two events occur together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a response and its consequences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Association <ul><li>Learning to associate two events </li></ul>Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
  5. 5. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>We learn to associate two stimuli </li></ul>
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>We learn to associate a response and its consequence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1849-1936 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian physician/ neurophysiologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in 1904 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>studied digestive secretions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Pavlov’s device for recording salivation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organism comes to associate two stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Behaviorism <ul><li>John B. Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viewed psychology as objective science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generally agreed-upon consensus today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not universally accepted by all schools of thought today </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UCR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>salivation when food is in the mouth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the initial stage in classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
  16. 16. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing of a CR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR
  18. 18. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated
  21. 21. Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
  22. 22. Classical Conditioning
  23. 23. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operates (acts) on environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondent Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs as an automatic response to stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior learned through classical conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developed behavioral technology </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Operant Chamber <ul><li>Skinner Box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains devices to record responses </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any event that strengthens the behavior it follows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Operant Conditioning
  29. 29. Principles of Reinforcement <ul><li>Primary Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>innately reinforcing stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., satisfies a biological need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary reinforcer </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcing a response only part of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results in slower acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater resistance to extinction </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Ratio (FR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster you respond the more rewards you get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very high rate of responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like piecework pay </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Variable Ratio (VR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like gambling, fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Interval (FI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Variable Interval (VI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces slow steady responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like pop quiz </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80
  36. 36. Punishment <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>powerful controller of unwanted behavior </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Punishment
  38. 38. Cognition and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Cognitive Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental representation of the layout of one’s environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Cognition and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
  41. 41. Observational Learning <ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning by observing others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of observing and imitating a specific behavior </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Observational Learning <ul><li>Mirror Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Observational Learning <ul><li>Alfred Bandura’s Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo doll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we look and we learn </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Observational Learning <ul><li>Prosocial Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive, constructive, helpful behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opposite of antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Observational Learning <ul><li>This 14-month-old boy is imitating behavior he has seen on TV </li></ul>
  46. 46. Television and Observational Learning
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