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Adler clark 4e ppt 04

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    • 1. Selecting Researchable Topics and Questions Chapter 4
    • 2. Introduction
      • Research Question
        • Questions about one or more topics or concepts that can be answered through research
        • A research question can be about local or global governments, individuals or organizations, and an entire society
    • 3. Introduction
      • Research Topic
        • A concept, subject or issue that can be studied through research
    • 4. Discussion - Question
      • Create a research question about the social impact of living through a natural disaster.
        • Do you know people who lived through a natural disaster such as a hurricane, a tornado, a tsunami, or the like?
        • In what ways do you think their lives have changed?
        • Do you think their experiences are typical or unusual?
    • 5. Introduction
      • Hypothesis
        • A testable statement about how two or more variables are expected to be related to one another
    • 6. Introduction
      • Research question vs. Hypothesis
        • A research question is similar to a hypothesis, except that a hypothesis presents an expectation about the way two or more variables are related, but a research question does not
        • Research projects that have explanatory or evaluation purposes typically begin with one or more hypotheses, most exploratory and some descriptive projects start with a research question
    • 7. Introduction
      • Focal research
        • “Studying Women’s Lives: Family Focus in the 30s ”
          • Hoffnung had personal experiences and professional interests that set the stage for her study of women’s lives
          • Research provides basic information about the social world and understandings that can be applied to creating social policy
    • 8. Quiz – Question 1
      • Identify ethical issues from the focal research.
      • How were the ethical issues handled?
    • 9. Introduction
      • Sources of research questions
        • The selection of a research question is often the result of many factors
          • Personal interests, experiences, values, and passions
          • The desire to satisfy scientific curiosity
          • Previous work -- or the lack of it -- on a topic
          • The current political, economic, and social climates
          • Being able to get access to data
          • Having a way to fund a study
    • 10. Introduction
      • Values and Science
        • Value Free?
          • Research in the 19 th and much of 20 th century science was considered “value-free”
          • Today, values, both social and personal, are part of all human endeavors, including science
          • Group interests and values can influence research, especially influential during the creating and evaluation of hypotheses
          • Social and personal values are not necessarily bad
            • The danger comes when scientists allow their values to introduce biases into their work that distort the results of scientific investigation
    • 11. Introduction
      • Personal Factors
        • Personal interests often influence researchers’ specific research topics
        • Having a strong personal interests can lead to the willingness to the make the necessary investment of time and energy
        • Research by Hoffnung (2000)
            • Personal interest in career and motherhood influenced her work
    • 12. Introduction
      • Research and the Social, Political and Economic World
        • Change in society influences amount of research on topics
          • E.g. Gender, Sexual Orientation
            • Before the 1970s, few studies focused on women, as a result of the women's movement in the late 1960s and early 70s, scholars began to study women and their lives
          • Current events focus attention: e.g. natural disasters, swine flu, etc…
    • 13. Introduction
      • Research Funding
        • “ It is always difficult to raise money for social science research; after all, it neither directly saves thousands of lives nor enables one to kills thousands of people” (Fischman et al., 2004).
        • Many research projects are funded through private foundations, government agencies, local and state institutions, or corporate sponsors
    • 14. Introduction
      • Research Funding
        • Funding research expresses a value choice
          • The particular values associated with a specific project affect funding as the appropriations process for research is part of a larger political process
        • The availability of funding and economic support can influence a study
          • The questions asked
          • The amount and kind of data collected
          • The availability of the resulting research report
    • 15. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Researchable question
        • A question that can be answered with research that is feasible
    • 16. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Transforming a research question to a research able question
        • Narrow down the broad area of interest into something that is manageable
    • 17. Developing a Researchable Question
        • Example: Cell phones
            • You cannot study everything connected to cell phones
            • You could study the effect of cell phones on family relationships
            • You cannot study all age groups, but you can study a few
            • You might not be able to study people in many communities, but you might be able to study one or two
            • You would not be able to study dozens of behaviors or attitudes that change overtime, but you could study some current attitudes and behaviors
            • In the community in which I live, how does cell phone use affect parent-child relationships; more specifically, how does the use of cell phones affect parents’ and adolescents’ attempts to maintain and resist parental authority?
    • 18. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Reviewing the Literature
        • The process of searching for, reading, summarizing, and synthesizing existing work on a topic or the resulting written summary of a search
    • 19. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Reviewing the Literature
        • Academic Sources
          • To start a literature review, you will need to figure out which literature or sources you want to search
            • Books, articles, and government documents are the most common sources
            • Popular literature, including newspapers and magazines, might be good sources of ideas, but academic journals will be more useful in your literature review
    • 20. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Reviewing the Literature
        • Keywords
          • The terms used to search for sources in a literature review
            • With common keywords you will generate a large number of sources – you can limit the search to title and abstracts only
            • You can use multiple keywords by including “and” between terms
    • 21. Developing a Researchable Question
        • Reviewing the Literature
          • Using the literature in a study
            • Helps researcher to identify their own research question or hypothesis
            • Examine what previous researchers have used
            • Provide context for your own work
            • Provides an overview of the current state of research and narrows your inquiry
    • 22. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Practical matters
        • Feasibility
          • Whether it is practical to complete a study in terms of access, time, and money
    • 23. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Practical matters
        • Access
          • The ability to obtain the information needed to answer a research question
    • 24. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Practical matters
        • Research costs
          • All monetary expenditures needed for planning, executing, and reporting research
          • Although many research projects are grant funded a grant is NOT necessary
    • 25. Developing a Researchable Question
      • Practical matters
        • Time expenditures
          • The time it takes to complete all activities of a research project from the planning stage to the final report
    • 26. Summary
      • Research questions can vary in scope and purpose
      • A review of the literature is essential
      • Planning a study
        • Time
        • Money
        • Access to data
    • 27. Quiz – Question 2
      • We can expect that the interest in certain research topics will change over time. This is due to
        • a. different sources of funding.
        • changing political, social, and economic elements.
        • changing personal factors.
        • all of the above
        • none of the above
    • 28. Quiz – Question 3
      • Some topics that may be interesting and important but gaining access to the population may be very difficult. Which of the following presents the greatest obstacles?
        • College students living in a dormitory
        • Individuals who are members of a bowling league
        • Children who are hospitalized for minor illness
        • Individuals who are members of a secret cult
        • Singles who go on singles’ cruises