Ethics and Social Research Chapter 3
Introduction <ul><li>Ethical principles in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of values, standards, and principles use...
Introduction <ul><li>Stop and Think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you know of any research projects in the social sciences, med...
Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Psychological Association (...
Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total disregard for the human dignit...
Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuremberg Code   </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Energy Commission  </li></ul>...
Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tuskegee Syphilis Study  </li></...
Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional review board (IRB) </l...
Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>What is the primary factor to consider in determining the needed level of IRB review? </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>Focal research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Ethical Concerns and Researcher Responsibilities in Studying Wo...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of moral and social standards that inclu...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunta...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Stop and Think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should give informed consent in a ...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunta...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntar...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntar...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymi...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymi...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymi...
Quiz – Question 2 <ul><li>What two principles did Humphrey’s violate? </li></ul>
Principles for Doing Ethical Research  <ul><li>Ethical issues concerning colleagues and the general public </li></ul><ul><...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Ethical dilemmas during and after data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who ...
Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Ethical dilemmas during and after data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conf...
Conflicts Between Ethical Concerns and Legal Matters <ul><li>Research by Calvey (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Leo (...
Conflicts Between Ethical Principles and Research Interests <ul><li>Research by Jackall (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Research ...
Ethics and Publishing Results <ul><li>Research by Ellis and colleagues (2008) </li></ul>
Making Decisions to Maximize Benefit and Minimize Risk <ul><li>Think about the consequences of doing a given study as oppo...
Summary <ul><li>Protect research participants from harm </li></ul><ul><li>Get informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure t...
Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>Of the following ways to do research, which is likely to involve the most serious ethical concer...
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Adler clark 4e ppt 03

  1. 1. Ethics and Social Research Chapter 3
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Ethical principles in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of values, standards, and principles used to determine appropriate and acceptable conduct at all stages of the research process </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Stop and Think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you know of any research projects in the social sciences, medicine, or biology where researchers did something that was ethically questionable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was it about the study that raised questions for you? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Psychological Association (APA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Sociological Association (ASA) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total disregard for the human dignity perpetrated during World War II by researchers in concentration camps controlled by Nazi Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of wounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to chemical-warfare agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential to have voluntary consent of human subjects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuremberg Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principles about research on human beings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Energy Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted research on the effects of radiation on human subjects, including medical research on using radioisotopes to diagnose or cure disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-comatose cancer patients were injected with plutonium to determine how much uranium was needed to produce kidney damage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tuskegee Syphilis Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted by the United States Public Health Service to study the effect of untreated syphilis to determine the natural history of the disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project began in 1932 and lasted 40 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample began with 399 poor black men with late-stage syphilis. In the end, the study included a total of 600 men. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offered free medical care in exchange for their medical data. None were told that they had syphilis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 400 were not offered the standard treatment for syphilis. They were also not provided penicillin when it became available as a cure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the men died of the disease and some unknowingly transmitted the disease to their wives and children. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Historical perspectives on research ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional review board (IRB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The committee at a college, university, or research center responsible for evaluating the ethics of proposed research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of IRB review </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>What is the primary factor to consider in determining the needed level of IRB review? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Focal research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Ethical Concerns and Researcher Responsibilities in Studying Women with HIV/AIDS” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process of conducting research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical practices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using informed consent procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent’s privacy and confidentiality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving the integrity of the respondent’s narratives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of moral and social standards that includes both prohibitions against and prescriptions for specific kinds of behavior in research </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect study participants from harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principle that participants in studies are not harmed, physically, psychologically, emotionally, legally, socially, or financially as a result of their participation in a study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milgram experiment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary participation and informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principle that study participants choose to participate of their own free will </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A statement that describes the study and the researcher and formally requests participation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Stop and Think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should give informed consent in a study involving students under 18? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The students? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their parents? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary participation and informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive consent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When no response is considered an affirmative consent to participate in research; also called “opt out informed consent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary participation and informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are participants really volunteers? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have you ever been asked by an instructor while your were his or her student to participate in a study they were conducting? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were you ever asked while in a class to complete a questionnaire or participate in an interview? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did you feel an pressure or did you feel you could decline easily? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are students in these situations truly volunteers? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary participation and informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical to observe people in public, without there knowledge? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study college students by letting them assume you are one of them </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data by attending an AA meeting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research participants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality (privacy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When no third party knows the identities of the research participants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping the information disclosed by study participants, including their identities, from all other parties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Principles regarding participants in research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tearoom Trade - Humphreys </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Quiz – Question 2 <ul><li>What two principles did Humphrey’s violate? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Ethical issues concerning colleagues and the general public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ethical responsibility to produce and report accurate data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Ethical dilemmas during and after data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who owns the data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose interpretation counts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has veto power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the researcher’s obligations after the data are collected? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the data be used against the participants? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the data be used on their behalf? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do researchers have an obligation to protect the communities and the social groups they study or just to guard the rights of individuals? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Principles for Doing Ethical Research <ul><li>Ethical dilemmas during and after data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts between ethical principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research by Ptacek (1988) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research by Yassour-Borochowitz (2004) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Conflicts Between Ethical Concerns and Legal Matters <ul><li>Research by Calvey (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Leo (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Scarce (1995) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Conflicts Between Ethical Principles and Research Interests <ul><li>Research by Jackall (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Frankenberg (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Rollins (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Lauder (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Research by Ward and Henderson (2003) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ethics and Publishing Results <ul><li>Research by Ellis and colleagues (2008) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Making Decisions to Maximize Benefit and Minimize Risk <ul><li>Think about the consequences of doing a given study as opposed to not doing the study </li></ul><ul><li>Consider all options and methods to find a research strategy that balances being ethical, being practical, with the likelihood of obtaining good quality data </li></ul>
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>Protect research participants from harm </li></ul><ul><li>Get informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure the study participants have not been pressured into volunteering </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data anonymously or keep data confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Submit the research proposal to a review board </li></ul><ul><li>Provide accurate research findings </li></ul><ul><li>Consider responsibilities to research colleagues and the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize benefits and minimize risks </li></ul>
  31. 31. Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>Of the following ways to do research, which is likely to involve the most serious ethical concerns? </li></ul><ul><li>In person interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Mail in questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Observation in a public place </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing data from a secondary source </li></ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul>
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