Adler clark 4e ppt 03
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Adler clark 4e ppt 03 Adler clark 4e ppt 03 Presentation Transcript

  • Ethics and Social Research Chapter 3
  • Introduction
    • Ethical principles in research
      • The set of values, standards, and principles used to determine appropriate and acceptable conduct at all stages of the research process
  • Introduction
    • Stop and Think
      • Do you know of any research projects in the social sciences, medicine, or biology where researchers did something that was ethically questionable?
      • What was it about the study that raised questions for you?
  • Introduction
    • Historical perspectives on research ethics
      • American Psychological Association (APA)
      • American Sociological Association (ASA)
  • Introduction
    • Historical perspectives on research ethics
      • Total disregard for the human dignity perpetrated during World War II by researchers in concentration camps controlled by Nazi Germany
        • Air pressure
        • Cold water
        • Treatment of wounds
        • Exposure to chemical-warfare agents
        • Essential to have voluntary consent of human subjects
  • Introduction
    • Historical perspectives on research ethics
      • Nuremberg Code
        • Principles about research on human beings
  • Introduction
    • Historical perspectives on research ethics
      • Atomic Energy Commission
        • Conducted research on the effects of radiation on human subjects, including medical research on using radioisotopes to diagnose or cure disease
        • Semi-comatose cancer patients were injected with plutonium to determine how much uranium was needed to produce kidney damage
  • Introduction
    • Historical perspectives on research ethics
      • The Tuskegee Syphilis Study
        • Conducted by the United States Public Health Service to study the effect of untreated syphilis to determine the natural history of the disease
        • Project began in 1932 and lasted 40 years
        • Sample began with 399 poor black men with late-stage syphilis. In the end, the study included a total of 600 men.
        • Offered free medical care in exchange for their medical data. None were told that they had syphilis.
        • More than 400 were not offered the standard treatment for syphilis. They were also not provided penicillin when it became available as a cure.
        • Many of the men died of the disease and some unknowingly transmitted the disease to their wives and children.
  • Introduction
    • Historical perspectives on research ethics
      • Institutional review board (IRB)
        • The committee at a college, university, or research center responsible for evaluating the ethics of proposed research
        • Levels of IRB review
  • Quiz – Question 1
    • What is the primary factor to consider in determining the needed level of IRB review?
  • Introduction
    • Focal research
      • “Ethical Concerns and Researcher Responsibilities in Studying Women with HIV/AIDS”
        • Process of conducting research
          • Ethical practices
            • Using informed consent procedures
            • Respondent’s privacy and confidentiality
            • Preserving the integrity of the respondent’s narratives
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Ethics
      • A set of moral and social standards that includes both prohibitions against and prescriptions for specific kinds of behavior in research
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Protect study participants from harm
        • The principle that participants in studies are not harmed, physically, psychologically, emotionally, legally, socially, or financially as a result of their participation in a study
        • Milgram experiment
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Voluntary participation and informed consent
        • The principle that study participants choose to participate of their own free will
        • Informed consent
          • A statement that describes the study and the researcher and formally requests participation
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Stop and Think
      • Who should give informed consent in a study involving students under 18?
        • The students?
        • Their parents?
        • Both?
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Voluntary participation and informed consent
        • Passive consent
          • When no response is considered an affirmative consent to participate in research; also called “opt out informed consent
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Voluntary participation and informed consent
        • Are participants really volunteers?
          • Have you ever been asked by an instructor while your were his or her student to participate in a study they were conducting?
          • Were you ever asked while in a class to complete a questionnaire or participate in an interview?
            • Did you feel an pressure or did you feel you could decline easily?
            • Are students in these situations truly volunteers?
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Voluntary participation and informed consent
        • Is it ethical to observe people in public, without there knowledge?
          • Study college students by letting them assume you are one of them
          • Gather data by attending an AA meeting
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Anonymity and confidentiality
        • Anonymity
          • When no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research participants
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Anonymity and confidentiality
        • Confidentiality (privacy)
          • When no third party knows the identities of the research participants
          • Keeping the information disclosed by study participants, including their identities, from all other parties
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Principles regarding participants in research
      • Anonymity and confidentiality
        • Tearoom Trade - Humphreys
  • Quiz – Question 2
    • What two principles did Humphrey’s violate?
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Ethical issues concerning colleagues and the general public
      • Honest reporting
        • The ethical responsibility to produce and report accurate data
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Ethical dilemmas during and after data collection
      • Who owns the data?
      • Whose interpretation counts?
      • Who has veto power?
      • What are the researcher’s obligations after the data are collected?
      • Can the data be used against the participants?
      • Will the data be used on their behalf?
      • Do researchers have an obligation to protect the communities and the social groups they study or just to guard the rights of individuals?
  • Principles for Doing Ethical Research
    • Ethical dilemmas during and after data collection
      • Conflicts between ethical principles
        • Research by Ptacek (1988)
        • Research by Yassour-Borochowitz (2004)
  • Conflicts Between Ethical Concerns and Legal Matters
    • Research by Calvey (2008)
    • Research by Leo (1995)
    • Research by Scarce (1995)
  • Conflicts Between Ethical Principles and Research Interests
    • Research by Jackall (1998)
    • Research by Frankenberg (1993)
    • Research by Rollins (1985)
    • Research by Lauder (2003)
    • Research by Ward and Henderson (2003)
  • Ethics and Publishing Results
    • Research by Ellis and colleagues (2008)
  • Making Decisions to Maximize Benefit and Minimize Risk
    • Think about the consequences of doing a given study as opposed to not doing the study
    • Consider all options and methods to find a research strategy that balances being ethical, being practical, with the likelihood of obtaining good quality data
  • Summary
    • Protect research participants from harm
    • Get informed consent
    • Be sure the study participants have not been pressured into volunteering
    • Collect data anonymously or keep data confidential
    • Submit the research proposal to a review board
    • Provide accurate research findings
    • Consider responsibilities to research colleagues and the general public
    • Maximize benefits and minimize risks
  • Quiz – Question 3
    • Of the following ways to do research, which is likely to involve the most serious ethical concerns?
    • In person interviews
    • Mail in questionnaires
    • Observation in a public place
    • Analyzing data from a secondary source
    • Content analysis