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    Solid waste managemen1 final Solid waste managemen1 final Document Transcript

    • “Sustainability Initiatives and Practices”GROUP NO.: - 23NAMES:-ARPAN RASTOGI (E – 15)BASIT WANI (E – 20) 1
    • TABLE OF CONTENT S. NO. CONTENT Pg. NO. 1 INTRODUCTION 3 2 TYPES OF SOLID WASTE 4 3 IMPORTANCE OF SOLID WASTE 6 4 IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON PEOPLE 7 5 IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON PLANET 10 6 IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON PROFIT 14 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 17 2
    • SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTINTRODUCTION-The sight of a dustbin overflowing and the stench rising from it are all too familiarsights and smells of a crowded city. You look away from it and hold your nose asyou cross it. Have you ever thought that you also have a role to play in the creationof this stench? That you can also play a role in the lessening of this smell andmaking this waste bin look a little more attractive if you follow proper methods ofdisposal of the waste generated in the house?Since the beginning, humankind has been generating waste, be it the bones andother parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cut to maketheir carts. With the progress of civilization, the waste generated became of a morecomplex nature. At the end of the 19th century the industrial revolution saw the riseof the world of consumers. Not only did the air get more and more polluted but theEarth itself became more polluted with the generation of non-biodegradable solidwaste. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely responsible forthe increase in solid waste.Solid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combinedresidential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area. It may be categorizedaccording to its origin (domestic, industrial, commercial, construction or institutional);according to its contents (organic material, glass, metal, plastic paper etc.); or accordingto hazard potential (toxic, non-toxin, flammable, radioactive, infectious etc.).Management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environmentand human health and supports economic development and improved quality of life. Anumber of processes are involved in effectively managing waste for a municipality.These include monitoring, collection, transport, processing, recycling and disposal.There has been a significant increase in MSW (municipal solid waste) generation inIndia in the last few decades. This is largely because of rapid population growth andeconomic development in the country. Solid waste management has become a majorenvironmental issue in India. The per capita of MSW generated daily, in India rangesfrom about 100 g in small towns to 500g in large towns. Although, there is no nationallevel data for MSW generation, collection and disposal, and increase in solid wastegeneration, over the years, can be studied for a few urban centers. 3
    • For example, the population of Mumbai grew from around 12.3 million in 2001 to 24.5million in 2011,registering a growth of around 49%. On the other hand, MSW generatedin the city increased from 3200 tons per day to 5355 tons per day in the same periodregistering a growth of around 67%. This clearly indicates that the growth in MSW in oururban centers has outpaced the population growth in recent years. This trend can beascribed to our changing lifestyles, food habits, and change in living standards. MSW incities is collected by respective municipalities and transported to designated disposalsites, which are normally low lying areas on the outskirts of the city. The limitedrevenues earmarked for the municipalities make them Ill-equipped to provide for highcosts involved in the collection, storage, treatment, and proper disposal of MSW. As aresult, a substantial part of the MSW generated remains unattended and grows in theheaps at poorly maintained collection center. The choice of a disposal site also is morea matter of what is available than what is suitable. The average collection efficiency forMSW in Indian cities is about 72.5% and around 70% of the cities lack adequate wastetransport capacities.The insanitary methods adopted for disposal of solid wastes is, therefore, a serioushealth concern. The poorly maintained landfill sites are prone to groundwatercontamination because of leachate production. Open dumping of garbage facilitates thebreeding for disease vectors.Such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other pests. The municipalities inIndia therefore face the challenge of reinforcing their available infrastructure for efficientMSW management and ensuring the scientific disposal of MSW by generating enoughrevenues either from the generators or by identifying activities that generate resourcesfrom waste management.The key issues involved in the solid waste management are growth in population andincreasing garbage generation, waste collection system, segregation of waste at sourcein as many categories as practical, scientific processing of waste material depending onnature, developing infrastructure for solid waste and disposal and processing,decentralize means to process waste to avoid multiple transfer and facilitate disposaletc.Types of Solid WasteSolid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste Industrial waste as hazardous waste Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious wasteMunicipal solid wasteConsists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue,and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential andCommercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and foodhabits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and itscomposition changing. 4
    • In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tons of solid waste.In1997 it was about 48 million tons. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is notcollected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and thereare no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. The existing landfills are neither wellequipped nor well managed and are notlined properly to protect against contaminationof soil and ground water.Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to productsbeing packed in cans, aluminum foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradableitems that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipalareas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success.For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district ofLadakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other statesshould follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harmto the environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begunpacking items in reusable or biodegradable bags.Hazardous wasteIndustrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxicsubstances. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardouswastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highlyinflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases.India generates around 7 million tons of hazardous wastes every year, most of which isconcentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries,shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles.In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal,chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure tochemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.Hospital wasteHospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization ofhuman beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the productionor testing of biological. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables,Anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc.These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, humanexcreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human healthif not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimatedthat of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected. 5
    • Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous.These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants,and mercury, which is used in thermometers or equipment that measure bloodpressure. Most hospitals in India do not have proper disposal facilities for thesehazardous wastes.IMPORTANCE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT –Solid waste management not only comes from industrial units. It also comes fromvarious sources. Every man with the operation of daily domestic work creates solidwaste for disposal. A study in United States shows that solid waste per person per dayin 1920 is 1.2kg. It increases 2.3kg in 1970 and about 3.6kg in 1980.This shows thatsolid waste per person is mounting due to number of reasons.Solid waste disposalcreates a problem primarily in highly populated areas. The more concentrated thepopulation. The greater the problem.City Solid waste generatedMumbai 6000 tons per dayThane 700 tons per dayHyderabad 2000 tons per dayDelhi 4000tones per dayIn India, generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial, hazardous waste,biomedical waste have been increasing due to population growth, life style changes andeconomic development. On the other hand, waste management responses have notkept pace with the increasing quantities of waste resulting in (a) a high proportion ofuncollected waste, and (b) poor standards of transportation, storage, treatment anddisposal. The insanitary methods adopted for disposal of solid wastes is a serioushealth concern with significant environmental, social and health costs associated with it.Open dumping of garbage facilitates the breeding of disease vectors such as flies,mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other pests. The poorly maintained landfill sitesfurther, are prone to groundwater contamination because of leachate production.Practically every citizen is now search of clear air and pleasant environment. The landpollution problem has grown enormously in the recent years due to waste dumpingcivics administration are facing the problem for hygiene disposal waste. Those calls forseparate efforts of not only the civics administration but participation of severalresponsibilities publics groups and industrial lists.As the cities are growing in size and problems seen as the generation of plastic waste,various municipal waste treatment and disposal methods are now being used to tryresolving these problems. Garbage generation in household can be recycled andreused to prevent creation of waste at sources and reducing amount of waste throwninto the community dustbins. 6
    • IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON PEOPLEImpact on the SurroundingsThe closure of existing open dumpsites and the introduction of sanitary landfill is anurgent priority everywhere in the developing world. Even where complementarydisposal technologies, such as composting or incineration (waste to energy plants), arepracticed, a landfill is still required and is the backbone of any sustainable disposalsystem. Matching grants designed to encourage landfill investments and sustainableoperations may be an appropriate instrument to consider, primarily because theenvironmental damages and benefits tend to spill over into neighboring municipalitiesand regions, or into underlying groundwater resources (Daniel, 1999). This statement istrue. The reason simply being because waste in the landfills is not properly managed,this results to the impacts to the environment. Medina (2002) also supported the USEnvironmental Protection Agency. He states that pollution is not directly transferredfrom land to people, except in the case of dusts and direct contact with toxic materials.Pollutants deposited on land usually enter the human body through the medium ofcontaminated crops, animals, food products, or water. Land pollution can also damageterrestrial ecosystems, resulting in the deterioration of the conservation on and amenityvalue of the environment.Impacts on ResidentsAccording to Marshal (1995), open dumpsites are a major problem to the environment,especially on the air that the people inhale. Dumpsites emit obnoxious odors and smokethat cause illness to people living in, around, or closer to them. According to Wrensh(1990) dumpsites maybe a source of airborne chemical contamination via off sitemigration of gases and the particles and chemicals adhering to dust, especially duringthe period of active operation of the site. Contamination of soil and groundwater maylead to direct contact or pollution of indoor air for example in the case of volatile organicchemicals into basements of nearby residents and in the case of consumption of homegrown vegetables as well. Wrensh (1990) further stated that in some sites, volatileorganic chemicals have been detected in adored air of homes nearby dumpsites. In anumber of community health surveys, a wide range of health problems, includingrespiratory symptoms, irritation of the skin, nose, and eyes, gastrointestinal problems,psychological disorders, and allergies, have been discovered. A number of researcheshave been carried out in response to concerns from the public, often triggered bynuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. Forexample, accordingto Dolk (1997), dump sites closer to residential areas are always feeding places for 7
    • dogs and cats. These pets, together with rodents, carry diseases with them to nearbyhomesteads. The UNEPA (2006) state that wastes that are not properly managed,especially excreta and other liquids and solid wastes from households and thecommunity, are a serious health hazard and could lead to the spreading of diseases.The report further states that unattended wastes lying around attract flies, rats, andother creatures that, in turn, spread diseases. Normally, it is the wet waste thatdecomposes and releases a bad odor. The bad odor affects the people settled next tothe dumpsite, which clearly shows that the dumpsites have serious effects to peoplesettled around or next to them.Wastes from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. Other thanthis, co-disposal of industrial hazardous wastes with municipal wastes can exposepeople to chemical and radioactive hazards. Uncollected solid waste can also obstructstorm water runoff, resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become thebreeding ground of disease. Wastes dumped near a water source also cause acontamination of the water body or the ground water source.Direct dumping of untreated wastes in rivers, seas, and lakes, result the accumulation oftoxic substances in the food chain through the plants and animals that feed on it(Medina, 2002). This clearly shows how waste disposal seriously affects the health ofresidents located closer to dumpsites. The effect of solid waste disposal in Africancountries faces a great problem. It is imperative to note that Swaziland is planning toaddress the issue of solid waste disposal.The major problem of Swaziland is that, they are engaging in a long term plan, whiledamage is increasing every day. The National Solid Waste Management Strategy forSwaziland represents a long-term plan up to year 2010 for addressing key issues,needs, and problems experienced with waste management inSwaziland. The strategyattempts to give effects to the National Environmental Policy, the NationalEnvironmental Management Act of 2002, and the Waste Regulations Act of 2000.The focus of the strategy is to move towards a holistic approach in waste management,in line with the internationally accepted principles, but taking into account the specificcontext of Swaziland, with regard to the institutional and legal framework, as well asland tenure and resource constraints. Integrated waste management, thus, represents amove away from waste management through impact management and remediation to aproactive management system that focuses on waste prevention and minimization.Dumpsites are known for their smelly and unsightly conditions.These conditions are worse in the summer because of extreme temperatures, whichspeed up the rate of bacterial action on biodegradable organic material. 8
    • Most developing countries, like Swaziland, use such dumpsites rather than properlymanaged and environmentally safe landfills.Lack of capital and poor government policies regarding to wastes contributes to suchconditions. There is therefore considerable public concern over the possible effects ofdumpsites on the health of people living nearby, particularly those where hazardouswaste is dumped. Most solid wastes are disposed on the land in open dumps. Disposalof solid waste on the land without careful planning and management can present adanger to the environment and the human health. The environment should be clean andless polluted by all means. This means that waste should be managed at all costs tolimit its effects to the environment. 9
    • IMPACT OF SOIL WASTE MANAGEMENT ON PLANETAbout 40 million tons of municipal waste is generated in India every year. The wastemanagement scenario continues to be grim, even though there have been someCommendable initiatives by scattered municipalities, individuals, groups and NGOs. Asof today, open dumps are the major mode of waste disposal. Composting,biomethanation and thermal processing are being attempted as the options for wasteprocessing. This paper analyses the performance of such waste processing initiatives inIndia, identifies the key constraints and presents suggestions for improvement.Key Words: Waste processing, Composting, Biomethanation, RDF, Waste to energyMunicipal solid waste (MSW) includes household garbage and rubbish, street sweeping,construction and demolition debris, sanitation residues, trade andnonhazardousindustrial refuse and treated bio-medical solid waste. The management ofMSW is an area of universal concern for both the developed and developing world. It isa major problem in Indian cities and towns with the urban areas of India producingabout 40 million tons of solid waste from household and commercial activities everyyear. As the Solid Waste Management (SWM) is of local nature it is the responsibility ofthe State which in turn has entrusted it to local authorities who carry out the solid wastemanagement in areas under their control using mostly their own funds, staff andequipment. The urban local bodies spend approximately Rs.500 to Rs.1500 (approx.USD 12 - 36) per ton on solid waste for collection, transportation, treatment anddisposal. About 60-70% of this amount is spent on collection, 20-30% on transportationand less than 5% on processing and final disposal. Out of the total municipal wastecollected, about 94% is disposed by open dumping and the rest is composted.The 2001 Census has put the number of urban centers as 5144 out of which 464centers have a population greater than 1 lakh. According to the Central Pollution ControlBoard(CPCB) the average waste generated for small towns is 0.1 kg per person perday; for medium towns/city is 0.3 to 0.4 kg per person per day; and for large citiesaround 0.5 kg per person per day (CPCB, 2000). The typical rate of increase of waste 10
    • generation in Indian cities has been estimated at around 1.3% annually. The expectedgeneration of Lesson from Municipal Solid Waste Processing Initiatives in India.MSW in 2025 will therefore be around 700 grams per capita per day. Considering thatthe urban population of India is expected to grow to 45% of total from the prevailing28%, the magnitude of problem is likely to grow to even larger proportions (World Bank,2006). The socio-economic structure of the Indian society not only makes per capitageneration of waste much less compared to that of the western societies, it has alsobrought in a system of waste recycling and reusing not common in developed societies,though these systems are fast losing ground. A substantial amount of MSW is recycled and reused through the primary interventionof rag pickers and second-hand markets, though there are problems like the healthhazard to the rag pickers and the degradation and devaluation of the recyclables. Sincethe experience in the towns all over India regarding waste processing has not beenencouraging and since the States were not observed to take any specific initiative in thisregard various committees were appointed by the Central Government and as a resultof these committees various projects were initiated. The two leading methods of wasteprocessing being adopted in India include composting (aerobic composting, anaerobic,vermicomposting, etc.) and waste-to-energy. The larger (50-60%) proportion of organicmatter in Indian MSW indicates the desirability of biological processing of wastes. Thispaper is aimed at analyzing the performance of these waste processing plants ontechnical aspects (i.e. processing technology and quality of product), the type ofmanagement and performance, institutional aspects and environmental health aspects.This also includes aspects such as the technology Maturity, input quality/ quantityflexibility and local availability of technology and expertise.Reduce, Reuse, RecycleMethods of waste reduction, waste reuse and recycling are the preferred options whenManaging waste. There are many environmental benefits that can be derived from theuse of these methods. They reduce or prevent greenhouse gas emissions, reduce therelease of pollutants, conserve resources, save energy and reduce the demand forwaste treatment technology and landfill space. Therefore it is advisable that thesemethods be adopted and incorporated as part of the waste management plan.Waste reduction and reuseWaste reduction and reuse of products are both methods of waste prevention. Theyeliminate the production of waste at the source of usual generation and reduce thedemands for large scale treatment and disposal facilities.Methods of waste reduction include manufacturing products with less packaging,encouraging customers to bring their own reusable bags for packaging, encouragingthepublic to choose reusableproducts such as cloth napkins and reusable plastic and 11
    • glass containers, backyard composting and sharing and donating any unwanted itemsrather than discarding them. All of the methods of waste prevention mentioned requirepublic participation. In order to get the public onboard, training and educationalprogrammers need to be undertaken to educate the public about their role in theprocess. Also the government may need to regulate the types and amount of packagingused by manufacturers and make the reuse of shopping bags mandatory.Treatment & DisposalWaste treatment techniques seek to transform the waste into a form that is moremanageable, reduce the volume or reduce the toxicity of the waste thus making thewaste easier to dispose of. Treatment methods are selected based on the composition,quantity,and form of the waste material. Some waste treatment methods being usedtoday include subjecting the waste to extremely high temperatures, dumping on land orland filling and use of biological processes to treat the waste. It should be noted thattreatment and disposal options are chosen as a last resort to the previously mentionedmanagement strategies reducing, reusing and recycling of waste.Dumps and LandfillsSanitary landfillsSanitary Landfills are designed to greatly reduce or eliminate the risks that wastedisposal may pose to the public health and environmental quality. They are usuallyplaced in areaswhere land features act as natural buffers between the landfill and theenvironment. For example the area may be comprised of clay soil which is fairlyimpermeable due to itstightly packed particles, or the area may be characterized by alow water table and an absence of surface water bodies thus preventing the threat ofwater contamination. In addition to the strategic placement of the landfill other protective 12
    • measures are incorporated into its design. The bottom and sides of landfills are linedwith layers of clay or plastic to keep the liquid waste, known as leachate, from escapinginto the soil. The leachate is collected and pumped to the surface for treatment.Boreholes or monitoring wells are dug in the vicinity of the landfill to monitorgroundwater quality. A landfill is divided into a series of individual cells and only a fewcells of the site are filled with trash at any one time. This minimizes exposure to windand rain. The daily waste is spread and compacted to reduce the volume, a cover isthen applied to reduce odors and keep out pests. When the landfill has reached itscapacity it is capped with an impermeable seal which is typically composed of clay soil.Some sanitary landfills are used to recover energy. The natural anaerobicdecomposition of the waste in the landfill produces landfill gases which include CarbonDioxide, methane and traces of other gases. Methane can be used as an energy sourceto produce heat or electricity. Thus some landfills are fitted with landfill gas collection(LFG) systems to capitalize on the methane being produced. The process of generatinggas is very slow, for the energy recovery system to be successful there needs to belarge volumes of wastes. These landfills present the least environmental and health riskand the records kept can be a good source of information for future use in wastemanagement, however, the cost of establishing these sanitary landfills are high whencompared to the other land disposal methods. 13
    • IMPACT OF SOIL WASTE MANAGEMENT ON PROFITWaste Ventures: A Decentralized Bio-methane Distribution System fromMunicipal Solid Waste Management in IndiaWaste Ventures is an international non-profit addressing the social and environmentaldegradation caused by broken solid waste management systems in emerging marketcities. We build waste picker groups into profitable waste collection companies thatenvironmentally process waste, reducing destructive methane and other greenhousegases while earning three times their previous income. We have started operations inIndia and are seeking to expand our model into emerging market cities around theworld.ProblemWithout a low-cost and low-tech methodology for processing organic waste, methanefrom anaerobic decomposition on dumping grounds will continue to destroy theatmosphere. The challenge is to design a low-cost, technologically simple andenvironmentally sound system to centrally process waste into biogas (or bio-methane)and distribute for fuel consumption to households, restaurants, as a replacement forCNG gas in transportation uses, or for generating electricity.ContextOver 50-60% of municipal solid waste in emerging market cities is organic. Theimplication of such a large organic component is that methane, 20 times more harmfulto the atmosphere than carbon dioxide, is being produced from global dumping of wasteat the rate of almost 40 million tons each year.Waste Ventures builds and trains waste picker companies to collect organic waste toprocess into organic compost for application as a soil conditioner in agriculturalcontexts. In places where great nutrient depletion is threatening the ability of farmers toretain water and grow healthy produce, organic soil conditioners are gaining ground asessential to the farming regimen. In some cities, however, weaker compost markets orgreater demand for energy indicate that generating and selling biogas would be a morelocally appropriate solution. 14
    • Solution ParametersThe focus of our work is in tier II and tier III cities in India (population 80,000-800,000).This is the cross-section of India’s cities which are growing the fastest, and they arehaving increasing difficulty keeping up with the infrastructure needs of their residents.Municipal solid waste provides a reliable and organic-rich supply of raw material fromwhich to generate renewable energy.In India, biogas production has been widely introduced in the form of decentralizeddigesters fed with agricultural wastes and animal dung to generate combustible gas forcooking in rural kitchens. However, in cities where we work, we require a rapidlyscalable solution that does not rely on individual adoption and installation of thetechnology in a house-by-house basis. Centralized bio-digester. The solution should be built around a centralized processing center for digesting the organic waste into biogas rather than decentralized digesters. Upgrade biogas for higher value fuel. In order to stabilize the gas for distribution, cost-effective and environmentally responsible technology should be used for upgrading the biogas to bio-methane (ideally, >97% CH4). Though “scrubbing” with water is generally low cost, the water loss and inability to recover the CO2 would need to be addressed. Alternatively, designing a methodology for separating CH4 and CO2 using a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube could be a very low-cost and high-efficiency method for upgrading the bio- methane, if such a prototype could be developed. Consideration of market forces. Use of the gas to adequately meet market demands is critical to developing a model which achieves our ultimate goals of increasing waste picker income and creating waste enterprises capable of attracting commercial investment. Municipal solid waste stream. System inputs are restricted to the municipal solid waste stream of vegetable & fruit market wastes, kitchen wastes, and some slaughter house waste. Human waste and wastewater are not. Minimal methane leakage. Because methane is over 20 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than an equal measure of carbon dioxide, even a minor leakage in the process can cause extensive atmospheric heating. It is essential to design a system which inherently prevents any methane leakage. 15
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    • BIBLIOGRAPGYFor making the project we have taken the help of following links:-en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_managementcmsdu.org/organs/solid_waste_management.pdfwww.wasteventures.orghttp://www.teriin.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=52www.worldbank.orgww.eai.inwww.wasteconsult.dewww.lcacenter.org/../solidwaste.pptenvironmentalhealthtoday.files.word… 17