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  1. 1. FDDI & ISDN Vinay Arora CSED,TU
  2. 2. FDDI The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) specifies a 100-Mbps token-passing, dual-ring LAN using fiber-optic cable. FDDI is frequently used as high-speed backbone technology FDDI uses a dual-ring architecture with traffic on each ring flowing in opposite directions. The dual-rings consist of a primary and a secondary ring. During normal operation, the primary ring is used for data transmission, and the secondary ring remains idle. Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  3. 3. FDDI Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  4. 4. FDDI uses counter-rotating primary and secondary rings Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  5. 5. Fiber is Immune FDDI uses optical fiber as the primary transmission medium, but it also can run over copper cabling (CDDI). In particular, security, reliability, and performance all are enhanced with optical fiber media because fiber does not emit electrical signals. Fiber is immune to electrical interference from radio frequency interference (RFI) and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  6. 6. Mode FDDI defines two types of optical fiber: single-mode and multi-mode. A mode is a ray of light that enters the fiber at a particular angle Multi-mode fiber uses LED as the light-generating devices, while single-mode fiber generally uses lasers. Modal Dispersion Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  7. 7. Light sources differ for single-mode and multi-mode fibers Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  8. 8. FDDIs four specifications Media Access Control (MAC):- Defines how the medium is accessed, including frame format, token handling, addressing, algorithms for calculating cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value, and error-recovery mechanisms Physical Layer Protocol (PHY):- Defines data encoding /decoding procedures, clocking requirements, and framing Physical-Medium Dependent (PMD):- Defines the characteristics of the transmission medium, including fiber-optic links, power levels, bit-error rates, optical components, and connectors. Station Management (SMT):- defines FDDI station configuration, ring configuration, and ring control features Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  9. 9. FDDI Station-Attachment Types FDDI defines three types of devices:- Single-attachment station (SAS) Dual-attachment station (DAS) Concentrator Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  10. 10. A concentrator attaches to both the primary andsecondary rings Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  11. 11. A Ring recovers from a station failure by wrapping Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  12. 12. A Ring also wraps to withstand a Cable failure Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  13. 13. The optical bypass switch uses internalmirrors to maintain a network Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  14. 14. A Dual-homed configuration Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  15. 15. FDDI Frame Format Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  16. 16. FDDI Frame Fields Preamble---A unique sequence that prepares each station for an upcoming frame. Start Delimiter---Indicates the beginning of a frame. Frame Control---Indicates the size of the address fields and whether the frame contains asynchronous or synchronous data. Destination Address---Contains a unicast (singular), multicast (group), or broadcast (every station) address. As with Ethernet and Token Ring addresses. Source Address---Identifies the single station that sent the frame. Data---Contains control information. Frame Check Sequence (FCS)---Filed by the source station with a calculated cyclic redundancy check value dependent on frame contents (as with Token Ring and Ethernet). The destination address recalculates the value to determine whether the frame was damaged in transit. If so, the frame is discarded. End Delimiter---Indicate the end of the frame Frame Status---Allows the source station to determine whether an error occurred and whether the frame was recognized and copied by a receiving station. Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  17. 17. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network An international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second). There are two types of ISDN. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Primary Rate Interface (PRI) Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  18. 18. ISDN ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can provide. Delta-channel, the channel in an ISDN connection that carries control and signaling information. Bearer-channel, the main data channel in an ISDN connection. Basic Rate ISDN (BRI) service consists of two 64 Kbps B-channels Vinay Arora CSED, TU
  19. 19. Reference http://www.pulsewan.com/data101/fddi_basics.htm http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/FDDI.html http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/ISDN.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_Services_Digital_Network http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/B/B_channel.html Vinay Arora CSED, TU