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# C Prog. - Decision & Loop Controls

## by vinay arora on Feb 20, 2012

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## C Prog. - Decision & Loop ControlsPresentation Transcript

• C Programming - Decision & Loop Control Organized By: Vinay Arora Assistant Professor, CSED Thapar University, Patiala
• Decision Control The if statement The if-else statement The conditional operators Vinay Arora CSED
• Forms of if Vinay Arora CSED
• Forms of if (contd.) Vinay Arora CSED
• Relational Operator Vinay Arora CSED
• Demonstrating - If Vinay Arora CSED
• Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
• Demonstrating - If Vinay Arora CSED
• Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
• Expression in Conditional Part Vinay Arora CSED
• Multiple statements within if Vinay Arora CSED
• Demonstrating If - Else Vinay Arora CSED
• Flowchart If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
• Logical Operators with If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
• Logical Operators with If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
• Else-if ladder Vinay Arora CSED
• Logical Operators with If-Else Vinay Arora CSED
• Smallest amongst 3 nos. Vinay Arora CSED
• Smallest amongst 3 nos. Vinay Arora CSED
• Program using Logical OR, elseif Vinay Arora CSED
• Calculate Salary as per following table Vinay Arora CSED
• && - Logical AND C allows usage of three logical operators, namely, &&, || and ! These are to be read as ‘AND’ ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ respectively. Don’t use the single symbol | and &. These single symbols also have a meaning. The first two operators, && and ||, allow two or more conditions to be combined in an if statement. Vinay Arora CSED
• && - Logical AND (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
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• | | - Logical OR (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
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• ! - Logical NOT This operator reverses the result of the expression it operates on. For example, if the expression evaluates to a non-zero value, then applying ! operator to it results into a 0. Vice versa, if the expression evaluates to zero then on applying ! operator to it makes it 1, a non-zero value. Vinay Arora CSED
• ! - Logical NOT (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
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• &&, ||, ! Operator Vinay Arora CSED
• ? : - Conditional Operator The conditional operators ? and : are sometimes called Ternary Operators since they take three arguments. They form a kind of foreshortened if-then-else. Their general form is, expression 1 ? expression 2 : expression 3 If expression 1 is true (that is, if its value is non-zero), then the value returned will be expression 2, otherwise the value returned will be expression 3. Vinay Arora CSED
• Conditional Operator (C Program) Vinay Arora CSED
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• goto Statement goto is used to switch the control flow. In a difficult programming situation it seems so easy to use a goto to take the control. In most of the scenarios use of goto is depreciated. goto can be replaced by if-else, switch, for. Vinay Arora CSED
• goto Statement - Program Vinay Arora CSED
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• switch Statement The control statement that allows us to make a decision from the number of choices is called a switch. The integer expression following the keyword switch is any C expression that will yield an integer value. Vinay Arora CSED
• switch Statement - Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
• switch Statement - Program Vinay Arora CSED
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• Loops Repetitive instructions is done through a Loop control instruction. This involves repeating some portion of the program either a specified number of times or until a particular condition is being satisfied. There are three methods by way of which we can repeat a part of a program. They are: (a) Using a while statement (b) Using a do-while statement (c) Using a for statement Vinay Arora CSED
• while Loop - Flowchart Vinay Arora CSED
• while Loop – general form Vinay Arora CSED
• while Loop – forms of conditions Vinay Arora CSED
• while Loop – C Program Vinay Arora CSED
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• While Loop – Program 1 //Program to demonstrate simple while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 2 //Program to demonstrate simple while loop with decrement operator #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=5; clrscr(); while (i>=1) { printf("%dn",i); i=i-1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 3 /* Program to demonstrate simple while loop taking incremental value as float */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { float i=10.0; clrscr(); while (i<=10.5) { printf("nCivil Engineering at Thapar"); i=i+.1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 4 //Demonstrating simple while loop with integer value out of range #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=32767) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output – Infinite Loop Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 5 //Program to demonstrate simple while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10); { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 6 //Program to demonstrate post increment operator in while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10) { printf("%dn",i); i=i++; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 7 //Program to demonstrate compound assignment operator within while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=5) { printf("%dn",i); i+=1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 8 //Program to demonstrate post increment operator with while loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=0; clrscr(); while (i++ < 5) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• While Loop – Program 9 //Program to find out even numbers between 1-10 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while (i<=10) { if (i%2==0) printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• Do-while Loop While Do while Vinay Arora CSED
• Do-while Loop – Program 10 //Program to demonstrate DO-WHILE loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); /* while(i<1) { printf("hello i am at Thapar"); } */ do { printf("hello i am at Thapar"); } while(i<1); getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• Output Vinay Arora CSED
• Program Transformation Unary Post Increment Operator Vinay Arora CSED
• Program Transformation Compound Assignment Operator Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop The for allows us to specify three things about a loop in a single line: Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-1) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=1; i<=10; i=i+1) printf("%dn",i); getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-1 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-2) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=1; i<=10;) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-2 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-3) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop //Print numbers from 1 to 5 #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); for (;i<=5;i=i+1) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-3 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-4) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); for (;i<=5;) { printf("%dn",i); i=i+1; } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-4 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-5) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=0;i++<5;) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-5 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-6) //Program to demonstrate simple For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for (i=0;++i<5;) { printf("%dn",i); } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-6 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-7) //Program to demonstrate NESTED For loop #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for (i=1;i<=5;i=i+1) { printf("n"); for (j=1;j<=i;j=j+1) { printf(" *"); } } getch(); } Vinay Arora CSED
• For Loop (Program-7 Output) Vinay Arora CSED
• Thnx… Vinay Arora CSED