Environmental issues ppt MuhammadQasim, ArojBashir


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Environmental issues ppt MuhammadQasim, ArojBashir

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Muhammad Qasim & Aroj Bashir University of Gujrat
  2. 2. CONTENTS What is Environment? Spheres of Environment? List of Environmental Issues What is Pollution? What is Natural Disaster? What is Global Warming? Environmental Issues Facing by Pakistan References
  3. 3. WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things, which provide condition for development
  4. 4. SPHERES OF ENVIRONEMNT There are four sphere of Environment. • Lithosphere • Hydrosphere • Biosphere • Atmosphere
  5. 5. WHAT IS LITHOSPHERE • The lithosphere, which evolved about 4.6 billion years ago, is composed of an outermost layer of hard rock. • The lithosphere is the solid, rocky crust covering entire planet. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. • The lithosphere includes various landforms such as mountains and valleys, as well as rocks, minerals and soil. • The lithosphere consists of the core, mantle and crust of the Earth.
  6. 6. WHAT IS HYDROSPHERE • The hydrosphere contains all of the solid, liquid and gaseous water on Earth, extending from the depths of the sea to the upper reaches of the troposphere where water is found. • Ninety-seven percent of the hydrosphere is found in salty oceans, and the remainder is found as vapor or droplets in the atmosphere and as liquid in ground water, lakes, rivers, glaciers and
  7. 7. WHAT IS BIOSPHERE • The part of the earth in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life. • The living organisms and their environment composing the biosphere
  8. 8. WHAT IS ATOMOSPHERE • The atmosphere is the air that surrounds the Earth. • There are three gases which are most prevalent and compose about 99 percent of the environment. Nitrogen (N2) = over 78 percent, oxygen (O2) = over 20 percent, and argon (Ar) = about 1 percent. • The atmosphere is responsible for the weather. • The atmosphere contains all of the Earth’s air and is divided into troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere.
  9. 9. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Environmental issues are any such issues created due to human activities and cause harm to the environment.
  10. 10. SOME ISSUES • • • • • • • • Pollution Climate change/Global warming Deforestation Energy Environmental health Land Issues Natural Disaster Natural Resources
  11. 11. WHAT IS POLLUTION • Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem . • Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise, heat or light.
  12. 12. Carbon Monoxide •Colorless, Odorless •Produced When Carbon Does Not Burn in Fossil Fuels •Present In Car Exhaust •Deprives Body Of O2 Causing Headaches, Fatigue, And Impaired Vision
  13. 13. Sulfur Dioxide •Produced When Coal And Fuel Oil are Burned •Present in Power Plant Exhaust •Narrows the Airway, Causing Wheezing and Shortness Of Breath, Especially in Those With Asthma
  14. 14. Nitrogen Dioxide •Reddish, Brown Gas •Produced When Nitric Oxide Combines With Oxygen in the Atmosphere •Present in Car Exhaust and Power Plants •Affects Lungs and Causes Wheezing; Increases Chance Of Respiratory Infection
  15. 15. Particulate Matter •Particles Of Different Sizes and Structures That Are Released into the Atmosphere •Present In Many Sources including Fossil Fuels, Dust, Smoke, Fog, Etc. •Can Build Up Respiratory System •Aggravates Heart And Lung Disease; Increases risk of respiratory infection
  16. 16. AIR POLLUTION • Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.
  17. 17. CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION o Industrialization Is the first fundamental pollution cause. Among other things, industrialization set in motion the widespread use of fossil fuels (oil, gas & coal) which are now the main pollution sources. o Population growth Population growth is the second fundamental pollution cause. With population numbers literally exploding around the world, the demand for food and other goods goes up. This demand is met by expanded production and use of natural resources, which in its turn leads to higher levels of environmental pollution.
  18. 18. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION • Acid rain • Green house effects • Smog
  19. 19. How to prevent air pollution • Carpool • Walk or ride a bicycle • Connect your outdoor lights to a timer or use solar lighting. • Wash clothes with warm or cold water instead of hot. • Plant trees etc.
  20. 20. WHAT IS WATER POLLUTION • Any change or modification in the physical, chemical and biological properties of water that has a detrimental consequence on living things is water pollution.
  21. 21. CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION • About 40% of deaths worldwide are caused by water pollution • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial waste discharged in water. • Sewage and waste water. • Oil leakage from ships.
  22. 22. Effects of water pollution • Diseases like Cholera • Aquatic life gets destroyed • Affects food chain • Cause algae • Less pure water to drink
  23. 23. WHAT IS LAND POLLUTION • Land pollution is the degradation of the earth’s surface and misuse of land resources often caused by human activities.
  24. 24. CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION • • • • • Throwing garbage Construction Waste Industrial waste Mining
  25. 25. EFFECTS OF LAND POLLUTION • Agriculture • Littering • Climate • Biodiversity
  26. 26. HOW TO PREVENT LAND POLLUTION • More and more land should be brought under farming. • Trees should be planted everywhere. • Waste matter should be disposed immediately • Avoid drilling lands for underground water. • Avoid using fertilizer and pesticides for farming.
  27. 27. WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION • Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing humans or animals or machine created noise environmental that disrupts the activity or balance of humans and animals. • Noise pollution not only results to irritation and anger.
  28. 28. CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION • Traffic noise • Air craft noise • Noise from construction and civil engineers work. • Noise from industries • Noise from other sources
  29. 29. EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION • Hearing loss • Sleep disturbances • High blood pressure • Stress
  30. 30. HOW TO PREVENT NOISE POLLUTION • The government should ensure the new machines are noise proof. • Airports should be away from residential areas. • ‘No horn’ boards should be put on/near school areas. • We should talk less and work more.
  31. 31. WHAT IS DEFORESTATION Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land.
  32. 32. EEFECTS OF DEFORASTATION • Deforestation is one of the main causes which enhance the greenhouse effect. • Deforestation increases the amount of soil erosion by increasing the amounts of soil lost and decreasing the amount protected. • The destruction of forests also lead to the threat endangering different species of plants and animals. • It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation
  33. 33. SOME FACTS ABOUT THE CAUSES DEFORESTATION Increase in population. Utilization of resources of man. More industrialization. Use of forests as a source of income. Clearing forests for slash and burn cultivation. Direct felling of trees by people. Construction of roads, electricity lines, dwellings, etc. Timber used for industries. Insect hazards. Wood used as fuel. For medicinal herbs. Natural disasters e.g. forest fires, land slides, storms etc.
  34. 34. Natural disasters THE WORLD IS ALWAYS CHANGING •Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living things. •Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of weather.
  35. 35. TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS? • • • • • • • Volcanic eruption Earthquake Cyclone or Hurricane Avalanche Flood Drought Forest fire or Bushfire
  36. 36. VOLCANOES • A volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an opening in the Earth’s crust. • Pressure from deep inside the Earth forces ash, gas and molten rock to the surface.
  37. 37. EARTHQUAKE • An earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so strong that the ground splits apart. • When parts of the earth, called plates, move against each other giant shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake.
  38. 38. CYCLONE, HURRICANE, TORNADO OR TYPHOON A Cyclone is a fierce storm with storm winds that spin around it in a giant circle. During a cyclone trees can be uprooted, buildings can be destroyed and cars can be overturned.
  39. 39. AVALANCHE •An Avalanche is a movement of snow, ice and rock down a mountainside. Avalanches happen very suddenly and can move as fast as a racing car up to 124mph. •Avalanches can be caused by –  Snow Melting Quickly  Snow Freezing, Melting Then Freezing Again  Someone Skiing  A Loud Noise Or An Earth Tremor
  40. 40. FLOOD •A flood is caused by an overflow of water which covers the land that is usually dry. •Floods are caused by heavy rain or by snow melting and the rivers burst their banks and overflow. •Costal floods are caused by high tides, a rise in sea level, storm waves or tsunami (earthquakes under the sea).
  41. 41. DROUGHT •A drought is the lack of rain for a long time. •In 1968 a drought began in Africa. Children born during this year were five years old before rain fell again.
  42. 42. FOREST FIRE OR BUSHFIRE •Fires can burn out of control in areas of forest or bush land. Fires are caused by lightning, sparks of electricity or careless people. Wind may blow a bushfire to areas where people live.
  43. 43. • Global warming is when the earth heats up,the temperature rises. • It happens when greenhouse gases trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. • The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere
  44. 44. • Greenhouse gasses are gasses are in the earth’s atmosphere that collect heat and light from the sun. • With too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth’s atmosphere will trap too much heat and the earth will get too hot.
  45. 45. • Global warming makes the sea rise, and when the sea rises, the water covers many low land islands. • One thing that is happening is warm water, caused from global warming, is harming and killing algae in the ocean.
  46. 46. • One thing that causes global warming is electrical pollution. • In most cases, fossil fuels are burned to create electricity.
  47. 47. • • • • • • • • • Turning on a light Watching TV Listening to a stereo Washing or drying clothes Using a hair dryer Riding in a car Heating meal in the microwave Using an air conditioner Playing a video game
  48. 48. • One thing people are doing is carpooling. (Carpooling is driving with someone to a place that you are both going to. ) • Thing that people are doing is being more careful about leaving things turned on like the television, computer, and the lights.
  49. 49. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FACING BY PAKISTAN • • • • • • • Air Pollution in Pakistan Water Pollution in Pakistan Noise Pollution in Pakistan Flooding Monsoon Rain Climate variability Poor Agriculture Practice
  50. 50. A MESSAGE • This environmental movement is your movement and we can fight environment degradation through a movement because of the young people of Pakistan. If we want to make a better Pakistan for upcoming generation, youngsters, both male/female, should take part actively and learn about the environmental issues and try to tackle the problems. One of the best solutions to the environment is to change our bad habits of wastage of water, electricity and dispersal of garbage etc.
  51. 51. What should we do… Nothing Something Everything
  52. 52. You may never know what results come of your action, but if you do nothing, there will be no result.
  53. 53. REFRENCES •Dictionary, Business. Environment from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/environment.html Norman Herr 2007 Earth System Interaction, Internet Resource to Accompany The Sourcebook to Teaching Sciences, john Wiley publisher retrieve from http://www.csun.edu/science/books/sourcebook/chapters/8organizing/files/earth-systems interactions.html#top Insel, Paul M. and Roth, Walton T. Core Concepts in Health: 9th edition. McGraw Hill: Boston, 2002. •http://edugreen.teri.in/explore/air.htm •http://www.oneworld.net/penguin/pollution/pollution_home.html •http://www.rcc.org/oem/aqindex.html •http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessoms/mathlesson.html “Environment Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect.” World Almanac 2000. Mahwah: World Almanac Books, 2000. •Global Warming Kids Site. http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/kids. •National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0725_coralbleaching.html. Power Scorecard. Electricity and the Environment. http://powerscorecard.org/elec_env.cfm. •The Plain English Guide To The Clean Air Act. http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/peg_caa/pegcaain.html. “Sun.” World Book Encyclopedia, 1978.