University of Gujrat
What is Environment?
Spheres of Environment?
List of Environmental Issues
What is Pollution?
What is Natural Disaster?
What is Global Warming?
Environmental Issues Facing by Pakistan
WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT
The sum total of all
surroundings of a living
natural forces and other living
things, which provide
condition for development
SPHERES OF ENVIRONEMNT
There are four sphere of
WHAT IS LITHOSPHERE
• The lithosphere, which evolved about
4.6 billion years ago, is composed of
an outermost layer of hard rock.
• The lithosphere is the solid, rocky
crust covering entire planet. This crust
is inorganic and is composed of
• The lithosphere includes various
landforms such as mountains and
valleys, as well as rocks, minerals and
• The lithosphere consists of the
core, mantle and crust of the Earth.
WHAT IS HYDROSPHERE
• The hydrosphere contains all of the
solid, liquid and gaseous water on
Earth, extending from the depths of
the sea to the upper reaches of the
troposphere where water is found.
hydrosphere is found in salty
oceans, and the remainder is found as
vapor or droplets in the atmosphere
water, lakes, rivers, glaciers and
WHAT IS BIOSPHERE
• The part of the earth in which
living organisms exist or that is
capable of supporting life.
• The living organisms and their
environment composing the
WHAT IS ATOMOSPHERE
• The atmosphere is the air that surrounds
• There are three gases which are most
prevalent and compose about 99 percent
of the environment. Nitrogen (N2) = over
78 percent, oxygen (O2) = over 20
percent, and argon (Ar) = about 1
• The atmosphere is responsible for the
• The atmosphere contains all of the
Earth’s air and is divided into
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere,
thermosphere and ionosphere.
Environmental issues are any such
due to human
activities and cause harm to the
Climate change/Global warming
WHAT IS POLLUTION
• Pollution is the introduction of
contaminants into a natural
instability, disorder, harm or
discomfort to the ecosystem .
• Pollution can take the form of
chemical substances or energy
such as noise, heat or light.
•Produced When Carbon Does Not
Burn in Fossil Fuels
•Present In Car Exhaust
•Deprives Body Of O2 Causing
Headaches, Fatigue, And Impaired
•Produced When Coal And Fuel
Oil are Burned
•Present in Power Plant Exhaust
•Narrows the Airway, Causing
Wheezing and Shortness Of
Breath, Especially in Those With
•Reddish, Brown Gas
•Produced When Nitric
Oxide Combines With
Oxygen in the Atmosphere
•Present in Car Exhaust and
•Affects Lungs and Causes
Chance Of Respiratory
•Particles Of Different Sizes and
Structures That Are Released into the
•Present In Many Sources including
Fossil Fuels, Dust, Smoke, Fog, Etc.
•Can Build Up Respiratory System
•Aggravates Heart And Lung
Disease; Increases risk of respiratory
• Air pollution is the introduction of
chemicals, particulate matter, or
biological materials that cause
harm or discomfort to humans or
other living organisms or cause
damage to the natural environment
or built environment, into the
CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
Is the first fundamental pollution cause. Among
other things, industrialization set in motion the
widespread use of fossil fuels (oil, gas & coal)
which are now the main pollution sources.
o Population growth
Population growth is the second fundamental
pollution cause. With population numbers
literally exploding around the world, the demand
for food and other goods goes up. This demand
is met by expanded production and use of
natural resources, which in its turn leads to
higher levels of environmental pollution.
EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
• Acid rain
• Green house effects
How to prevent air pollution
• Walk or ride a bicycle
• Connect your outdoor lights to a
timer or use solar lighting.
• Wash clothes with warm or cold
water instead of hot.
WHAT IS WATER POLLUTION
• Any change or modification in
the physical, chemical and
biological properties of water
that has a detrimental
consequence on living things is
CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION
• About 40% of deaths
worldwide are caused by
• Water pollution is caused
by organic and inorganic
industrial waste discharged
• Sewage and waste water.
• Oil leakage from ships.
Effects of water pollution
• Diseases like Cholera
• Aquatic life gets destroyed
• Affects food chain
• Cause algae
• Less pure water to drink
WHAT IS LAND POLLUTION
• Land pollution is the
resources often caused
by human activities.
CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION
EFFECTS OF LAND POLLUTION
HOW TO PREVENT LAND POLLUTION
• More and more land should be
brought under farming.
• Trees should be planted everywhere.
• Waste matter should be disposed
• Avoid drilling lands for underground
• Avoid using fertilizer and pesticides
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION
excessive, displeasing humans or
animals or machine created noise
environmental that disrupts the
activity or balance of humans and
• Noise pollution not only results to
irritation and anger.
CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION
• Traffic noise
• Air craft noise
• Noise from construction and
civil engineers work.
• Noise from industries
• Noise from other sources
EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION
• Hearing loss
• Sleep disturbances
• High blood pressure
HOW TO PREVENT NOISE POLLUTION
• The government should ensure
the new machines are noise
• Airports should be away from
• ‘No horn’ boards should be put
on/near school areas.
• We should talk less and work
WHAT IS DEFORESTATION
Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a
massive scale, often resulting in damage to
the quality of the land.
• Deforestation is one of the main causes
which enhance the greenhouse effect.
• Deforestation increases the amount of
soil erosion by increasing the amounts of
soil lost and decreasing the amount
• The destruction of forests also lead to the
threat endangering different species of
plants and animals.
• It has been estimated that we are losing
137 plant, animal and insect species every
single day due to rainforest deforestation
SOME FACTS ABOUT THE CAUSES
Increase in population.
Utilization of resources of
Use of forests as a source
Clearing forests for slash
and burn cultivation.
Direct felling of trees by
lines, dwellings, etc.
Timber used for
Wood used as fuel.
For medicinal herbs.
Natural disasters e.g.
forest fires, land
slides, storms etc.
THE WORLD IS ALWAYS CHANGING
•Natural disasters are changes which are so great they
may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the
lives of people and other living things.
•Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its
surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth
happen because of different kinds of weather.
TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS?
Cyclone or Hurricane
Forest fire or Bushfire
A volcanic eruption is
the spurting out of gases
and hot lava from an
opening in the Earth’s
Pressure from deep
inside the Earth forces
ash, gas and molten rock
to the surface.
• An earthquake is a violent
Sometimes it is so strong that
the ground splits apart.
• When parts of the earth, called
plates, move against each other
giant shock waves move
upwards towards the surface
causing the earthquake.
CYCLONE, HURRICANE, TORNADO
A Cyclone is a fierce
storm with storm winds
that spin around it in a
giant circle. During a
cyclone trees can be
uprooted, buildings can
be destroyed and cars
can be overturned.
•An Avalanche is a movement of snow, ice and
rock down a mountainside. Avalanches happen
very suddenly and can move as fast as a racing
car up to 124mph.
•Avalanches can be caused by –
Snow Melting Quickly
Snow Freezing, Melting Then Freezing
A Loud Noise Or An Earth Tremor
•A flood is caused by an overflow
of water which covers the land that
is usually dry.
•Floods are caused by heavy rain
or by snow melting and the rivers
burst their banks and overflow.
•Costal floods are caused by high
tides, a rise in sea level, storm
waves or tsunami (earthquakes
under the sea).
•A drought is the lack of rain for
a long time.
•In 1968 a drought began in
Africa. Children born during this
year were five years old before
rain fell again.
FOREST FIRE OR BUSHFIRE
•Fires can burn out of control in areas of forest or
bush land. Fires are caused by lightning, sparks of
electricity or careless people. Wind may blow a
bushfire to areas where people live.
• Global warming is when the earth heats
up,the temperature rises.
• It happens when greenhouse gases trap
heat and light from the sun in the earth’s
atmosphere, which increases the
• The greenhouse effect is when the
temperature rises because the sun’s
heat and light is trapped in the earth’s
• Greenhouse gasses are gasses
are in the earth’s atmosphere
that collect heat and light from
• With too many greenhouse
gasses in the air, the earth’s
atmosphere will trap too much
heat and the earth will get too
• Global warming makes the sea rise, and when the
sea rises, the water covers many low land islands.
• One thing that is happening is warm water,
caused from global warming, is harming and
killing algae in the ocean.
• One thing that
fuels are burned
Turning on a light
Listening to a stereo
Washing or drying clothes
Using a hair dryer
Riding in a car
Heating meal in the microwave
Using an air conditioner
Playing a video game
• One thing people are doing is
carpooling. (Carpooling is driving
with someone to a place that you
are both going to. )
• Thing that people are doing is being
more careful about leaving things
turned on like the television,
computer, and the lights.
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FACING BY PAKISTAN
Air Pollution in Pakistan
Water Pollution in Pakistan
Noise Pollution in Pakistan
Poor Agriculture Practice
• This environmental movement is your movement
and we can fight environment degradation through
a movement because of the young people of
Pakistan. If we want to make a better Pakistan for
male/female, should take part actively and learn
about the environmental issues and try to tackle
the problems. One of the best solutions to the
environment is to change our bad habits of wastage
of water, electricity and dispersal of garbage etc.
What should we do…
You may never know what results
come of your action,
but if you do nothing,
there will be no result.
•Dictionary, Business. Environment from
Norman Herr 2007 Earth System Interaction, Internet Resource to Accompany The Sourcebook
to Teaching Sciences,
john Wiley publisher retrieve from http://www.csun.edu/science/books/sourcebook/chapters/8organizing/files/earth-systems
Insel, Paul M. and Roth, Walton T. Core Concepts in
Health: 9th edition. McGraw Hill: Boston, 2002.
“Environment Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect.” World Almanac 2000. Mahwah: World Almanac Books,
•Global Warming Kids Site. http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/kids.
•National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0725_coralbleaching.html.
Power Scorecard. Electricity and the Environment. http://powerscorecard.org/elec_env.cfm.
•The Plain English Guide To The Clean Air Act. http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/peg_caa/pegcaain.html.
“Sun.” World Book Encyclopedia, 1978.