Content <ul><li>What is Metadata
Design and Thing
Catalogs
INSPIRE and digital Geo Data
News Requirement: Pragmatics
...and the w-holy REST </li></ul>Arnulf Christl http://www.metaspatial.net
Who we are: Me, Myself and I We are geospatially aware since 1991 <ul><li>OGC Architecture Board Member
Current President of OSGeo
OpenStreetMap  advocate </li></ul>My alter ego  Seven is an Ex-Borg
Metaspatial When?  Consultation since March 2010 Why?  To leverage your spatial data What?  Consultation and Implementatio...
What is Metadata? <ul><li>[...]
Metadata is data.
However, it is impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it.
We don't know when data is metadata or just data. </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metadata
Meta Data in Analog Catalogs... The typical meta data of a book (the material object) can be: <ul><li>the name of the author
the edition
the year of publication
the publisher
and the  ISBN  number …  </li></ul>Whatever fits on a smal cardboard card G – ! C – A L – O T – A
Therefore it may be natural to think that digital meta data will look like a complex catalog >
Was halt so auf eine  Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine  Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O ...
But...   digital electronic (Meta)–Data ...is a very different beast
01100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101100111000110011100...
Just for the fun of UTF-8 let's call this: Metædata what about the &quot;e&quot; as in electronic or digital?
Design vs. Thing This presentation, information, any data in electronic format is nothing but  design based on our concepts
The World of Things Things take up space: Matter is compounded of atoms and molecules and bound by gravity and order
Matter (a thing) can only be in  one location at one time.
Things are always ordered and can thus hide each other.
Just in case you didn't believe...
Two things cannot be at the same location at the same time.
One thing cannot be at two locations at the same time. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Things cannot be copied! (The Star Trek universe is an exception to this rule) Ctrl & C (Ctrl &Ins) Ctrl & V (Shift & Ins) X
Things cannot be deleted! DEL X http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:E=mc2.png
Summarizing Matter  <ul><li>Matter cannot exist without space.
Matter takes up space. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can only be in one place at a time.
Matter can not be copied.
Matter can not be deleted.
Matter can not be  linked . </li></ul>you know where this is leading...
Data can.  ...and Metædata is even  meant  to...
... be copied, modified,  linked  and deleted.
Copying is not theft! Excursion
Digital metædata can be at  any place at any time  Metædata can be duplicated, copied, modified, deleted  and  linked ! .....
...digital Metadata? Examples of computer data file metadata: <ul><li>The file name
Access permissions
The data of last access
The file format (odt, shp,  kml ,  xml ,  rss ,  rdf )
And so on... </li></ul>
Spatial Design Spatial data  is only a  concept  of the  world  as we perceive it. I t  is  not  the  world  itself! The w...
...Geospatial Meta æ Data can contain and  is  metædata in itself: kml  - Keyhole Markup Language (OGC) xml  - eXtensible ...
INSPIREd Metadata? &quot;Profiles! Why, but why?&quot; ...you can hear them complain. The reason is simple enough, the ide...
This is not to say that all old ideas are bad! But yes, they should be allowed to follow Life's § 1:  Evolve
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The Potential of Metadata - Geoweb 2010

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Modern metadata catalogs use ontologies and thesauri to create hierarchical and polyhierarchical indexes. But catalogs still seem to miss the needs of both consumers and producers of geospatail data alike. A concise introduction to the syntax and semantics of geospatial metadata shows how to get there and that it misses pragmatics (the third semiotic discipline). One path to solve this problem is to automize metadata generation by better linking IT and to allow more interaction of actors.

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The Potential of Metadata - Geoweb 2010

  1. 1. Content <ul><li>What is Metadata
  2. 2. Design and Thing
  3. 3. Catalogs
  4. 4. INSPIRE and digital Geo Data
  5. 5. News Requirement: Pragmatics
  6. 6. ...and the w-holy REST </li></ul>Arnulf Christl http://www.metaspatial.net
  7. 7. Who we are: Me, Myself and I We are geospatially aware since 1991 <ul><li>OGC Architecture Board Member
  8. 8. Current President of OSGeo
  9. 9. OpenStreetMap advocate </li></ul>My alter ego Seven is an Ex-Borg
  10. 10. Metaspatial When? Consultation since March 2010 Why? To leverage your spatial data What? Consultation and Implementation of - Spatial Data Infrastructures - Metadata How: Open Source Software and Data with Open Standards and Agile management http://www.metaspatial.net
  11. 11. What is Metadata? <ul><li>[...]
  12. 12. Metadata is data.
  13. 13. However, it is impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it.
  14. 14. We don't know when data is metadata or just data. </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metadata
  15. 15. Meta Data in Analog Catalogs... The typical meta data of a book (the material object) can be: <ul><li>the name of the author
  16. 16. the edition
  17. 17. the year of publication
  18. 18. the publisher
  19. 19. and the ISBN number … </li></ul>Whatever fits on a smal cardboard card G – ! C – A L – O T – A
  20. 20. Therefore it may be natural to think that digital meta data will look like a complex catalog >
  21. 21. Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Whatever fits on a smal cardboard card G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Whatever fits on a smal cardboard card G – ! C – A L – O T – A Whatever fits on a smal cardboard card G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Was halt so auf eine Karteikarte passt G – ! C – A L – O T – A Whatever fits on a smal cardboard card G – ! C – A L – O T – A
  22. 22. But... digital electronic (Meta)–Data ...is a very different beast
  23. 23. 01100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011 7 11001110000111000110100111001001100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101100111000110011100001110001101001110010011001110001101001110010011011001110000111000110100111001001101001110010011011000000110001101011000110101100011010
  24. 24. Just for the fun of UTF-8 let's call this: Metædata what about the &quot;e&quot; as in electronic or digital?
  25. 25. Design vs. Thing This presentation, information, any data in electronic format is nothing but design based on our concepts
  26. 26. The World of Things Things take up space: Matter is compounded of atoms and molecules and bound by gravity and order
  27. 27. Matter (a thing) can only be in one location at one time.
  28. 28. Things are always ordered and can thus hide each other.
  29. 29. Just in case you didn't believe...
  30. 30. Two things cannot be at the same location at the same time.
  31. 31. One thing cannot be at two locations at the same time. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
  32. 32. Things cannot be copied! (The Star Trek universe is an exception to this rule) Ctrl & C (Ctrl &Ins) Ctrl & V (Shift & Ins) X
  33. 33. Things cannot be deleted! DEL X http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:E=mc2.png
  34. 34. Summarizing Matter <ul><li>Matter cannot exist without space.
  35. 35. Matter takes up space. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can only be in one place at a time.
  36. 36. Matter can not be copied.
  37. 37. Matter can not be deleted.
  38. 38. Matter can not be linked . </li></ul>you know where this is leading...
  39. 39. Data can. ...and Metædata is even meant to...
  40. 40. ... be copied, modified, linked and deleted.
  41. 41. Copying is not theft! Excursion
  42. 42. Digital metædata can be at any place at any time Metædata can be duplicated, copied, modified, deleted and linked ! ... a bit.ly Open Source...
  43. 43. ...digital Metadata? Examples of computer data file metadata: <ul><li>The file name
  44. 44. Access permissions
  45. 45. The data of last access
  46. 46. The file format (odt, shp, kml , xml , rss , rdf )
  47. 47. And so on... </li></ul>
  48. 48. Spatial Design Spatial data is only a concept of the world as we perceive it. I t is not the world itself! The world does not need us to make sense.
  49. 49. ...Geospatial Meta æ Data can contain and is metædata in itself: kml - Keyhole Markup Language (OGC) xml - eXtensible Markup Language (W3C) rss - Really Simple Syndication (W3C) rdf - Resource Description Framework (W3C) All information is linked! File extensions are Metædata, implicitly linked to specifications
  50. 50. INSPIREd Metadata? &quot;Profiles! Why, but why?&quot; ...you can hear them complain. The reason is simple enough, the idea is from the last millennium.
  51. 51. This is not to say that all old ideas are bad! But yes, they should be allowed to follow Life's § 1: Evolve
  52. 52. INSPIRE The definition of &quot;Metadata&quot; in the INSPIRE directive is rather thin. […] 6. ‘metadata’ means information describing spatial data sets and spatial data services and making it possible to discover, inventory and use them; http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:108:0001:0014:EN:PDF
  53. 53. INSPIRE 2. Metadata shall include information on the following: [...] (b) conditions applying to access to, and use of, spatial data sets and services and, where applicable, corresponding fees; [...] (e) limitations on public access and the reasons for such limitations, in accordance with Article 13. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:108:0001:0014:EN:PDF
  54. 54. INSPIRE 2. Metadata shall include information on the following: [...] (b) conditions applying to access to, and use of, spatial data sets and services and, where applicable, corresponding fees; [...] (e) limitations on public access and the reasons for such limitations, in accordance with Article 13. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:108:0001:0014:EN:PDF End-User License Agreement
  55. 55. Metadata in INSPIRE INSPIRE structures data on the top level with a rough category similar to the Dewey Decimal Classification . The Annexes of the EU-Directive define what type of datasets need to be described and the ISO Standard 19139 defines how to describe them. (There is no definition of what meta data is)
  56. 56. Example 1 The metadata for an orthorectified aerial photography image could contain: <ul><li>Recording device </li><ul><li>Digital
  57. 57. Analog </li></ul><li>Processing steps </li><ul><li>Rectification
  58. 58. Geo referencing
  59. 59. Contrast adjustment
  60. 60. Brightness adjustment
  61. 61. etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial extent
  62. 62. Coordinate reference system
  63. 63. Projection
  64. 64. Format, access options
  65. 65. Date of exposure
  66. 66. Resolution of original image
  67. 67. Number of Bands </li></ul>
  68. 68. The metadata of a Traffic Information Service can consist of: <ul><li>Acquisition method </li><ul><li>Official data
  69. 69. Vounteered data
  70. 70. Forecasting method </li></ul><li>Consideration of construction sites, events, speedometers,
  71. 71. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial extent </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate reference system
  72. 72. Projection
  73. 73. Format, access options
  74. 74. Source of geometric data </li></ul><ul><li>Actuality </li></ul>Example 2
  75. 75. Syntax and Semantics Syntax and semantics are disciplines of the science of Semiotics. In geoinformatics syntax describes spatial data formally , whereas semantics describes it's meaning . To be able to store this information in a catalog it has to be indexed and structured.
  76. 76. Thesaurus and Indexing A thesaurus is a networked collection of controlled vocabulary terms. A thesaurus uses: <ul><li>Associative relationships
  77. 77. Parent-child relationships.
  78. 78. The expressiveness of the relationships can vary </li></ul>A common understanding of the Meaning is a prerequisite.
  79. 79. Ontology Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being , existence or reality in general, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Relations http://twitter.com/sevenspatial/status/19854195289 Parmenides Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality. Parmenides
  80. 80. Ontology In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal representation of knowledge by a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the properties of that domain, and may be used to describe the domain.
  81. 81. Ontology Every Domain has to create their own Ontology. Example: The Marine Metadata Interoperability Project http://marinemetadata.org
  82. 82. Ontology A formal ontology is a controlled vocabulary expressed in an ontology representation language. This language has a grammar for using vocabulary terms to express something meaningful within a specified domain of interest. The use of Ontologies is still limited!
  83. 83. Pragmatics In Semiotics, Syntax and Semantics are complemented by Pragmatics. It defines: >>> The relation between signs and their effects on those who use them. >>> People, machines? Informatics in general and geospatial data management e-spatially lack Pragmatics !
  84. 84. The Data Provider Perspective: <ul><li>All spatial data is described by the same smallest common denominator (Dublin Core, FGDC, ISO 19115 and so on) an specific incompatible profiles.
  85. 85. Metadata creation and maintenance are typically artificial extra jobs for the data creators.
  86. 86. Metadata is provided through complex interfaces (Catalog Services Web) and formats (ISO 19139 and specific profiles).
  87. 87. Metadata quality is mostly limited on syntax.
  88. 88. There is little to no interaction with users. </li></ul>
  89. 89. The Data Consumer Perspective <ul><li>Users do not understand the &quot;language&quot; of the providers
  90. 90. Metadata descriptions are always incomplete if not related to one or better even – many ontologies.
  91. 91. The service offering is too complicated, incompatible and unreliable.
  92. 92. &quot;Geo portals&quot; do not satisfy user's need.
  93. 93. Interaction between consumers and providers is minimal.
  94. 94. Metadata is not linked well enough. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Nu Req' <ul><li>Extend offer
  96. 96. Simplify Search.
  97. 97. Allow browsing.
  98. 98. ...user evaluation .
  99. 99. Supersede categories by user's tags .
  100. 100. Automize creation and maintenance of metadata
  101. 101. Allow and enhance interaction between users and providers </li></ul>
  102. 102. Concepts of the Web (2.0) <ul><li>Resource-oriented architecture patterns (REST and ROA) allow simple creation, maintenance and search.
  103. 103. Propagation of spatial data uses GeoRSS .
  104. 104. User communities must grow their own specific ontologies.
  105. 105. Users and providers need to talk.
  106. 106. All data belongs in open buckets! </li></ul>
  107. 107. Filter on the way out! David Weinberger (2008): Everything is Miscellaneous
  108. 108. REST – linking with sense Four concepts: <ul><li>the resource
  109. 109. the name (URL)
  110. 110. the representation
  111. 111. their relations(links) </li></ul>Four properties: <ul><li>Addressability
  112. 112. Statelessness
  113. 113. Connectedness
  114. 114. Well formed operations </li></ul>The corresponding architecture pattern is the Resource Oriented Architecture (in short: ROA).
  115. 115. Now what? Current catalog technology does not use the potential of metædata. We need &quot;buckets&quot;. <ul><li>Open Access to Spatial Data </li></ul>The &quot;Internet&quot; is the lowest common layer of any SDI. Use it as it was meant to be used: <ul><li>REST paradigms and the ROA shall permeate standards ( OGC , INSPIRE , ISO , etc.) and spatial offerings ( OS UK , CGDI , Geoportal RLP etc.) </li></ul>
  116. 116. How about you? If you are interested in this vision and want to join on this mission impossible , consider joining the OSGeo Public Geospatial Data Committee and Mailing List. We can build a bucket for your metædata and your use case.
  117. 117. Interested? Thank you for your attention! Metaspatial This Slide set can be used, reused and modified by anybody for any purpose. See also: Copystraight . Copyright: Arnulf Christl 2010 6. to 9. September 2010 The international Open Source Conference of the Geospatial Domain http://2010.foss4g.org Download: http://arnulf.us/publications/the-potential-of-metadata_geoweb-2010.odp ( pdf )

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