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Arnold Bakker Workaholism Happiness

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This study examines how workaholics' behaviors during the evening influence their happiness. The authors use the Day Reconstruction Method. See this paper on www.arnoldbakker.com: …

This study examines how workaholics' behaviors during the evening influence their happiness. The authors use the Day Reconstruction Method. See this paper on www.arnoldbakker.com:
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., Oerlemans, W., & Sonnentag, S. (2012). Workaholism and daily recovery: A day reconstruction study of leisure activities. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Published in: Education, Career, Technology

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  • Juster’s (1985; p. 333) seminal observation that "an important
    ingredient in the production and distribution of well-being is the set of satisfactions
    generated by activities themselves.“
    such general enjoyment ratings can deviate in important and theoretically
    meaningful ways from episodic ratings that pertain to specific instances of the activity
    (Schwarz, Kahneman, & Xu, in press)
  • Juster’s (1985; p. 333) seminal observation that "an important
    ingredient in the production and distribution of well-being is the set of satisfactions
    generated by activities themselves.“
    such general enjoyment ratings can deviate in important and theoretically
    meaningful ways from episodic ratings that pertain to specific instances of the activity
    (Schwarz, Kahneman, & Xu, in press)
  • Dit is de website waarop mensen zich kunnen aanmelden...
  • Daarnaast kunnen deelnemers een geluksdagboek bijhouden.
    Het geluksdagboek is manier om stil te staan bij de dagelijke dingen die je doet en het geluk wat je daaraan ontleent.
    Positieve emoties zijn vaak kortdurend en mensen hebben moeite om zich achteraf te herrinneren hoe ze zich precies hebben gevoeld.
    Daarom hebben we deze methodiek ontwikkeld, waarbij we mensen op chronologische volgorde vragen wat ze gisteren hebben gedaan en hoe ze zich daarbij voelde.
    De methodiek is gebaseerd op de Day Reconstruction Method van Daniel Kahneman, die deze methodiek in 2004 in Science voor het eerst heeft onderzocht.
    We vragen mensen simpelweg hoe laat ze wakker werden en hoe laat ze gingen slapen
  • Vervolgens reconstreren mensen wat voor activiteiten ze hebben gedaan en hoe lang dat duurde.
    We hebben een aantal hoofdcategorieën (eten, onderweg, werken, bewegen, studeren, uitgaan, ontspanning, huishouden, rusten, verzorging)
  • Ze hier een voorbeeld van een ingevuld dagboek van een standaard dag.
    Ik was om 7 uur opgestaan, gegeten en aangekleed, daarna naar het werk in de trein.
    Van 9 tot 17 uur gewerkt, weer terug naar huis. Gegeten, huishoudelijke klusjes gedaan, gaan sporten, ontspannen
    Mensen specificeren ook meer precies wat voor activteit het was, hoelang de activiteit duurde, waar de activiteit was, en of ze contact hadden met anderen tijdens de activiteit.
  • Vervolgens vragen we mensen hoe gelukkig ze zich voelden bij ieder van deze activiteiten.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Workaholism and Daily Happiness: A Day Reconstruction Study
      • Prof. Arnold B. Bakker
    • 2. Day Reconstruction Method
      • Assess how people spend their time and how they feel
      • Reconstruction of activities and experiences of the preceding day
      • Reduces recall bias, DRM produces similar results as Experience Sampling
      • Erasmus University  easy to use internet application for participants: www.gelukswijzer.nl
      Kahneman et al. 2004. Science, 306, p.1776-1780.
    • 3.  
    • 4. Happiness diary
    • 5. Happiness diary
    • 6. Happiness diary
    • 7. Happiness diary
    • 8. Dynamics of happiness within persons Daily Happiness Person X Person Y
      • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
      • Day
      • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
      • Day
    • 9. Research Model Workaholism Happiness Recovery Activities after work Person-level Day-level
    • 10. Sample
      • Data collection via web questionnaire (general and DRM), Lottery of IPods
      • 85 employees from several occupations
      • Filled in diary during 9 working days
      • 57% male
      • Mean age: 38 years
      • Well-educated
    • 11.
      • Workaholism
      • Momentary happiness during activities (DRM)
      • Intentional activities:
        • Physical (exercise, sports)
        • Social (visit friends, cultural activities)
        • Relaxation (watching TV, listening to music)
        • Cognitive (online gaming, learning)
        • Routine (preparing meals, washing)
        • Work-related (working at home)
      Measures
    • 12. ML Findings Workaholism Happiness Recovery Person-level Day-level
      • Physical +
      • Social +
      • Relaxation –
      • Routine
      • Cognitive
      • Work-related –
      +
    • 13. ML Findings Workaholism Happiness Recovery Person-level Day-level
      • Physical +
      • Social +
      • Relaxation –
      • Routine
      • Cognitive
      • Work-related –
      + Workaholism  work-related activities
    • 14. Workaholics working during leisure time Work-related Activities Happiness
    • 15. Workaholics working during leisure time Work-related Activities Cogn. Liveliness
    • 16. Workaholics who exercise Physical Activities Happiness
    • 17. Workaholics who exercise Physical Activities Recovery
    • 18. Conclusion
      • Daily activities determine happiness, and indirectly affect recovery
      • Workaholic employees choose wrong activities during leisure time
      • Work-related activities are ‘bad’ - particularly for workaholics
      • Sports/exercise is ‘good’ - particularly for workaholics