The uterus medical terminology p1Presentation Transcript
THE UTERUS BY ARNESHIA MCCONNELL
UTERUS: ORIGIN Latin word meaning womb, belly Plural form: uteruses or uteri
THE UTERUS: WHAT IS IT? When most people think of the female sex organ, they feel the vagina is all there is to the human female reproductive system. NOT TRUE!!! The Uterus is: the female reproductive organ hollow, pair-shaped about 2.5 to 3 in. long and 2.5 in wide at the top located between the bladder and rectum
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
ANATOMY OF THE UTERUS There are three sections of the uterus: Fundus: upper part where the fallopian tubes connect. Corpus: the body of the uterus, central portion. Cervix: lower portion, which opens into the vagina.
ANATOMY OF THE UTERUS (continued) Made of layers of tissue: Perimetrium: outer layer of the uterus Endometrium: inner layer of the uterine wall This thickens and grows each month in preparation to receive a fertilized egg. This series of monthly changes is known as the menstrual cycle. Menstruation occurs when this tissue is not used (no occurring pregnancy), so it disintegrates and passes through the vagina.
ANATOMY OF THE UTERUS (continued) Myometrium: thick muscular walls of the uterus Expands during pregnancy to hold the growing fetus. Contracts during labor to deliver the baby. On each side at the top of the uterus are the fallopian tubes Together, the uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, and ovaries make up the human female reproductive system.
FUNCTIONS OF THE UTERUS To prepare a bed for a fertilized ovum (egg). To nourish the developing embryo during pregnancy To expel the fetus To provide blood flow to the ovaries To provide structural support to the bladder, bowel, pelvic bones and organs Helps separate and keep the bladder in its natural position above the pubic bone and the bowel in its natural configuration behind the uterus.
FUNCTIONS OF THE UTERUS The uterus is essential in sexual response by directing blood flow to the pelvis and external genitalia This is needed for uterine orgasm to occur
THE UTERUS AND PREGNANCY During pregnancy, the uterus grows upward out of the woman’s pelvis After about 12 weeks of pregnancy, the fundus can be felt by your caregiver feeling your belly.
THE UTERUS AND PREGNANCY (continued) By 24 weeks of pregnancy, the myometrium muscles start stretching upward, forming the thick upper segment of the uterus This leaves the lower segment as a thinner layer of muscle The lower segment has the role of absorbing the cervix as it dilates during labor The lower segment muscles are relatively weaker with less blood supply For this reason, the cut to perform a Cesarean is done in the lower segment of the uterus It is less likely to cause bleeding
PATHOLOGY OF THE UTERUS There are many diseases and disorders of the uterus. Here are a few: CERVICAL CANCER Malignant (cancerous) growth in the cervix Some cases are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted. There has recently been a vaccine created for it. Starts as a pre-cancerous condition called dysplasia (abnormal development) Early detection through regular pap smear tests. Difficult to treat
PATHOLOGY OF THE UTERUS (continued) ENDOMETRIAL CANCER Affects the endometrial lining of the uterus Symptoms: abnormal uterine bleeding and/or abnormal menstrual periods Bleeding between normal periods before menopause Vaginal bleeding or spotting after menopause Extreme long, heavy, or frequent episodes of vaginal bleeding after age 40. Abdominal pain or pelvic cramping Thin white or clear vaginal discharge after menopause Treatments of endometrial cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma
PATHOLOGY OF THE UTERUS (continued) FIBROIDS Benign tumor or growth Most common tumors in women Women of African-American heritage are 3 to 9 times more likely to develop fibroids than Caucasian women. Term is misleading because they consist of muscle tissue, not fibrous tissue Medical term is leiomyoma
PATHOLOGY OF THE UTERUS (continued) FIBROIDS (continued) Found in the wall of the uterus Can develop within the uterine wall or attach to it May grow as a single tumor or in clusters Symptoms include: Excessive menstrual bleeding (mennorrhagia) Pelvic pain Frequent urination
PATHOLOGY (continued) FIBROIDS (continued) Treatment The location of the fibroid plays a significant role on how to approach treatment Most of the time, fibroids do not need to be treated Fibroids grow as a woman gets older, and tend to shrink after menopause Smaller fibroids are easier to treat, but most of them never will need to be treated Many women with fibroids have successful pregnancies as long as the fibroids are not inside the uterine cavity
Picture of Uterus with Uterine Fibroids
Uterus With Fibroids After Hysterectomy
CONCLUSION It is very important for all women to make their health a priority. Annual women’s wellness checkups are very critical for early prevention of female reproductive issues.
SOURCES www.emedicinehealth.com www.gynalternatives.com/fibroids.htm www.medterms.com www.medicinenet.com www.pregnancytoday.com www.birth.com.au http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/endometrial_cancer Medical Terminology: A Living Language (4th Edition). By Bonnie F. Fremgen & Suzanne S. Frucht