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  • 1. IxDA  6th  –  Ubicomp,  ISB,  ICD   Stanley  Chang   School  of  Informa=on   University  of  Michigan  
  • 2. Ubiquitous  Compu=ng  
  • 3. The  “Post-­‐PC”  Era  •   1960s  (Mainframes):  100s  of  users  per   computer  •  1970s  (Minicomputers):  10s  of  users  per   computer  •  1980s  (PCs):  1  user  per  computer  •  1990s-­‐2000s  (Mobile):  10s  of  computers  per   user  •  The  Future  (Ubicomp):  100s,  1000s  of   computers  per  user  
  • 4. Trillions  
  • 5. Ubicomp  is  the  future  
  • 6. In  2019(?)  
  • 7. Design  becomes  part  of  the  task,  a  natural  extension  of  the  work,  the  natural  extension  of  the  person.   By  Don  Norman  
  • 8. Natural  Interac=on  Context  would  include  informa=on  that  does  not   require  our  aYen=on  except  when  necessary   By  Malcolm  McCullough  
  • 9. Calm  technology   By  Mark  Weiser  
  • 10. Why  is  calm?  Periphery  informs  without  overwhelming  You  can  move  to  the  center  to  get  control  
  • 11. Everyware  
  • 12. Example1:  Smart  Home  
  • 13. Example2:  Smart  Object  
  • 14. Example3:  Ambient  Display  
  • 15. Challenges  of  Ubicomp  Design:  •  Appropriate  physical  interac=on  •  Applica=on  themes  &  requirements  •  Theories/Methods  for  design  &  eval    
  • 16. Interac=on  •  Natural  &  implicit  input   –  Which  mode  to  use  when?  •  Mul=scale  and  distributed  output   –  Which  informa=on  to  put  where?  •   Integra=on  of  physical  and  virtual   –  How  best  to  link  the  two?  
  • 17. Models  of  Interac=on  •  Ac=vity  Theory:  goals  and  ac=ons  are   fluid,  tools  shape  behavior  •  Situated  Ac=on:  behavior  is   improvisa=onal,  context  is  important  •  Distributed  Cogni=on:  knowledge  is  in   the  world,  especially  ar=facts  
  • 18. Applica=on  Themes  •  Context-­‐aware  compu=ng  •  Automated  capture  and  access  •  Con=nuous  interac=on  (everyday,   ambient,  long-­‐lived)  
  • 19. Others  Issues..  •  Introduce  novel  experience  •  Design  for  adap=on  •  Design  for  larger  context  •  Experience  across  “avatar”  •  Device  interopera=on  and   interconnec=on  •  Privacy  (Implicit  vs.  explicit)  •  Effect  on  exis=ng    mechanism  •  Design  for  failure  
  • 20. Informa=on  Seeking  Behavior  
  • 21. What  is  Informa=on?  Informa=on  is  anything  that  can  change  person’s  knowledge   Belkin,  1978  
  • 22. Two  kinds  of  knowledge   Personal  Experience   Second-­‐Hand  Knowledge   We  do  not  believe  everything  other  people  tell  us.   People  make  judgments  about  how  useful  informa=on  is   to  their  par=cular  needs,  ac=vely  construct  meaning,  form   judgments  about  the  relevance  of  the  informa=on.     Patrick  Wilson  
  • 23. Human  Informa=on  Behavior   the  study  of  a  variety  of  interac=ons   between  :     •  people  (individuals,  groups,  professions)   •  various  forms  of  “informa=on”  or  knowledge   •  Encountering  with  systems,  services,  networks,   technology  ...   •  The  context  of  use  
  • 24. Informa=on  Seeking  Behavior   What  people  do  in  response  to  goals  (inten=ons)   which  require  informa=on  support   How  people  seek  informa=on  by  interac=ng  with   various  informa=on  systems   How  people  communicate  informa=on  with   people  
  • 25. Informa(on  Behavior  Informa(on  Seeking  Behavior   Informa(on  Search   Behavior   T.D.  Wilson  
  • 26. More  defini=ons  Process  in  which  humans  purposefully  engage  in  order  to  change  their  state  of  knowledge  (Marchionini,  1995)  A  conscious  effort  to  acquire  informa=on  in  response  to  a  need  or  gap  in  your  knowledge                (Case,  2002)  …fiing  informa=on  in  with  what  one  already  knows  and  extending  this  knowledge  to  create  new  perspec=ves                              (Kuhlthau,  2004)  
  • 27. Ellis’s  model  
  • 28. Wilson’s  model  
  • 29. Why  ISB?  ISB  becomes  more  ubiquitous  The  impact  of  the  Internet  and  Web  as  communica=on  and  informa=on  channels  More  and  more  informa=on  creators,  producers,  disseminators,  providers  
  • 30. Mobile  informa=on  needs   Church  08,09  
  • 31. Ubicomp  +  ISB  ??  What,  when,  where,  who,   how,  and  how  olen?  
  • 32. Incen=ve-­‐Centered  Design  
  • 33. Three  aspects  of  Interac=on   Intellectual   ICD   Emo=onal   Sensual  
  • 34. Game  Theory  Ra=onality  
  • 35. Game  Theory   Cooperate   Defect  Cooperate   3,3   0,5  Defect   5,0   1,1   The  Prisoner’s  dilemma   ?  
  • 36. Repeated  Game  Grim  Trigger   •  Cooperate  un=l  a  rival  deviates   •  Once  a  devia=on  occurs,  play  non-­‐ coopera=vely  for  the  rest  of  the  game   Tit  for  Tat   •  Cooperate  if  your  rival  cooperated  in  the  most   recent  period   •  Cheat  if  your  rival  cheated  in  the  most  recent   period  
  • 37. Repeated  Game   Cooperate   Defect  Cooperate   3,3   0,5  Defect   5,0   1,1   Cooperate   Defect   Cooperate   3,3   0,5   Defect   5,0   1,1  
  • 38. Example:  Amazon  
  • 39. ICD  Challenges:  Moral  Hazard  One  side  lacking  informa=on  about  the  other’s  ac=ons  Adverse  Selec=on  High-­‐quality  traders  being  less  likely  to  trade  than  low-­‐quality  traders,  because  the  other  side  cannot  dis=nguish  them  
  • 40. Adverse  Selec=on  Can  lead  to  breakdown  of  the  high-­‐quality  market   –  Fewer  high-­‐quality  sellers  leads  to  buyers   being  willing  to  quote  a  lower  price   –  Lower  price  dissuades  high-­‐quality  sellers   even  further   buyers’  lack  of  credible  informa=on   about  product  
  • 41. Moral  Hazard  One  side  lacking  informa=on  about  the  other’s  ac=ons   –  eg,  if  there  are  no  postal  receipts,  only   the  seller  knows  if  he  shipped  the  item.     Would  hold  as  long  as  seller’s   incen=ve  to  ship  is  less  than   seller’s  incen=ve  to  not  ship  
  • 42. Reputa=on  systems  can  poten=ally  reduce  both  moral  hazard  and  adverse  selec=on  effects.  
  • 43. Examples  
  • 44. Examples  
  • 45. Why  do  people  want  to  par=cipate  your  system?  
  • 46. Ubicomp  +  ICD  ??   How  to  make  people  want  to  par=cipate  your  service?  What  do  they  want  to  get?  
  • 47. Workshop  Ubicomp  +  ICD  +  ISB  
  • 48. Ubicomp  Service   Considera=ons  •  Technology   •  Experience?  •  Context   •  Adap=on?  •  Interac=on   •  Privacy  ?    •  Informa=on  need   •  Exis=ng    mechanism?  •  Incen=ve   •  Failure