IxDA	  6th	  –	  Ubicomp,	  ISB,	  ICD	               Stanley	  Chang	           School	  of	  Informa=on	           Unive...
Ubiquitous	  Compu=ng	  
The	  “Post-­‐PC”	  Era	  •  	  1960s	  (Mainframes):	  100s	  of	  users	  per	     computer	  •  1970s	  (Minicomputers)...
Trillions	  
Ubicomp	  is	  the	  future	  
In	  2019(?)	  
Design	  becomes	  part	  of	  the	  task,	  a	  natural	  extension	  of	  the	  work,	  the	  natural	  extension	  of	 ...
Natural	  Interac=on	  Context	  would	  include	  informa=on	  that	  does	  not	    require	  our	  aYen=on	  except	  w...
Calm	  technology	                           By	  Mark	  Weiser	  
Why	  is	  calm?	  Periphery	  informs	  without	  overwhelming	  You	  can	  move	  to	  the	  center	  to	  get	  contro...
Everyware	  
Example1:	  Smart	  Home	  
Example2:	  Smart	  Object	  
Example3:	  Ambient	  Display	  
Challenges	  of	  Ubicomp	  Design:	  •  Appropriate	  physical	  interac=on	  •  Applica=on	  themes	  &	  requirements	 ...
Interac=on	  •  Natural	  &	  implicit	  input	      –  Which	  mode	  to	  use	  when?	  •  Mul=scale	  and	  distributed...
Models	  of	  Interac=on	  •  Ac=vity	  Theory:	  goals	  and	  ac=ons	  are	     fluid,	  tools	  shape	  behavior	  •  Si...
Applica=on	  Themes	  •  Context-­‐aware	  compu=ng	  •  Automated	  capture	  and	  access	  •  Con=nuous	  interac=on	  ...
Others	  Issues..	  •  Introduce	  novel	  experience	  •  Design	  for	  adap=on	  •  Design	  for	  larger	  context	  •...
Informa=on	  Seeking	  Behavior	  
What	  is	  Informa=on?	  Informa=on	  is	  anything	  that	  can	  change	  person’s	  knowledge	                        ...
Two	  kinds	  of	  knowledge	   Personal	  Experience	   Second-­‐Hand	  Knowledge	   We	  do	  not	  believe	  everything...
Human	  Informa=on	  Behavior	    the	  study	  of	  a	  variety	  of	  interac=ons	    between	  :	  	        •  people	 ...
Informa=on	  Seeking	  Behavior	     What	  people	  do	  in	  response	  to	  goals	  (inten=ons)	     which	  require	  ...
Informa(on	  Behavior	  Informa(on	  Seeking	  Behavior	        Informa(on	  Search	             Behavior	                ...
More	  defini=ons	  Process	  in	  which	  humans	  purposefully	  engage	  in	  order	  to	  change	  their	  state	  of	 ...
Ellis’s	  model	  
Wilson’s	  model	  
Why	  ISB?	  ISB	  becomes	  more	  ubiquitous	  The	  impact	  of	  the	  Internet	  and	  Web	  as	  communica=on	  and	...
Mobile	  informa=on	  needs	                                 Church	  08,09	  
Ubicomp	  +	  ISB	  ??	  What,	  when,	  where,	  who,	   how,	  and	  how	  olen?	  
Incen=ve-­‐Centered	  Design	  
Three	  aspects	  of	  Interac=on	              Intellectual	      ICD	               Emo=onal	                Sensual	  
Game	  Theory	  Ra=onality	  
Game	  Theory	                  Cooperate	     Defect	  Cooperate	     3,3	           0,5	  Defect	        5,0	           ...
Repeated	  Game	  Grim	  Trigger	     •  Cooperate	  un=l	  a	  rival	  deviates	     •  Once	  a	  devia=on	  occurs,	  p...
Repeated	  Game	                  Cooperate	     Defect	  Cooperate	     3,3	           0,5	  Defect	        5,0	         ...
Example:	  Amazon	  
ICD	  Challenges:	  Moral	  Hazard	  One	  side	  lacking	  informa=on	  about	  the	  other’s	  ac=ons	  Adverse	  Selec=...
Adverse	  Selec=on	  Can	  lead	  to	  breakdown	  of	  the	  high-­‐quality	  market	     –  Fewer	  high-­‐quality	  sel...
Moral	  Hazard	  One	  side	  lacking	  informa=on	  about	  the	  other’s	  ac=ons	     –  eg,	  if	  there	  are	  no	  ...
Reputa=on	  systems	  can	  poten=ally	  reduce	  both	  moral	  hazard	  and	  adverse	  selec=on	  effects.	  
Examples	  
Examples	  
Why	  do	  people	  want	  to	  par=cipate	  your	  system?	  
Ubicomp	  +	  ICD	  ??	   How	  to	  make	  people	  want	  to	  par=cipate	  your	  service?	  What	  do	  they	  want	  ...
Workshop	  Ubicomp	  +	  ICD	  +	  ISB	  
Ubicomp	  Service	                       Considera=ons	  •      Technology	             •      Experience?	  •      Contex...
IxDA Taiwan 6th slide
IxDA Taiwan 6th slide
IxDA Taiwan 6th slide
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IxDA Taiwan 6th slide

  1. 1. IxDA  6th  –  Ubicomp,  ISB,  ICD   Stanley  Chang   School  of  Informa=on   University  of  Michigan  
  2. 2. Ubiquitous  Compu=ng  
  3. 3. The  “Post-­‐PC”  Era  •   1960s  (Mainframes):  100s  of  users  per   computer  •  1970s  (Minicomputers):  10s  of  users  per   computer  •  1980s  (PCs):  1  user  per  computer  •  1990s-­‐2000s  (Mobile):  10s  of  computers  per   user  •  The  Future  (Ubicomp):  100s,  1000s  of   computers  per  user  
  4. 4. Trillions  
  5. 5. Ubicomp  is  the  future  
  6. 6. In  2019(?)  
  7. 7. Design  becomes  part  of  the  task,  a  natural  extension  of  the  work,  the  natural  extension  of  the  person.   By  Don  Norman  
  8. 8. Natural  Interac=on  Context  would  include  informa=on  that  does  not   require  our  aYen=on  except  when  necessary   By  Malcolm  McCullough  
  9. 9. Calm  technology   By  Mark  Weiser  
  10. 10. Why  is  calm?  Periphery  informs  without  overwhelming  You  can  move  to  the  center  to  get  control  
  11. 11. Everyware  
  12. 12. Example1:  Smart  Home  
  13. 13. Example2:  Smart  Object  
  14. 14. Example3:  Ambient  Display  
  15. 15. Challenges  of  Ubicomp  Design:  •  Appropriate  physical  interac=on  •  Applica=on  themes  &  requirements  •  Theories/Methods  for  design  &  eval    
  16. 16. Interac=on  •  Natural  &  implicit  input   –  Which  mode  to  use  when?  •  Mul=scale  and  distributed  output   –  Which  informa=on  to  put  where?  •   Integra=on  of  physical  and  virtual   –  How  best  to  link  the  two?  
  17. 17. Models  of  Interac=on  •  Ac=vity  Theory:  goals  and  ac=ons  are   fluid,  tools  shape  behavior  •  Situated  Ac=on:  behavior  is   improvisa=onal,  context  is  important  •  Distributed  Cogni=on:  knowledge  is  in   the  world,  especially  ar=facts  
  18. 18. Applica=on  Themes  •  Context-­‐aware  compu=ng  •  Automated  capture  and  access  •  Con=nuous  interac=on  (everyday,   ambient,  long-­‐lived)  
  19. 19. Others  Issues..  •  Introduce  novel  experience  •  Design  for  adap=on  •  Design  for  larger  context  •  Experience  across  “avatar”  •  Device  interopera=on  and   interconnec=on  •  Privacy  (Implicit  vs.  explicit)  •  Effect  on  exis=ng    mechanism  •  Design  for  failure  
  20. 20. Informa=on  Seeking  Behavior  
  21. 21. What  is  Informa=on?  Informa=on  is  anything  that  can  change  person’s  knowledge   Belkin,  1978  
  22. 22. Two  kinds  of  knowledge   Personal  Experience   Second-­‐Hand  Knowledge   We  do  not  believe  everything  other  people  tell  us.   People  make  judgments  about  how  useful  informa=on  is   to  their  par=cular  needs,  ac=vely  construct  meaning,  form   judgments  about  the  relevance  of  the  informa=on.     Patrick  Wilson  
  23. 23. Human  Informa=on  Behavior   the  study  of  a  variety  of  interac=ons   between  :     •  people  (individuals,  groups,  professions)   •  various  forms  of  “informa=on”  or  knowledge   •  Encountering  with  systems,  services,  networks,   technology  ...   •  The  context  of  use  
  24. 24. Informa=on  Seeking  Behavior   What  people  do  in  response  to  goals  (inten=ons)   which  require  informa=on  support   How  people  seek  informa=on  by  interac=ng  with   various  informa=on  systems   How  people  communicate  informa=on  with   people  
  25. 25. Informa(on  Behavior  Informa(on  Seeking  Behavior   Informa(on  Search   Behavior   T.D.  Wilson  
  26. 26. More  defini=ons  Process  in  which  humans  purposefully  engage  in  order  to  change  their  state  of  knowledge  (Marchionini,  1995)  A  conscious  effort  to  acquire  informa=on  in  response  to  a  need  or  gap  in  your  knowledge                (Case,  2002)  …fiing  informa=on  in  with  what  one  already  knows  and  extending  this  knowledge  to  create  new  perspec=ves                              (Kuhlthau,  2004)  
  27. 27. Ellis’s  model  
  28. 28. Wilson’s  model  
  29. 29. Why  ISB?  ISB  becomes  more  ubiquitous  The  impact  of  the  Internet  and  Web  as  communica=on  and  informa=on  channels  More  and  more  informa=on  creators,  producers,  disseminators,  providers  
  30. 30. Mobile  informa=on  needs   Church  08,09  
  31. 31. Ubicomp  +  ISB  ??  What,  when,  where,  who,   how,  and  how  olen?  
  32. 32. Incen=ve-­‐Centered  Design  
  33. 33. Three  aspects  of  Interac=on   Intellectual   ICD   Emo=onal   Sensual  
  34. 34. Game  Theory  Ra=onality  
  35. 35. Game  Theory   Cooperate   Defect  Cooperate   3,3   0,5  Defect   5,0   1,1   The  Prisoner’s  dilemma   ?  
  36. 36. Repeated  Game  Grim  Trigger   •  Cooperate  un=l  a  rival  deviates   •  Once  a  devia=on  occurs,  play  non-­‐ coopera=vely  for  the  rest  of  the  game   Tit  for  Tat   •  Cooperate  if  your  rival  cooperated  in  the  most   recent  period   •  Cheat  if  your  rival  cheated  in  the  most  recent   period  
  37. 37. Repeated  Game   Cooperate   Defect  Cooperate   3,3   0,5  Defect   5,0   1,1   Cooperate   Defect   Cooperate   3,3   0,5   Defect   5,0   1,1  
  38. 38. Example:  Amazon  
  39. 39. ICD  Challenges:  Moral  Hazard  One  side  lacking  informa=on  about  the  other’s  ac=ons  Adverse  Selec=on  High-­‐quality  traders  being  less  likely  to  trade  than  low-­‐quality  traders,  because  the  other  side  cannot  dis=nguish  them  
  40. 40. Adverse  Selec=on  Can  lead  to  breakdown  of  the  high-­‐quality  market   –  Fewer  high-­‐quality  sellers  leads  to  buyers   being  willing  to  quote  a  lower  price   –  Lower  price  dissuades  high-­‐quality  sellers   even  further   buyers’  lack  of  credible  informa=on   about  product  
  41. 41. Moral  Hazard  One  side  lacking  informa=on  about  the  other’s  ac=ons   –  eg,  if  there  are  no  postal  receipts,  only   the  seller  knows  if  he  shipped  the  item.     Would  hold  as  long  as  seller’s   incen=ve  to  ship  is  less  than   seller’s  incen=ve  to  not  ship  
  42. 42. Reputa=on  systems  can  poten=ally  reduce  both  moral  hazard  and  adverse  selec=on  effects.  
  43. 43. Examples  
  44. 44. Examples  
  45. 45. Why  do  people  want  to  par=cipate  your  system?  
  46. 46. Ubicomp  +  ICD  ??   How  to  make  people  want  to  par=cipate  your  service?  What  do  they  want  to  get?  
  47. 47. Workshop  Ubicomp  +  ICD  +  ISB  
  48. 48. Ubicomp  Service   Considera=ons  •  Technology   •  Experience?  •  Context   •  Adap=on?  •  Interac=on   •  Privacy  ?    •  Informa=on  need   •  Exis=ng    mechanism?  •  Incen=ve   •  Failure      
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