Other transitions, dissolve, fade-in, fade-out, wipe, superimposition, long take, short take, slow motion, ellipsis and expansion of time, post-production, visual effects.
We have looked at how individual shots are framed for effect. As important is how these are linked together to tell the story in an efficient and stylish way.
Each decision of shot type and shot length will have an effect on the rhythm and mood of the scene.
In the exam we can talk about this, and combine it with how sound is edited too, how it may vary from shot to shot, certainly where a two stories are intercut.
The simplest way to talk about editing is to use the term cut, this is a straight edit where two ends of film are simply put together.
The most common type of edit, we see someone perform an action, and in the subsequent shot the results of this action.
The villain turns on the sprinklers
The first sprinkler starts
The second sprinkler is in full flow
We see the chaos caused by the sprinklers
180 degree rule
The 180° rule is a basic film editing guideline that states that two characters (or other elements) in the same scene should always have the same left/right relationship to each other. If the camera passes over the imaginary axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line. The new shot, from the opposite side, is known as a reverse angle.
See Ant and Dec
Shot reverse shot is a film technique wherein one character is shown looking (often off-screen) at another character, and then the other character is shown looking "back" at the first character. Since the characters are shown facing in opposite directions, the viewer unconsciously assumes that they are looking at each other . In the following sequence we see both the 180 degree rule and shot-reverse-shot in use
In film, a cutaway is the interruption of a continuously-filmed action by inserting a view of something else. It is usually followed by a cutback to the first shot, but not always.
Watch out for cutaways, to show parallel action, in a different location. Ask why it is there
In film , an insert is a shot of part of a scene as filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from the master shot . Inserts cover action already covered in the master shot, but emphasize a different aspect of that action due to the different framing. Often they are of detail in the action
Cutting on Action (ACTION MATCH)
Cutting on action or matching on action refers to a film editing technique where the editor cuts from one shot to another view that "matches" the first shot's action and energy. Although the two shots may have actually been shot hours apart from each other, cutting on action gives the impression of continuous time when watching the edited film. By having a subject begin an action in one shot and carry it through to completion in the next, the editor creates a visual bridge which distracts the viewer from noticing the cut or noticing any slight continuity error between the two shots.
In this clip watch for bond having a microchip inserted in his arm, see how the editing moves fluently from one angle to another in the action
A variant of cutting on action is a cut in which the subject exits the frame in the first shot and then enters the frame in the subsequent shot. See M in the next example