The Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
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The Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone

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Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters. The destructive......

Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters. The destructive forces of cyclonic winds, inundating rains, and storm surge are frequently accompanied by floods, tornadoes, and landslides.

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  • 1. Introduction Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 2. Many holidaymakers are forsaking Mediterranean locations such as Spain and Greece for longer haul destinations in the Caribbean and the south-eastern states of the USA like Florida. Bermuda in place of Benidorm, Miami instead of Magalluf! Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 3. A wise move it would seem; warm tropical seas, high temperatures and il hi h d sunshine are guaranteed…. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 4. ...but it is just these characteristics that make Tropical cyclones such a danger in late summer and early autumn. Why??? Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 5. In the west Atlantic and Caribbean J l A C ibb July, August and September are the months when most hh Tropical cyclones (Hurricanes) occur. (H i ) Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 6. These intense storms are found in most tropical oceans; called Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Caribbean, Typhoons in the Pacific, Cyclones in the Indian Ocean and Willy Willies in northern Australia, they all originate in the same way. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 7. Infra-Red Infra- Dark areas are relatively warm. Lighter areas are relatively cold. Question Why are they so y y many clouds in equatorial regions? g Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 8. Focus / Questions What is Tropical Cyclone? How Tropical cyclones (Hurricanes) form and move? move? What does cyclone need? What makes it happen? pp Why does the system rotate? What are the problems/damages caused? problems/damages How can these Tropical Regions prepare for future natural disasters? Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 9. Definition Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 10. Tropical Cyclones are defined by the following characteristics: • They are tropical, meaning that they are generated in tropical areas of the ocean near the Equator Equator. • They are cyclonic, meaning that their winds swirl around a central eye. Wind direction is counterclockwise (west to east) in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise (east to west) in the Southern Hemisphere (more about this later). • They are low-pressure systems. The eye of a hurricane is always a low-pressure area. The lowest barometric pressures ever recorded h have occurred i id h i d inside hurricanes. • The winds swirling around the center of the storm have a sustained speed of at least 74 mph (119 kph / 64 kt).
  • 11. Parts of a Hurricane Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB m M
  • 12. Eye E : Th l The low-pressure, calm center of circulation l t f i l ti Eye wall : Area around the eye with the fastest, most violent winds Rain bands : Bands of thunderstorms circulating outward from the eye th t are part of the evaporation/condensation cycle that that t f th ti / d ti l th t feeds the storm
  • 13. Hurricane Forms Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 14. Hurricanes form in tropical regions where there is warm g water (at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit / 26,5 degrees Celsius), moist air and converging equatorial winds. Most Atlantic hurricanes begin off the west coast of Africa, starting as thunderstorms that move out over the warm, Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB tropical ocean waters.
  • 15. Peaks of activity worldwide
  • 16. Warm sea temperatures needed f cyclones! for l ! Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 17. Loop of SST anomalies in the Tropical Pacific Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 18. Stages of development of a tropical cyclone Stage Description A trough of low pressure in the trade-wind Tropical wave easterlies A moving area of thunderstorms in the g Tropical T il tropics that maintains its identity for 24 disturbance hours or more A tropical cyclone in which the maximum p y T Tropical il sustained surface wind is _38 miles/hour depression ( _61 km/hour; _33 knots) Tropical storm p A tropical cyclone in which the maximum p y sustained surface wind ranges from 39 miles/hour (62 km/hour; >33 knots) to 73 miles/hour (117 km/hour; <64 knots) Hurricane/ A tropical cyclone in which maximum typhoon/ sustained surface wind is _74 miles/hour cyclone ( _118 km/hour; _64 knots) Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 19. Three events must happen for hurricanes to form: • A continuing evaporation-condensation cycle of warm, humid ocean air. • Patterns of wind characterized by converging winds at the surface and strong, uniform-speed winds at higher altitudes. • A difference in air pressure (pressure gradient) between the surface and hi h altitude. b h f d high l i d
  • 20. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 21. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 22. Tracking a Hurricane g Satellite images and video are from Hurricane Wilma, a category 5 storm that devastated southern Florida in 2005. Most i f M t information was taken from Ch i ti Kid E l ti tk f Earth d Space b St h i R d by Stephanie Redmond and dd Christian Kids Explore E th and S http://www.weatherwizkids.com/hurricane1.htm Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 23. Tracking a Hurricane g Satellite images and video are from Hurricane Charley, Aug 13, 2004 http://www.weatherwizkids.com/hurricane1.htm Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 24. Hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere rotate counterclockwise (west to east) and move through the ocean clockwise (east to west). In the Southern Hemisphere, hurricanes rotate clockwise (east to west) and p ( ) move counterclockwise (west to east). These motions, known as the Coriolis effect, are caused by the Earth's rotation. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 25. Theory y Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 26. Storm Parameters The O Th Ocean Response to Hurricanes is governed by the parameters of R tH i i d b th t f the applied atmospheric Forcing, which are given in this table. (Geisler,1970) Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 27. Wind Stress A common reprasentation of a Hurricane Wind Strees Distribution is the Rankine Vortex (Chang and Athens 1978). The tangential and radial Wind Stress components are given by : Notes : Rmax is radius of maximum winds Rout is radius to the outer edge of the Hurricane g Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 28. Nondimensional Framework An important nondimensional number in the mixed layer is the Burger Number (M), which measures the importance of the horizontal pressure gradients (Price,1983): M = (1 + 1/S2)g’ h / (2Rmax f)2 Notes: S is the nondimensional storm speed (Uh/2Rmaxf) h is the mixed layer depth g g’ is reduced gravity Uh is the storm translation speed 2Rmax is ratio of the scale of the wind stress Price (1983) suggests that the frequency shift above the local inertial frequency {(σ-f)/f} is equal to M/2. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 29. Ocean Current Upper ocean current measurements are contaminated b storm-generated U i d by d surface wave. Sanford et al (1987) developed a least-squares model to account for surface wave motion, which for the u-component of current velocity is um = [Au cos (σt) + Bu sin (σt)]ekz Notes : Au and Bu are the least squares coefficients for the u-velocity componet (Table 17) σ is the surface wave frequency (2π/T) T is wave periode (nominally 5 15s) 5-15s) k is the wavenumber (σ2/g) g is the acceleration of gravity. These current velocities are subtracted from the original AXCP current p profiles using the coefficients in Table 17 and 18. g Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 30. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 31. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 32. CATEGORIES Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 33. SAFFIR-SIMPSON SC S SAFFIR-S M SON SCALE Meteorologists rate hurricanes according to their wind speeds. The higher the wind speeds, the higher the category, the more severe damage the hurricane will cause. Category Sustained Winds (MPH) Storm Surge Effects Damage Some flooding 1 74-95 74- 4-5 ft Minimal Little or no structural damage Trees down 2 96-110 96- 6-8 ft Moderate Roof damage Severe flooding 3 111- 111-130 9-12 ft Extensive Structural damage in house Severe flooding inland 4 131-155 131- 13-18 ft 13- Extreme Major structural damage Severe flooding further inland 5 > 155 > 18 ft Catastrophic Serious damage to most wooden strctures Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 34. Hurricane names Atlantic N Atl ti Names 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 The World Meteorological Organization names Andrea Arthur Ana Alex Arlene Alberto Barry Bertha Bill Bonnie Bret Beryl hurricanes, rotating between Chantal Cristobal Claudette Charley Cindy Chris men and women’s names. Dean Dolly Danny Danielle Dennis Debby There's 6 different name lists ff Erin Edouard Erika Earl Emily Ernesto Felix Fay Fabian Frances Franklin Florence that alternate each year. If a Gabrielle Gustav Grace Gaston Gert Gordon hurricane does significant Humberto Hanna Henri Hermine Harvey Helene damage its name is retired damage, Ingrid Isidore Isabel Ivan Irene Isaac Jerry Josephine Juan Jeanne Jose Joyce and replaced with another. Karen Kyle Kate Karl Katrina Kirk Lorenzo Lili Larry Lisa Lee Leslie Melissa Marco Mindy Matthew Maria Michael Noel Nana Nicholas Nicole Nate Nadine Olga Omar Odette Otto Ophelia Oscar No hurricane Pablo Paloma Peter Paula Philippe Patty names begin with Rebekah Rene Rose Richard Rita Rafael the letters Sebastien Sally Sam Shary Stan Sandy Tanya Teddy Teresa Tomas Tammy Tony q,u,x,y,z. Van Vicky Victor Virginie Vince Valerie Wendy Wilfred Wanda Walter Wilma William Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 35. Eastern North Pacific Names 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Alvin Alma Andres Agatha Adrian Aletta Barbara Boris Blanca Blas Beatriz Bud Cosme Cristina Carlos Celia Calvin Carlotta Dalila D lil D Douglasl Dl Dolores Darby Db D Dora Daniel D il Erick Elida Enrique Estelle Eugene Emilia Flossie Fausto Felicia Frank Fernanda Fabio Gil Genevieve Guillermo Georgette Greg Gilma Henriette Hernan Hilda Howard Ho ard Hilary Hilar Hector Ivo Iselle Ignacio Isis Irwin Ileana Juliette Julio Jimena Javier Jova John Kiko Karina Kevin Kay Kenneth Kristy Lorena Lowell Linda Lester Lidia Lane Manuel Marie Marty Madeline Max Miriam Narda Norbert Nora Newton Norma Norman Octave Odile Olaf Orlene Otis Olivia Priscilla Polo Patricia Paine Pilar Paul Raymond Rachel Rick Roslyn Ramon Rosa Sonia Simon Sandra Seymour Selma Sergio Tico Trudy Terry Tina Todd Tara Velma Vance Vivian Virgil Veronica Vicente Wallis Winnie Waldo Winifred Wiley Willa Xina Xavier Xina Xavier Xina Xavier York Yolanda York Yolanda York Yolanda Zelda Zeke Zelda Zeke Zelda Zeke These lists are also re-cycled every six years (the 2006 list will be used again in 2012).
  • 36. Hurricane Wilma Satellite images and video are from Hurricane Wilma, a category 5 storm that devastated southern Florida in 2005. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 37. Satellite video are from Hurricane Wilma, a category 5 storm that devastated southern Florida in 2005 Most information was taken from Christian Kids Explore Earth and Space by Stephanie Redmond and http://www.weatherwizkids.com/hurricane1.htm Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 38. Hurricane Gilbert (Jamaica) (J i) • September 12, 1988 • Tore directly through the island • Caused inland flooding • Destroyed crops buildings roads crops, buildings, • Damaged half of entire water supply • Damage: $4 billion • Casua y 5 people Casualty: 45 peop e • Homeless: 500,000 people Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 39. Hurricane G be t s Path u ca e Gilbert’s at Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 40. Hurricane Ivan (Jamaica) • September 11-12, 2004 • Caused severe wind and flood damage • Looters roamed the streets of Kingston • Robbed emergency workers at gunpoint • Damage: $360 million • Casualty: 17 people • Homeless: 18,000 people Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 41. Hurricane Ivan’s Path u ca e a s at Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 42. Hurricane Ivan (USA) Photo courtesy NOAA Hurricane Ivan over the Gulf Coast of the United States 2:45 p.m. EDT, September 15, 2004 Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 43. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 44. Hurricane Andrew Hurricane Andrew as the most destructive and costly Hurricane of all time. Andrew had devastated the holiday coast of Florida between Palm Beach and Miami in late August 1992, causing $18 billion worth of damage. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 45. Hurricane Andrew’s path Photo courtesy NASA This photo is a composite of three days' views (August 23, 24 and 25, 1992) of Hurricane Andrew as it slowly moved across south Florida from east to west. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 46. Hurricane Katrina Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 47. In late August 2005 Katrina crossed Florida and entered the Gulf of Mexico. Here, Mexico Here fuelled by the high summer temperatures of this partially enclosed sea, the storm intensified to reach a maximum 5 on the Saffir- Simpson Hurricane scale. Once inside the confines of the Gulf its movement became as unpredictable as a ‘bull in a china shop . bull shop’ Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 48. Katrina entered the Gulf Coast Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 49. Katrina hit New Orleans When it hit the Gulf Coast of the USA at New Orleans wind speeds topped 150 mph and a 25-foot storm surge destroyed levees, flooding 80% of the city 25- levees city. Almost 2000 people were killed, a million homes destroyed and $75 billion of damage done to an area around the same size as the UK. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 50. Hurricane Katrina August 29 2005 29, Katrina made landfall near Buras-Triumph,Louisiana at 6:10a.m 160 MPH Winds Torrential Rains 30 Foot Storm Surge Tornadoes 90,000 Square Miles declared a disaster zone(the same size as the UK. Almost 2000 people were killed Over a million people affected The it f N Th city of New Orleans is without th b i needs of lif Th Ol i ith t the basic d f life. There is no running water, electricity, or sewage. The standing water is a breeding ground for bacteria. The estimated cost of Katrina is said to be around 200 Billion Dollars. could pay for 100 Space Shuttles or the War in Iraq. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 51. Hurricane Floyd Photo courtesy NASA/GSFC Photo courtesy NASA/GSFC Hurricane Floyd, which hit the eastern United States in September 1999, was felt Hurricane Floyd, which hit the eastern United States in September 14th 1999, was y, p , from the Caribbean islands to New England It was a Category 3 storm that England. felt from the Caribbean islands to New England. It was a Category 3 storm that brought intense rains and record flooding to the eastern United States and brought intense rains and record flooding to the eastern United States and Canada. Nearly 90 percent of the fatalities associated with this storm were Canada. Nearly 90 percent of the fatalities associated with this storm were drownings due to inland flooding. flooding drownings due to inland flooding. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 52. Hurricane Bertha Photo courtesy National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Bertha (July 1996) was also a Category 3 storm, but Bertha's power and impact were contained in a much smaller area than Floyd's. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 53. Huriicane Grace Satellite images from Hurricane Grace, The Flemish Cap (Bermuda) 1991. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 54. Hurricane Mitch Hurricane Mitch east of Florida, US Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 55. Hurricanes Over Western Europe A depression over Western Europe Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,
  • 56. Western North Pacific Names Contributor I II III IV V Cambodia Damrey Kong-rey Nakri Krovanh Sarika China Longwang Yutu Fengshen Dujuan Haima DPR Korea Kirogi Toraji Kalmaegi Maemi Meari HK, China Kai-Tak Man-yi Fung-wong Choi-wan Ma-on Japan Tembin Usagi Kanmuri Koppu Tokage Lao PDR Bolaven Pabuk Phanfone Ketsana Nock-ten Macau Chanchu Wutip Vongfong Parma Muifa Malaysia Jelawat Sepat Rusa Melor Merbok Micronesia Ewiniar Fitow Sinlaku Nepartak Nanmadol These names are Philippines Bilis Danas Hagupit Lupit Talas RO Korea Gaemi Nari Changmi Sudal Noru also used Thailand Prapiroon Vipa Megkhla Nida Kularb sequentially. If the last U.S.A. Maria Francisco Higos Omais Roke Vietnam Saomai Lekima Bavi Conson Sonca storm of the year is Cambodia Bopha Krosa Maysak Chanthu Nesat Cimaron, the first China Wukong Haiyan Haishen Dianmu Haitang DPR Korea Sonamu Podul Pongsona Mindule Nalgae storm of the next year HK, China Shanshan Lingling Yanyan Tingting Banyan is Chebi. Japan Yagi Kaziki Kuzira Kompasu Washi Lao PDR Xangsane Faxai Chan-hom Namtheun Matsa Macau Bebinca Vamei Linfa Malou Sanvu Malaysia Rumbia Tapah Nangka Meranti Mawar Micronesia Soulik Mitag Soudelor Rananin Guchol Philippines Cimaron Hagibis Imbudo Malakas Talim RO Korea Chebi Noguri Koni Megi Nabi Thailand Durian Ramasoon Hanuman Chaba Khanun U.S.A. Utor Chataan Etau Kodo Vicete Vietnam Trami Halong Vamco Songda Saola
  • 57. Super Thypoon Cimaron Duration May 7- 21, 2001 y , Intensity 50 kts (10-min), 985 hPa Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 58. Typhoon Chebi (Emong) Duration June 19-27, 2001 , Intensity 75 kts (10-min), 960 hPa Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 59. Typhoon Linda ( p g) yp (Openg) Typhoon Linda, after moving through the Philippines and the South China Sea, hit the Malay Peninsula on November 3 1997. It restrengthened in the Bay of Bengal, but vertical shear caused Linda to dissipate on the 9th. Linda caused 330 deaths from flooding and heavy d h damage. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 60. Tropical Depression Barok Duration April 18- 19, 2001 p , Intensity 25 kts Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 61. Tropical Depression Auring Duration Feb 17-20, 2001 , Intensity 30 kts Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 62. Tropical Storm Levi (Bining) p ( g) Tropical Depression 5W drifted eastward through the Philippines in late May The heavy May. rain it brought caused mudslides that killed 33 people. The depression continued northeastward, becoming a tropical storm, and transitioning to an extratropical storm on May 30 1997. From May 26-29 1997, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and y y , pp p , py Astronomical Services Administration tracked the storm, and named it Bining. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 63. Super Typhoon Paka (Rubing) p yp ( g) Paka remained a tropical storm until December 10 1997, when it was able to become a typhoon. Five days later, Paka reached Super Typhoon strength, the eleventh of the year. The next day it crossed over Guam, and on December 18, Paka reached a peak of 185 mph winds. Aft causing major d h i d After i j damage across th smaller W t the ll Western P ifi i l d Pacific island groups, Paka rapidly weakened and dissipated on December 22
  • 64. Super Typhoon Isa Isa very gradually intensified, and on April 20 1997 the typhoon reached peak 1-min winds of 70 km/h (165 mph), as reported by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Japan Meteorological ( p ), p y yp g ;p g Agency reported maximum 10-min winds of 155 km/h (100 mph). After turning northward, it accelerated to the northeast, and merged with a larger extratropical cyclone on April 24. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 65. Super Typhoon Rosie (Elang) On July 18 1997, Tropical Depression 10W formed near Caroline Islands. 10W was upgraded to Tropical Storm Rosie and became a Category 5 Super Typhoon on July 22 1997. Rosie moved northward and began to weaken Rosie made a landfall as a Category 1 typhoon at Shikoku Japan on July 26 Two people were weaken. Shikoku, 26. killed because of Rosie. From July 22-26, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration tracked the storm, and named it Elang Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 66. Super Typhoon Winnie (Ibiang) On August 5 1997, a tropical depression formed near the Marshall Islands. It headed northwestward, slowly strengthening to a tropical storm on the 9th. Intensification became more rapid as conditions became more favorable, and Winnie reached typhoon strength on the 10th. 2 days later, it became , yp g y , the 4th Super Typhoon of the season with peak winds of 160 mph. Soon after, the eye became ragged and large, with an outer eyewall reaching 200 miles in diameter. On the 18th, a minimal Typhoon Winnie passed north of Taiwan and hit eastern China, Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 67. Typhoon Amber (Miling) By August 26 1997, Tropical Storm Cass formed to the west-southwest, which accelerated Amber's forward motion to the northwest due to a fujiwara interaction It Amber s interaction. underwent eyewall replacement cycles from August 25 through August 27, and tracked across Taiwan/Taipei with maximum sustained winds of 95 kts, then through the Formosa Strait into China as a minimal typhoon. Throughout much of its duration, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration tracked the storm, and named it Miling. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 68. Super Typhoon Oliwa p yp Oliwa rapidly strengthened on September 9 1997 to reach a peak of 160 mph winds; the sixth Super Typhoon of the year. Oliwa slowly weakened as it moved westward, and hit Japan on September 15 and September 16. It turned to the northeast, and dissipated on September 17 after causing 7 deaths and widespread damage from flooding flooding. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 69. Super Typhoon Keith Keith formed at low latitudes in the Marshall Islands on August 19 1997 It was one of ten TCs which 1997. formed east of 160° E and south of 20° N — within the quot;El Niñoquot;. Keith was a recurving TC which passed between the Islands of Rota and Tinian (only 50 nm (93 km) apart) on the west-bound leg of its recurving track. NEXRAD imagery from Guam indicated the eye wall cloud of Keith never touched land as it threaded the narrow channel between these two islands islands. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 70. Hurricane Damages • Hurricane create inland flooding •H i Hurricane’s winds ’ id • Hurricane push a wall of water (a storm surge) Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 71. Hurricane; Flooding Hurricanes bring with them huge amounts of rain rain. A big hurricane can dump dozens of inches of rain in just a day or two, much of it inland. That amount of rain can create i l d fl di fi t inland flooding th t can t t ll that totally devastate a large area around the hurricane's center. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 72. Hurricane winds • High sustained winds cause structural damage. These winds can also roll Th id l ll cars, blow over trees and erode beaches • Hurricane winds often spawn tornadoes, which are smaller, more intense cyclonic storms that cause additional damage Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 73. Hurricane; a storm surge Bands of thunderstorms circulating outward from the eye are part of the water cycle that feeds the storm. If the storm surge happens during a high tide, it causes beach erosion and significant inland flooding. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB
  • 74. Armstrong F. Sompotan, SSi / UNIMA/ ITB Sompotan,