Forest ecology 2011 armn


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  • Plant cells are similar to animal cells except that they have cell walls, central vacuoles, and plasmoderma. Some also have chloroplasts.
  • Soils have a big effect on forest types, but climate also plays a role
  • Fairfax has three main geologic areas: Coastal plain is mixed hardwood and acidic oak-hickory types Upland piedmont is mostly acidic oak-hickory Triassic basin is basic oak-hickory
  • Healthy forests are vertically complex
  • Animals use different layers of the forest
  • Dead trees are also part of a healthy forest. Layers again.
  • An old field will usually progress from bare soil to annuals to perennials to shrubs and eastern red cedar and/or Virginia pine to oak-hickory to maple-beech. Different animals use different stages.
  • Most forest ecosystems are detritus systems rather than grazing systems. This means energy flows from producers to consumers mainly through dead tissues.
  • Notice 90% reduction in biomass/energy at each level.
  • Maple, ash, poplar seeds – have wings Black gum, hackberry, service berry have pulpy fruit that birds and animals eat Acorns and hickory nuts rely on forgotten storage.
  • Species that are intolerant of highly competitive low light conditions are incapable of reproducing, establishing, growing, and maintaining themselves under their own canopies.
  • Disturbances: Fire Wind Ice Man
  • Along successional path there are some stable plant matrices that can be maintained by appropriate disturbance regimes. Meadow, oak-hickory, and loblolly pine forests can be maintained by fire.
  • By using appropriate harvest practices we can manage successional clock to maintain resource values we want. Some harvest is useful for maintaining mosaic landscape favored by wildlife and increasing diversity.
  • Regeneration harvest creates large early successional blocks with high diversity because it will contain meadow and forest species for a time. Seed tree does the same as regeneration but maintains a few mature trees Shelter wood is more forested, lower diversity but good for maintaining oaks Group select will create small meadows within mature forest. Select cut creates room to grow.
  • Two year old clear cut One year old and five year old shelter woods
  • When planting trees plant the right tree in the right place. Does it have room to grow canopy and roots without compromising infrastructure. Generally when a tree conflict with human construct, the tree loses.
  • Forest ecology 2011 armn

    1. 1. Forest Ecology Arlington Regional Master Naturalists Basic Training Course Spring 2011 Jim McGlone Urban Forest Conservationist Virginia Department of Forestry
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>How Trees Grow </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution and Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Threats </li></ul><ul><li>DOF </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Action </li></ul>
    3. 3. How a Tree Grows
    4. 4. What is a tree? How is a tree different from a perennial herbaceous plant? How is a tree different from a vine? How is a tree different from a shrub?
    5. 5. Basic Plant Cell Cell Walls - made of cellulose and lignin Central Vacuoles - stores water and gives rigidity Plasmoderma - connects cytoplasm Chloroplasts - conducts photosynthesis
    6. 6. Plant Cell Wall Middle Lamella – shared with other cells, lignin and pectin, gives compressive strength Primary cell wall – oriented cellulose fiber, gives tensile strength Plasma membrane – same as animal cell membrane
    7. 7. How does a tree grow? <ul><li>Primary Meristem </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Buds </li></ul><ul><li>Elongates into shoots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral buds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Or becomes a leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Or becomes a flower </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Meristem </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Cambium </li></ul><ul><li>Located between bark and wood </li></ul><ul><li>Produces vascular tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem persists as wood and moves water and nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem becomes bark or is reabsorbed and moves sugars </li></ul></ul>
    8. 10. Tree Cross Section
    9. 11. Tree Growth Review <ul><li>Growth occurs only from meristem tissue (cambium, stem and root tips). </li></ul><ul><li>Early (spring) wood is light and softer. </li></ul><ul><li>Late (summer) wood is dark and denser. </li></ul><ul><li>1 light + 1 dark ring = 1 year’s growth </li></ul>
    10. 12. Aging and Death <ul><li>Must grow new sapwood every year. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>This becomes a bigger and bigger energy drain. [ π (2nr + n 2 )] </li></ul><ul><li>Can grow less wood, but that means less water for energy production. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually growth in energy demand is greater than growth in energy production, the tree goes into energy deficit, declines and dies. </li></ul>
    11. 13. Distribution of Forests
    12. 14. Horizontal Distribution <ul><li>Large scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landscape scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topography </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Climate Average Temperature Date of First/Last Frost Average & Timing of Rainfall Soil weathering
    14. 16. Climate Zones in Virginia
    15. 17. <ul><li>Virginia Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 4,000 species of plants in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Of those 609 considered rare or threatened as of 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 750 plant species are introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 300 tree species </li></ul>
    16. 18. Soil Types Moisture Nutrients
    17. 19. Soil Types
    18. 20. Soil Type
    19. 21. Soil Type
    20. 22. Soil Nutrients
    21. 23. Topography
    22. 24. Forest Types <ul><li>Dominant tree species, but also soil type, elevation or moisture level </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dry-Mesic Calcareous Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Oak – Hickory Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic Oak – Hickory Forests </li></ul><ul><li> Montane Mixed Oak and Oak – Hickory Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Oak / Heath Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern White Pine – Hardwood Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmont / Coastal Plain Oak – Beech / Heath Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Carolina Hemlock Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Pine – Oak / Heath Woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain / Piedmont Acidic Woodlands </li></ul>
    23. 25. Northern Virginia Geology
    24. 26. Forest Habitats
    25. 27. Fauna <ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Herps </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul>
    26. 28. Habitat Needs <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Nesting </li></ul><ul><li>Resting </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
    27. 29. Forest Layers
    28. 30. Habitat
    29. 31. Coarse Woody Debris
    30. 32. Edge
    31. 33. Forest Ecology
    32. 34. Energy Flows
    33. 35. Detritus Bio-mass
    34. 36. FOREST ECOLOGY PART 2 <ul><li>Some Important Processes </li></ul>
    35. 37. Trophic Regulation
    36. 38. Mychorrhizae <ul><li>Symbiosis between tree roots and fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees supply energy </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi supply nutrients and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason forest soils are acidic. </li></ul><ul><li>Truffles </li></ul>
    37. 39. Tree Defenses <ul><li>External Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tannin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salicylic Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi and bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acacia and ants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungicides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bactericides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gums and resins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchymal rays </li></ul></ul>
    38. 40. Evolution of Natural Communities <ul><li>Past Management </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Luck </li></ul><ul><li>Microclimates and Topography </li></ul>
    39. 41. Natural Communities are like Bus Stations Seed Dispersal
    40. 43. Competition Tolerance Tolerance Time
    41. 44. Tolerance <ul><li>Pioneer species are usually intolerant of competition for light – Virginia Pine, Eastern Red Cedar, Tulip poplar </li></ul><ul><li>Climax species are very tolerant of competition and can regenerate themselves in their own shade – Maple, Beech, Holly </li></ul>
    42. 45. Bio-diversity Bio-diversity Time Most plants are between intolerant pioneer species and tolerant climax species. Climax v. Old Growth
    43. 46. <ul><li>Disturbance resets successional clock </li></ul><ul><li>Highly disturbed systems are stuck in early succession </li></ul><ul><li>Undisturbed systems progress to climax stage </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate disturbance cycles a system between stages of succession </li></ul>Disturbance
    44. 47. Stable Plant Matrices
    46. 49. Why Manage a Forest? <ul><li>Break down in regulatory processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of apex predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of disturbance regime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction of stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase bio-diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of habitat type </li></ul></ul>
    47. 50. Forest Management Objectives
    48. 51. Harvest as Disturbance
    49. 52. Harvest as Disturbance
    50. 53. Harvest as Disturbance
    51. 54. A Word About Fire. <ul><li>In order to spread, fire needs a continuous fuel bed. Managing fire is about managing fuel continuity . </li></ul>
    52. 55. Urban Trees
    53. 56. Threats to the Forest
    54. 57. Regulation <ul><li>If the deer eat more than NPP, the population expands and increases N2P; which causes wolf population to expand and eat more deer; deer population declines, plants expand, wolves starve. It is a dynamic equilibrium. </li></ul>
    55. 58. Missing Apex Predators <ul><li>Deer population is now controlled by starvation. </li></ul><ul><li>Deer consume all available energy on forest floor and lower shrub layer. </li></ul><ul><li>As death and growth remove plants from the shrub layer, it disappears without recruitment from the forest floor </li></ul>
    56. 60. EFFECT of Missing Shrub Layer <ul><li>Loss of diversity in song birds </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of diversity in small mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased human disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loss of stormwater management </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of carbon sink </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of forest health </li></ul>
    57. 61. Deer and Invasive Plants <ul><li>Deer and other native herbivores prefer native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive browse on natives can create a vacuum into which non-natives invade </li></ul>
    58. 62. Non-native Invasive Plants <ul><li>Compete with forest plants for sun and sprouting space </li></ul><ul><li>Vines can kill mature trees </li></ul><ul><li>Are generally free from predation. </li></ul>
    59. 63. Citizen Action <ul><li>Start at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASNV Wildlife Sanctuary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NWF Backyard Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a Layered Landscape with herbs, shrubs and trees in the same space </li></ul></ul>
    60. 64. 2010
    61. 65. 2010
    62. 66. Citizen Action <ul><li>Deer Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairfax County Wildlife Biologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCPA Deer Pellet Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venison Stew </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invasive Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACE Program </li></ul></ul>
    63. 67. Recommended Reading Forests in Peril , Delcourt, 2002 McNaughton & Gunn 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, Charles C. Mann Collapse , Jared Diamond Positive Impact Forestry, Thom J. McEvoy, Island Press, 2004 Bringing Nature Home , Douglas Tallamy, Timber Press, 2007 Teaming With Microbes , Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis, Timber Press, 2010 (Revised)