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Babesia.ppt by Dr.Armia Naguib

Babesia.ppt by Dr.Armia Naguib

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Babesia Babesia Presentation Transcript

  • Babesia Dr.Armia&N
  •    After showing this Presentation we will able to know all species of Babesia In this Presentation we will study the life cycle & pathogenies of Babesia And we will able to make analysis,prevention and treatment of Babesiosis 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 2
  • Content  Transmission&patho Introduction  Babesia species genesis&cinical feeding  Babesiosis  Analysis Breed resistance to  Prevention Babesiosis Life cycle of Babesia  treatment 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 3
  • INTRODUCTION         The genus Babesia belongs to the phylum : Apicomplexa class : Sporozoasida order : Eucoccidiorida suborder : Piroplasmorina family : Babesiida eg 1 - Babesia bovis 2 - B. bigemina 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 4
  • Babesia Species 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 5
  • Babesiosis  Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally man.  The disease is tick transmitted and distributed worldwide. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 6
  •  The major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry  the two most important species in cattle, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 7
  • Breed resistance to babesiosis   Bos indicus breeds almost invariably experience milder clinical symptoms to primary B. bovis infections than Bos taurus breeds compared transmission rates of B. bovis in Bos taurus and in threeeighths to half of Bos indicus crossbred cattle in Australia 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 8
  •   concluded that in an environment unfavourable for tick survival, stocking with Bos indicus or Bos indicus crossbred cattle will, over several seasons, almost lead to the disappearance of the ticks. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 9
  •  B. bigemina is usually of lower pathogenicity than B. bovis  There is some ambiguity in the literature concerning the relative susceptibility of Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds to this parasite, but most studies conclude that Bos indicus are muchmore resistant 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 10
  • Life cycle of Babesia  Some species of Babesia (in particular B. microti) that naturally infect small rodents like the white-footed mouse can also infect humans  B. microti is transmited by infected Ixodes ticks (dear ticks) 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 11
  •  Most transmission occurs along the North-Eastern seaboard and infection rates can be relatively high locally  The epidemiological risk factors are very similar to Lyme disease 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 12
  •  People who are elderly or immunecompromised (including in particular people without a spleen) are most likely to show severe disease  Heavy RBC infection in severe cases can lead to acute respiratory failure, congestive heart failure and other complications with a mortality rate of 5-10% 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 13
  •  Many infections likely go undiagnosed, about a third of the infections are asymptomatic  Most infected show mild disease with general malaise and fatigue and fever and chills 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 14
  •  Thin smear of venous blood showing pleomorphism of Babesia trophozoites (arrows) in RBCs 8 November 2013 Babesiosis can be treated with antibiotics that target the apicoplast and/or the parasite mitochondrion Prepared by Armia Naguib 15
  • 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 16
  • 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 17
  • Transmission, Clinical Findings, and Pathogenesis  Babesia sporozoites are transmitted to humans mostly by the bite of the Ixodes nymph and occasionally by the adult tick.  In the infected nymph, the organism migrates to the salivary gland. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 18
  •   The nymph then seeks a blood meal and infects another rodent or human by injecting sporozoites into the bloodstream. The sporozoites enter the erythrocytes, possibly by binding to the C3 in the circulation and attaching to the erythrocytic C3b receptors, 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 19
  •    The sporozoites undergo asexual budding into 4 merozoites, followed by perforation of the RBC membrane,leading to hemolysis. The merozoites then infect other RBCs; the parasites become trophozoites and can divide by 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 20
  •  .and can divide by binary fission, creating the ring forms and tetrads seen in erythrocytes on stained blood smears.  Usually, 1% to 10% ofthe RBCs are parasitized 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 21
  •  However, up to 85% parasitemia has been noted.  The disease is mild to asymptomatic  there is a risk of asymptomatic donors transmitting the disease to recipients 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 22
  • Analysis of Babesia bovis infectioninduced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 23
  • Background:  Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne and sudisease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical btropical countries 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 24
  •  the most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 25
  • Methods:   Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 26
  •   Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom highdensity microarrays 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 27
  • Results   Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovisinfected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesiainfected larval RNA. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 28
  •   subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 29
  •  that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 30
  •    Prevention consists of avoiding tick habitats during the tick-biting season, protective clothing, and use of diethyltoluamide insect repellent or permethrin spray. Inspection of petsfor ticks and removal of ticks with tweezers are appropriate 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 31
  •  The standard regimen for the treatment of Babesia infection consists of a combination of antibiotics, clindamycin and quinine.  This regimen is fairly effective for most cases of Babesia infection. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 32
  •   However, with high levels of parasitemia (more than 10%), marked hemolysis occurs.In these cases, there is a role for the blood bank in treatment. The standard regimen of clindamycin and quinine frequently causes adverse reactions. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 33
  •  An alternative treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin was noted to be as effective and associated with significantly fewer adverse effects. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 34
  • Referances 1) 2) 3) AGBEDE, R. I. S., KEMP, D. H. & HOYTE, H.M. D. (1986). Heekin et al. Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:162 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/ content/5/1/162 Babes V. Sur l’hemoglobinurie bacterienne boeuf. Comptes Rendus de Acad Sci III. 1888;107:692-694. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 35
  • 4) Gelfand, JA. Babesia. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Douglas RG, et al, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. New York, NY Churchill Livingstone; 2000:2899-2902. 8 November 2013 Prepared by Armia Naguib 36