0129 Annals of DAAAM for 2011 & Proceedings of the 22nd International DAAAM Symposium, Volume 22, No. 1, ISSN 1726-9679 ISBN 978-3-901509-83-4, Editor B. Katalinic, Published by DAAAM International, Vienna, Austria, EU, 2011 Make Harmony between Technology and Nature, and Your Mind will Fly Free as a Bird Annals & Proceedings of DAAAM International 2011 REVIEW OF FUTURE CHANGES AND CHALLENGES OF PRODUCTION COMPANIES PALCIC, I[ztok]; BUCHMEISTER, B[orut]; PAVLINJEK, J[oze] & VEDENIK, G[regor]Abstract: In the paper a resource-oriented perception and reduce costs, eliminate waste and improve quality than infindings of sustainable management is presented. Our times are production (Kosturiak, 2009; Kremljak et al., 2005).characterized by the growing complexity of the systems andtheir dynamic interactions. Firms that decide to act more 2.3 Energysustainable have to bear in mind that they do not only need The EU wants to obtain one fifth of its energy fromresources for economic activities today, but that they will need renewable sources by 2020. This 20 percent target is realisticthese tomorrow as well. This leads to contradictory for the final energy generation of electricity, heat and bio fuel.management rationalities firms must deal with. The authors The direct and later the indirect co-firing of biomass inpresent a holistic view of the development, with changes and fossil-fuelled power stations will become more relevant. Of thenew directions in different production relating areas (materials other renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic may continueand technology trends, energy trends, ecology and to be growth markets. But commercial-scale solar thermalenvironment, organization, customers, products). power also has good market prospects.Key words: trends, development, technology, business process,sustainability 2.4 Ecology Ecology is good business! The processes of recycling,1. INTRODUCTION resource recovery, material reduction, product reuse, remanufacture and systems redeployment lead to innovation Climate change and finite resources are beginning to affect and the reinstatement of the business life-cycle (Zeleny, 2009).every organisation - big or small, public, private or non-profit Increasing productivity, increasing automationand irrespective of its geographic location or type of business. Growth in service industriesIn a fast changing global scenario all economies are being Increasing globalization, greater capital mobilityreshaped, businesses are being repositioned, green investments More frequent relocation of businesses, depending on Economyare growing and consumers are calling for cleaner world conditions for businesseconomy. So, this is a very interesting topic for investigation. Virtualization of companies Transition from high to low carbon and more sustainable Knowledge as the most important resourceeconomies has begun. It is therefore no longer a matter ofchoice for organizations to go green or continue doing business New business models through electronic and mobile businessas usual. It is – in fact – a business imperative to incorporateenvironmental sustainability in all their operations. The Continued reduction in the length of product life cyclesregulatory requirements for protecting the environment are Increasing environmental awarenessbecoming ever more stringent and the consumer demands for Sustainability/regulation of all intermediate and endeco-friendly products and services are at all time high. products Environment Development trends affecting economics, the environment, Increasing importance of recycling – new laws andtechnology, customers and competitors are listed in Table 1. regulations Sparing use of resources2. CHANGES IN OBSERVED FIELDS Alternative raw materials and energies, renewable energies2.1 Materials Environmental disasters and new illnesses with Materials have shaped the history. New material technology widespread effectspaves the way for progress in other technological areas. New Individualization of lifestylesmaterials offer a high potential for sustainable development, Increased expectations as regards quality and service Customerssuch as the use of renewable resources and replacement of Standardized, process-based buyer-vendor relationshipsenvironmentally harmful substances (Müller & Glutsch, 2007). Increased efficiency as a result of intelligent solutions Well-informed customers2.2 Technology Outsourcing / partnering Technology has been one of the main engines of economic Rapidly growing importance of electronic, mobile anddevelopment since the industrial revolution (Zeleny, 2009). real-time businessGlobalization, growing demand for services, new Reduced costs / increased productivity Lower barriers to entry in new fields of business as a Competitorsorganizational models - the working world in industry is rapidlychanging (Kehris, 2009). Researchers investigated the impact result of electronic mediaof three highly differentiated technologies on industrial work of New competitors from other industriesthe future: Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Ambient Shorter life cycles of products and servicesIntelligence. Intensive price wars for market share In the departments for product and process development Growing importance of brand and imageand innovation management are the higher opportunities to Tab. 1. Observed trends of future development
01302.5 Environment responsibility for the future, where we will be faced with It is evident for the people that the higher their standard of changes and challenges in all the different spheres of our lives.living, the more critical the situation becomes for the As a result of the explosive growth in the networking ofenvironment. We have to do everything within our power to both people and machines, the speed of progress will increaseprotect the environment and conserve resources. This includes further. Companies must invest in process evolution,examining every stage of a products life cycle with a view to productivity or paradigm-free innovations to be among theconserving resources and promoting sustainability and then winners in the future, creating new value, new jobs, and newadapting it (Berner, 2004). prosperity for the mankind (Berner, 2004). Current and emerging research in this area includes:2.6 Organization of business processes Eco-efficiency: Using operations management tools to Productivity, flexibility and quality are essential reduce environmental impact;competitive factors, closely related to the way business Product stewardship: Analysis of closed-loop supplyprocesses are organized within the company. Innovation must chains, eco-labelling, green sourcing, carbon foot-printing,generate something new for the customer life – simplification, design for the environment;risk elimination, convenience, better price, fun, image and Sustainable technology: Analysis of novel operationalemotions, style or environmental friendliness (Kosturiak, 2009; problems faced by organizations that develop or adopt newLestan et al., 2009). products or services; Companies have responsibility for the general well-being of Sustainable development: Application and adaptation ofsociety beyond short-term economic self-interest. At the level operations management concepts and tools.of the individual, this means devising jobs and work patternswhich allow individuals to contribute their talents withoutundue stress. At a group level, it means recognizing and dealinghonestly with employee representatives. This principle alsoextends beyond the boundaries of the organization (Slack et al.,2010). In the future a lot of new ways of doing business willappear. Development from e-business to e-value-chains, e-companies, e-markets and finally e-world is expected. The markets needs and expectations of performanceobjectives will vary. The extent to which an operation meetsmarket requirements will also vary. In addition, marketrequirements and the operations performance could changeover time (Fig. 1). The role of the manufacturer over the entireproduct life cycle is changing, and manufacturers overallresponsibilities for their products are increasing significantly. Fig. 2. Building blocks of the 21st century (Berner, 2004) 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The research was partly realized within the activities of the CEEPUS II Project (CII-RS-0065-04-0910). The authors would like to thank the network coordinator for his valuable support. 5. REFERENCES Berner, G. (2004). Management in 20XX, Publicis Corporate Publishing, Erlangen Kehris, E. (2009). Web-based simulation of manufacturingFig. 1. Customers needs and operations performance changes systems. Int. Journal of Simulation Modelling, Vol. 8, No.(Slack et al., 2010) 2, pp. 102-113 Kosturiak, J. (2009). The new role of industrial engineering in a3. CONCLUSION flat world. Acta Mechanica Slovaca, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 88- 92 Our planets survival requires us to consider sustainability Kremljak, Z.; Polajnar, A. & Buchmeister, B. (2005). Ain our decisions. The authors contribute with the review and heuristic model for the development of productionforecasts for future changes towards sustainable businesses. capabilities. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 51,Time and knowledge are becoming decisive factors. No. 11, pp. 674-691 The great challenge facing us today and in the future is best Lestan, Z.; Brezocnik, M.; Buchmeister, B.; Brezovnik, S. &described as continuous renewal. This is an imperative that Balic, J. (2009). Solving the job-shop scheduling problemapplies not only to business but also to science, government and with a simple genetic algorithm. Int. Journal of Simulationsociety as a whole. Reducing the dependency of our society on Modelling, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 197-205raw materials and energy consumption through increased Müller, B. & Glutsch, U. (2007). Annual Report 2007,material efficiency and innovative, resource-efficient product Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Researchideas are promising concepts. The key areas of technology that ISI, Karlsruhewill have most influence on developments in the 21st century Slack, N.; Chambers, S. & Johnston, R. (2010). Operationsare shown in Fig. 2. management, FT Prentice Hall – Pearson, Harlow. Being sustainable means combining a holistic approach Zeleny, M. (2009). Technology and high technology – Supportwith sustainability. It means shaping the present in the net and barriers to innovation. Acta Mechanica Slovaca,knowledge of traditions, with courage for new ideas and Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 6-19
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