Summer 2011 presentation1

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  • The problem with research is that You need to find a problem even though you don’t have a problem. But please pay attention- do seek for problem or look for a problem but instead—identify the problem. In other words. Such problem should already be existing. All you need to do is to detect such problem – IDENTIFY SUCH PROBLEM.
  • Summer 2011 presentation1

    1. 1.
    2. 2. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    3. 3. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    4. 4. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />Researchis defined as a careful, systematic study in a field of knowledge that is undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles. <br />
    5. 5. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    6. 6. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />answer questions, solve problems and make decisions. <br />helps understand how and why a situation or a problem exists. <br />helps discover new things and ideas. <br />Allows validating of existing theories or generate new ones. <br />helps in identifying and understanding the causes and effects of a situation or a phenomenon. <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    7. 7. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    8. 8. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />Descriptive Research <br />Explanatory or Correlation Research <br />Intervention or Experimental Research <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    9. 9. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />
    10. 10. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />1. Pure / Basic vs. Applied /Practical Research <br />2. Exploratory vs. Explanatory Research<br />3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    11. 11. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    12. 12. Review on Introduction to Research<br />Definition<br />Functions<br />Types<br />Other Dichotomies of Research<br />The Research Process<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    13. 13. IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF VARIABLES<br />STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FORMULATION<br />HYPOTHESES FORMULATION<br />CHOOSING APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DESIGN OR METHODOLOGY<br />IDENTIFYING THE TARGET POPULATION AND DO SAMPLING<br />DATA COLLECTION<br />PREPARATION OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT<br />TESTING<br />RELIABILITY AND<br /> VALIDITY<br />QUESTIONAIRE ADMIN.<br />INTERVIEW<br />TESTING<br />OBSERVATION<br />QUALITY CONTROL<br />DATA PROCESSING ( Editing, Coding, Encoding, Creation of Data File for Tabulation) <br />DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ( Statistical Analysis, Interpretation and Generalization)<br />REPORT PREPARATION AND INFORMATION DESIMINATION<br />The Research Process<br />
    14. 14. IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />“EVERY RESEARCH STARTS WITH A PROBLEM”<br />“THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM STARTS<br />WITH A CLEAR QUESTION”<br />“DEFINING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM IS THE FUEL <br />THAT DRIVES THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS”<br />“IT IS THE FOUNDATION OF ANY RESEARCH METHODS<br />AND STRATEGIES”<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    15. 15. IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />“THUS, IT IS A MUST THAT YOU KNOW YOUR <br />PROBLEM BEFORE YOU GO ALL THE WAY <br />IN YOUR RESEARCH”<br />KNOW YOUR RESEARCH PROBLEM AS VILMA KNOWS HIS SON SO WELL<br />… AND IF YOU DO YOU CAN DEFINE YOUR PROBLEM AS WELL.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    16. 16. The conceptual definition of a problem and a Research problem<br />…a research problem…<br />could be conditions one wants to improve, <br />difficulties one wants to eliminate, <br />questions for which answers are sought<br /> information gaps one wish to fill,<br /> or theories one wish to validate.<br />basic definition:<br />A problem is anything which gives a person a feeling of discomfort. If a person worries about how things are , he or she has a problem. A problem could be a state of affairs that needs to be changed or anything that is not working as expected.<br />IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />
    17. 17. IDENTIFYING <br />THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />“EVERY RESEARCH STARTS WITH A PROBLEM”<br />
    18. 18. Identifying a Research Problem<br />Initially, a research problem is stated in a form of a question, which serves as the focus of the investigation.<br /><ul><li>What Problems do children of separated parents encounter and how do the children cope with these problems?</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>What goes on in a government office in a typical week? Or How do government Employees spend a typical day in the office?</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Does TV viewing affect a child's school performance?</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Will training of managers of cooperatives in financial management improve the financial control system of the cooperatives?</li></ul> <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    19. 19. Let’s Exercise…<br />Come up with even a crude draft<br /> of a Research Question<br />NOW NA<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    20. 20. IS YOUR PROBLEM <br />RESEARCHABLE?<br />NOT ALL PROBLEMS ARE RESEARCHABLE<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    21. 21. In social research, potential researchable problem exists when the following conditions are present<br />There is a perceived discrepancy<br />between what is and what should be.<br />b) There are two or more reasons for <br />the discrepancy.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    22. 22. There may be an existing difficult or disturbing situation, but if this condition is expected to happen because of known circumstances, then the problem is not researchable. <br />There is a perceived discrepancy<br />between what is and what should be.<br />b) There are two or more reasons for <br />the discrepancy.<br />
    23. 23. Even if there is discrepancy between what is and what should be, because the causes of discrepancy are known at this particular time, there is no need to conduct research anymore.<br />There is a perceived discrepancy<br />between what is and what should be.<br />b) There are two or more reasons for <br />the discrepancy.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    24. 24. Example of a Non-researchable Problem<br />Situation: Despite free tuition, many high school students in a public school in Province X have dropped out. Records show that more than 50 % of the students have already dropped out before the middle of the school year. (what is)<br />What should be: Students are expected to finish high school because it is free. They should not drop out(what should be). On the contrary, a big number of students dropped out . (discrepancy)<br />Research Question: Why do students drop out? What factors contribute to the high drop out rate?<br />Possible Answer: Fear of being caught in cross fire between military and rebel groups.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    25. 25. Comment: There have been violent encounters between the military and rebel groups and many civilians have been caught in the cross fire. It seems clear that the dropping out of the students is due to the armed encounters in the area. If they go to school, they might die, so parents keep them out of school until the peace and order situation in the area returns to normal. <br />There is a perceived discrepancy <br />between what is and what should be.<br />b) There are two or more reasons for <br />the discrepancy.<br />There is a perceived discrepancy <br />between what is and what should be.<br />
    26. 26. Example of a Researchable Problem<br />Situation: Despite free tuition, many high school students in a public school in Province X have dropped out. Records show that more than 50 % of the students have already dropped out before the middle of the school year. (what is)<br />What should be: Students are expected to finish high school because it is free. They should not drop out(what should be). On the contrary, a big number of students dropped out . (discrepancy)<br />Research Question: Why do students drop out? What factors contribute to the high drop out rate?<br />Possible Answer: There are many possible reasons why students drop out. Among the possible reasons are : financial difficulties, far distance of students’ houses from school, students’ lack of interest to study, and poor health.<br />There is a perceived discrepancy<br />between what is and what should be.<br />b) There are two or more reasons for <br />the discrepancy.<br />
    27. 27. Comment: Since there are a number of possible reasons for the dropping out of students despite free tuition, the problem is researchable. Research can determine the existence and extent of relationship between the identified possible factors and the students’ decision to drop out of school or to stay. Furthermore, research can determine the relative contribution of each factor in the students’ decision to drop out.<br /> <br />There is a perceived discrepancy <br />between what is and what should be.<br />b) There are two or more reasons for the discrepancy.<br />
    28. 28. Research Situation:<br />Housing loans are granted to PAG-IBIG members at a very low interest rates to help them build and own their homes. The loan is expected to be paid on a monthly basis within a certain period of time. Despite the liberal payment scheme, repayment has been consistently low. Records show a delinquency rate of about 30%. Arrears average at Php 80,000 and many properties have been foreclosed as documented by notices of foreclosure. PAG-IBIG members’ failure to pay their obligations has been attributed to many factors like lack of awareness among borrowers of the consequences of non-payment, a negative attitude towards government loans, or shortage of cash because of other financial needs and others. Two local studies on loan payment behaviors of credit cooperative members showed that social and economic factors influence repayment. The studies, however, did not touch on knowledge and attitude towards loan repayment. Most of the studies reviewed deal credit coop loans. Studies on housing loans are limited.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    29. 29. Research Situation:<br />Housing loans are granted to PAG-IBIG members at a very low interest rates to help them build and own their homes. The loan is expected to be paid on a monthly basis within a certain period of time. Despite the liberal payment scheme, repayment has been consistently low. Records show a delinquency rate of about 30%. Arrears average at Php 80,000 and many properties have been foreclosed as documented by notices of foreclosure. PAG-IBIG members’ failure to pay their obligations has been attributed to many factors like lack of awareness among borrowers of the consequences of non-payment, a negative attitude towards government loans, or shortage of cash because of other financial needs and others. Two local studies on loan payment behaviors of credit cooperative members showed that social and economic factors influence repayment. The studies, however, did not touch on knowledge and attitude towards loan repayment. Most of the studies reviewed deal credit coop loans. Studies on housing loans are limited.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    30. 30. Research Situation:<br />Housing loans are granted to PAG-IBIG members at a very low interest rates to help them build and own their homes. The loan is expected to be paid on a monthly basis within a certain period of time. Despite the liberal payment scheme, repayment has been consistently low. Records show a delinquency rate of about 30%. Arrears average at Php 80,000 and many properties have been foreclosed as documented by notices of foreclosure. PAG-IBIG members’ failure to pay their obligations has been attributed to many factors like lack of awareness among borrowers of the consequences of non-payment, a negative attitude towards government loans, or shortage of cash because of other financial needs and others. Two local studies on loan payment behaviors of credit cooperative members showed that social and economic factors influence repayment. The studies, however, did not touch on knowledge and attitude towards loan repayment. Most of the studies reviewed deal credit coop loans. Studies on housing loans are limited.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    31. 31. Research Situation:<br />Housing loans are granted to PAG-IBIG members at a very low interest rates to help them build and own their homes. The loan is expected to be paid on a monthly basis within a certain period of time. Despite the liberal payment scheme, repayment has been consistently low. Records show a delinquency rate of about 30%. Arrears average at Php 80,000 and many properties have been foreclosed as documented by notices of foreclosure. PAG-IBIG members’ failure to pay their obligations has been attributed to many factors like lack of awareness among borrowers of the consequences of non-payment, a negative attitude towards government loans, or shortage of cash because of other financial needs and others. Two local studies on loan payment behaviors of credit cooperative members showed that social and economic factors influence repayment. The studies, however, did not touch on knowledge and attitude towards loan repayment. Most of the studies reviewed deal credit coop loans. Studies on housing loans are limited.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    32. 32. Research Situation:<br />Housing loans are granted to PAG-IBIG members at a very low interest rates to help them build and own their homes. The loan is expected to be paid on a monthly basis within a certain period of time. Despite the liberal payment scheme, repayment has been consistently low. Records show a delinquency rate of about 30%. Arrears average at Php 80,000 and many properties have been foreclosed as documented by notices of foreclosure. PAG-IBIG members’ failure to pay their obligations has been attributed to many factors like lack of awareness among borrowers of the consequences of non-payment, a negative attitude towards government loans, or shortage of cash because of other financial needs and others. Two local studies on loan payment behaviors of credit cooperative members showed that social and economic factors influence repayment. The studies, however, did not touch on knowledge and attitude towards loan repayment. Most of the studies reviewed deal credit coop loans. Studies on housing loans are limited.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    33. 33. Research Situation:<br />Housing loans are granted to PAG-IBIG members at a very low interest rates to help them build and own their homes. The loan is expected to be paid on a monthly basis within a certain period of time. Despite the liberal payment scheme, repayment has been consistently low. Records show a delinquency rate of about 30%. Arrears average at Php 80,000 and many properties have been foreclosed as documented by notices of foreclosure. PAG-IBIG members’ failure to pay their obligations has been attributed to many factors like lack of awareness among borrowers of the consequences of non-payment, a negative attitude towards government loans, or shortage of cash because of other financial needs and others. Two local studies on loan payment behaviors of credit cooperative members showed that social and economic factors influence repayment. The studies, however, did not touch on knowledge and attitude towards loan repayment. Most of the studies reviewed deal credit coop loans. Studies on housing loans are limited.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    34. 34. armandorreosura compilation<br />
    35. 35. DEFINING <br />THE RESEARCH PROBLEM<br />“By this time, you should have a full knowledge about your problem.”<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    36. 36. Once the problem is identified, it should then be defined. The problem definition explains the existence and seriousness of the problem. The definition shows evidences that prove the problem really exists, that it is serious, and/or widespread. The definition of a problem also identifies the elements of a broader problem that are to be the focus of the research activities. <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    37. 37. Consider these questions to justify your proposal<br />Does the problem really exist? <br />What are the evidences of the problem's existence? <br />Is the problem serious? Who and how many are affected by it? <br />What places are affected?<br /> How widespread is it? <br />How often does the problem occur? <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    38. 38. Things to Remember When Defining a Research Problem <br />Review relevant literature and previous studies on the problem, <br />2. Examine current available data/statistics, <br />Seek educated opinions from persons concerned with the problem.<br /> 4. Determine the probable reasons for the existence of the problem from social, economic, or other theories that may explain the existence of the problem and the possible connection between the problem and other factors. <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    39. 39. Characteristics of a Good Research Problem <br />At times a research is not completed for some reason. These hindrances would have been eliminated should the researcher have known/identified at the start of his research. Some research topics or titles seems so interesting the but some researchers only failed to think beforehand what it takes to pursue such research.<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    40. 40. Characteristics of a Good Research Problem <br /> A research problem must be relevant.<br /> A Research problem must be feasible. <br />A Research problem must be clear.<br />A research problem must be ethical. <br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    41. 41. A research problem must be relevant. <br />The problem must be timely and relevant. It must be of interest to the one investigating it. It should yield answers that will contribute to knowledge and<br />and development. In essence, the problem should be worth investigating and worth the time, money and effort to be spent on it. <br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />ethical<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    42. 42. A Research problem must be feasible. <br />A research problem can only be investigated if resources like time, money, and personnel are available. A research problem may be relevant, but if funds are not available and there are no skilled researchers or tools for data gathering, <br />then it would not be feasible to conduct it. Researchers must, therefore be sure of the availability of funds and human resources, as well as appropriate tools/devices needed in the conduct of the study. <br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />ethical<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    43. 43. "The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' <br /> Achievement in Mathematics”<br />"The Effect on Achievement of. <br />Providing Each Student a Microcomputer in Their Math Class" <br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />ethical<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    44. 44. A Research problem must be clear. <br />The research problem must be clearly stated so that what is being investigated is made clear. Major variables of the study should be measures and should be specified in the problem<br />statement. The use of ambiguous terms must be avoided.<br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />ethical<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    45. 45. "Women's Perceptions about Sexual Harassment”<br />"Attitudes Towards Sexual Harassment of Female Rank and File Bank Employees in Makati City" <br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />ethical<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    46. 46. A research problem must be ethical. <br />The conduct of the study should not pose any danger, embarrassment, hurt or any risk to the<br />research respondents or subjects or anyone. Information needed to answer the research questions can be collected without violating the rights of the source/s of<br />information. The respondents' privacy must therefore be protected. They should be informed about the purpose of the study and be given the right to consent or refuse to participate in the study. <br />ethical<br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    47. 47. "The Effect of Punishment on the Self-. Esteem and Academic Performance of Adolescents" <br />exercises<br />ethical<br />relevant<br />feasible<br />clear<br />armandorreosura compilation<br />
    48. 48. armandorreosura compilation<br />

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