Elective Geography Secondary 4 Express (Old)- Natural Vegetation 2

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Elective Geography Secondary 4 Express (Old)- Natural Vegetation 2

  1. 1. Week 4Mangrove Rainforest
  2. 2. Distinct Wet or Dry Seasons? Coniferous Tropical Tropical TropicalRainforest Mangrove Monsoon
  3. 3. What are we looking for?1. Distribution2. Climatic Characteristics – Precipitation – Temperature – Distinct Wet/ Dry3. Structure / Layers4. Adaptations – Leaves/ Flowers and Fruits/ Bark and Branches
  4. 4. Mangrove forests• Coastal environment, low-lying and waterlogged areas• Forming mudflats, usually at river mouths• Singapore and Malaysia
  5. 5. High Tide Low Tide(Sungei Buloh) (Lim Chu Kang)
  6. 6. Distribution Pg 49 of TB
  7. 7. Climatic Characteristics• Same as Tropical Rainforest1. Temperature – High temperature (about 27 degree C)2. Percipitation – High Rainfall (above 1500 mm)3. No distinct wet or dry Months Key difference is in the location! Mangroves are located on the coasts.
  8. 8. Distribution Pg 49 of TB
  9. 9. Structure of Mangrove forest• Unlike tropical rainforest, mangrove forests have no distinctive vertical layering.• Most of the trees are of uniform height.
  10. 10. • However moving inland away from the coast, it is possible to see distinctive horizontal zones.• Saltwater mangrove trees grow near the coast but freshwater mangrove trees which are less tolerant of salt grow inland.
  11. 11. Special characteristics: Leaves• Mangrove trees have broad leaves with a leathery texture, which helps to prevent loss of moisture through transpiration.• The leaves also have drip tips to enable rainwater to flow off quickly and easily.
  12. 12. Leaves• The leaves have leaves that contain special salt glands to prevent the building up of excess salt.• SALT SECRETORS These salt glands secrete the excess salt which is then washed away from the sea by the high tide.• ULTRAFILTRATORS Salt stored in older leaves and discarded when leaves fall.
  13. 13. Salt Crystals on Mangrove leaf
  14. 14. Fruit• Tube-like fruit that start to germinate while they are still on the tree• When the fruit ripen, they fall into the mud and start to grow• In this way, its harder for the plant to be washed away by the tides
  15. 15. Fruit• Some fruits are able to float on water for long periods of time.• This allows some of them to be carried away by water to other coastal areas.• This allows some of them to be take root to other coastal areas.
  16. 16. Roots• Prop roots to anchor trees firmly to the ground• As the soil lacks oxygen, some plants have aerial roots to take in oxygen• Some trees have roots that act as salt filters
  17. 17. Mangrove Wildlife Crabs!! Lobster 
  18. 18. Mudskipper FrogPrawns  Small fish Big fish! 
  19. 19. Chp 3: Natural Vegetation 4 Elective: Week 5 Lesson 4
  20. 20. Part 3:Tropical Monsoon Forests
  21. 21. What are we looking for?1. Distribution2. Climatic Characteristics – Precipitation – Temperature – Distinct Wet/ Dry3. Structure / Layers4. Adaptations – Leaves/ Flowers and Fruits/ Bark and Branches
  22. 22. Distribution
  23. 23. Distribution• Found between 23.5 North to 23.5 South• E.g. Myanmar, Bangladesh, Thailand• Found at tropical monsoon climate with – High temperatures (26˚C) – High rainfall (>1500mm/year) – Wet and dry seasons
  24. 24. Climatic Characteristics• High temperatures (about 26 degree C)• High rainfall ( > 1500m)• Distinct Wet/ Dry Seasons
  25. 25. What is the tropical monsoon climate?
  26. 26. Wind Naming Conventions • General direction from which they originateSouth West South East
  27. 27. Point of Reference• Point of Reference here is Mangalore, India
  28. 28. • June to September • October to January• Southwest Monsoon • Northeast Monsoon• Heavy Rain • Cold and Dry
  29. 29. Structure of Tropical Monsoon forest• Three layers – Ground, Understorey, canopy layer• Trees do not grow very close together – Less dense – Shorter• Thicker undergrowth because of more sunlight penetrating layer• More leaf litter because of slower decomposition rate
  30. 30. More sunlight  Thicker undergrowth
  31. 31. Tropical monsoon forestsDry Season Wet Season
  32. 32. Diversity of Plant species• Vegetation in the tropical monsoon region must adapt to the wet and dry season.• Due to the dry weather, – There are fewer species (200 species/ha) – The plants are also spaced further from each other. – Trees are hardwoods (E.g. teak and rosewood)
  33. 33. Adaptations• Shed their leaves during dry seasons, decidous – Minimise loss of water through transpiration• Waxy leaves to prevent excessive transpiration• Drip tip leaves to allow rainwater to flow easily
  34. 34. Adaptations• Flowers and Fruits – Bear fruit during the dry season• Bark and Branches – Thick and coarse protect from heat and dryness during dry season – Branches located near the mid section• Deep roots to reach for underground water during dry seasons
  35. 35. What are we looking for?1. Distribution2. Climatic Characteristics – Precipitation – Temperature – Distinct Wet/ Dry3. Structure / Layers4. Adaptations – Leaves/ Flowers and Fruits/ Bark and Branches
  36. 36. Temperate Coniferous Forest
  37. 37. Concerns• Why do trees from Tropical Monsoon Rainforests only bear fruits/ flowers during dry seasons when they are leaveless?
  38. 38. Difference between “Describe” and “Compare”• Describe – Give a written factual account of the distinctive features of an item
  39. 39. Difference between “Describe” and “Compare”• Compare – Provide a point by point account of the similarities and differences between two sets of information or two areas – Must use comparative adjectives (eg. Larger than, smaller than, more steep than) – Two sets of descriptions does not make a comparison – May be written as “Describe/ List/ Identify the main differences/ similarities”
  40. 40. Difference between “Describe” and “Compare”Both tropical rainforest and tropicalmonsoon forest have a layered structure.Describe the main differences in thestructure and composition of these forests. [OL Geog N2004 P2 Q5]
  41. 41. The tropical rainforest is denser than that ofthe tropical monsoon forest. The tropicalrainforest also has a more luxuriantvegetation cover because the hot and wetclimate encourages rapid population growth.Though both the tropical rainforest andtropical monsoon forest have layeredstructures, the former has 5 layers while thelatter has only 3 layers. The 5 layers are theemergent layer followed by …
  42. 42. Distribution• Found between 60 to 70 North of the Equator• Northern USA, Northern Scandinavia (Finland, Norway, Sweden), Russia Canada USA Scandinavia RussiaAlaska
  43. 43. Alaska
  44. 44. Scandinavia (Sweden)
  45. 45. Scandinavia (Finland)
  46. 46. The Temperate Climate• The main characteristic of the climate is the presence of 4 distinct seasons – spring, summer, autumn and winter
  47. 47. Winter Summer• Lasts for 6 months • Lasts for 3 months• Cold & severe • Hot & humid• Temperature –40 C • Temperature 21 C• Some snowfall • A lot of rain
  48. 48. What’s winter like?
  49. 49. Climatic Characteristics• Four Seasons: Spring/ Summer/ Autumn/ Winter• Temperature – Warmest in Summer- Averaging 21 C – Coldest in Winter- As low as -40 C• Percipitation – Often in the form of snow – Low (300- 635 mm)
  50. 50. Trees on the frozen ground…
  51. 51. Trees on the frozen ground…
  52. 52. Structure/ LayersNo Distinct Layers • Generally uniform in height (20- 30m) – Straight trunks • Little undergrowth – Low amount of sunlight received – Low soil nutrient level (tough needles) – Lichens and mosses covering the forest floor
  53. 53. Diversity of Plant Species• Very few species of trees (Grow in pure stands - sometimes only one or two species in a forest)
  54. 54. Spruce Pine
  55. 55. Cedar Fir
  56. 56. Special Characteristics: Leaves• Evergreen• Start to photosynthesize from 6 C• Needle-like• Drought resistant• Can store water for the long cold winter
  57. 57. What adaptation do you notice here?You are right! - the needle-like leaves that are evergreen in winter.
  58. 58. Bark, Fruits and Roots• Thick bark to insulate the trees• Seeds ( Flowers and Fruits) are protected in cones
  59. 59. Male and Female Cones• Female cones produce seeds• Male cones produce pollen• Seeds are pollinated in the female cones before being scattered by wind or animals
  60. 60. Fir cone Giant Sequoia cones
  61. 61. Bark, Fruits and Roots• Thick bark to insulate the trees• Seeds ( Flowers and Fruits) are protected in cones• Sloping branches allow snow to slide down easily• Shallow roots spreadout widely to absorbwater from melting offrozen topsoil in springand summer
  62. 62. Both Tropical Rainforest andTropical Coniferous haveshallow roots, – But are the reasons for these adaptations the same?Both Tropical Monsoon andTropical Coniferous havethick barks, – But are the reasons for these adaptations the same?
  63. 63. Natural Vegetation Week 7
  64. 64. Worksheet 2: Hints1. Describe the climatic conditions shown in the climograph – What type of climate? • (Tropical/ Monsoon/ Temperate) – Temperature Characteristics? • (High/ Low/ Medium) – Rainfall Characteristics? • (High/ Low/ Medium) – Distinct Wet/ Dry? (Yes/ No) – Seasons? (Yes/ No)
  65. 65. Worksheet 2: Hints• Identify the forest type and name some of the places where it is located. – Too Easy.
  66. 66. Worksheet 2: Hints• Explain how the trees in the forest type adapt to the climate of the region where it is found. – Leaves – Flowers/ Fruits – Bark/ Branches – Roots
  67. 67. Worksheet 2: Hints• Compare the distribution of the coniferous forest and tropical rainforests – Provide a point by point account of the similarities and differences between two sets of information or two areas – Must use comparative adjectives (eg. Larger than, smaller than, more steep than
  68. 68. Administration• Distribute Mark Scheme• Mark your peers/ yourself• Hand it up to me for presentation comments
  69. 69. Checkpoint• Summary of what we have learnt so far• My revision planner – Covered all questions?• Technical terms of mangroves
  70. 70. To what extent does theclimate have an influence onvegetation growth?To what extent does theclimate have an influence ondiversity/ density?How is the zonation inmangroves related to salttolerance (halophytes)?

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