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Elective Geography Secondary 4 Express (Old)- Natural Vegetation
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Elective Geography Secondary 4 Express (Old)- Natural Vegetation

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Special thanks to Angie/ Ben for the original copy of these slides. Download for this files are disabled. Do email me at armanalluwie@gmail.com if you need a copy of it.

Special thanks to Angie/ Ben for the original copy of these slides. Download for this files are disabled. Do email me at armanalluwie@gmail.com if you need a copy of it.

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  • 1. Chapter 3Types of Natural Vegetation Strangler Fig, Borneo
  • 2. What is a plant, anyway…?• Like a baby, plants need the right conditions to grow.
  • 3. Bare essentials needed to sustain human and plant life• Food• Shelter In order to meet their needs -• Safety Plants make ADAPTATIONS.• Freedom• Respect• Tender Loving Care“Take good care of your plants, and your plants will take good care of you.”
  • 4. PLANT ADAPTATIONS!
  • 5. Tropical Rainforest Why are there emergents?
  • 6. Why drip tips?
  • 7. Why are there buttress roots??
  • 8. Tropical MangrovesWhat’s that powdery stuff?
  • 9. GIANT BIRD CLAWS???
  • 10. Tropical Monsoon ForestDry Season Wet Season
  • 11. Temperate Coniferous Forest
  • 12. Hand Grenade? Or Armoured seeds??
  • 13. Toilet brush?Or leaves??
  • 14. Natural Vegetation Part 1: Tropical Rainforest
  • 15. Natural Vegetation Grassland Forest Desert Tropical Tropical Tropical TemperateEquatorial Mangrove Monsoon Coniferous
  • 16. Natural Vegetation• Refersto plants that grow and develop bythemselveswithout human help• can be divided into forest, grassland anddesert vegetation• influenced by precipitation and temperature(Important!)
  • 17. Why does climate vary with latitude?Because of the TILT in the earth’s axis…1. Solar angle  Intensity of solar radiation2. Distance travelled by sun’s rays  Scattering by atmosphereBoth factors are consistent at the Equator, but vary towards the Poles, thus less solar heating towards the Poles
  • 18. Biome• A major habitat type covering a large geographical area with many ecosystems within it• where communities have ADAPTED to its distinctive climatic and physical conditions.• Each biome is classified by its climate and natural vegetation, and characterised by its dominant animal groups
  • 19. ForestsTropical Temperaterainforest Coniferous forest Temperate Deciduous forest
  • 20. Desert Vegetation Grasslands
  • 21. Map of Natural Vegetation• tropical rainforest – Indonesia, Brazil, Congo Basin• tropical monsoon forest – Myanmar, Bangladesh• temperate coniferous forest – Russia, Alaska• mangrove forest – Singapore, Malaysia
  • 22. Tropical rainforests• found between 10 North and Southe.g. found in Indonesia, Amazon Basin,Congo Basin• found at equatorial climate with high rainfall•and temperature
  • 23. Chp 3: Natural Vegetation 4 Elective: Week 1 Lesson 2
  • 24. Recall• List 10 terms which were used in yesterday’s lesson – 5 from 4 Truth – 5 from 4 Patience
  • 25. Natural Vegetation• Refersto plants that grow and develop bythemselveswithout human help• can be divided into forest, grassland anddesert vegetation• influenced by precipitation and temperature(Important!)
  • 26. Natural Vegetation Grassland Forest Desert Tropical Tropical Tropical TemperateEquatorial Mangrove Monsoon Coniferous
  • 27. Why does climate vary with latitude?Because of the TILT in the earth’s axis…1. Solar angle  Intensity of solar radiation2. Distance travelled by sun’s rays  Scattering by atmosphereBoth factors are consistent at the Equator, but vary towards the Poles, thus less solar heating towards the Poles Concerns
  • 28. Concerns: Climate and Latitude Latitudecoolerwarmercooler 31
  • 29. Concerns:Climate and Latitude short long 32
  • 30. Tropical Equatorial climate3 reasons  1 result1. High temperature (> 27˚C)2. High rainfall (> 1500mm/year)3. Continuous growing season for trees and plantsThis results in tropical rainforest being very dense and having many species of trees. Summary on Pg 60
  • 31. Diversity of Plant Species• Biodiversity in tropical rainforests is high.• 1 hectare around 400 species of trees• Evergreen trees do not shed their leaves because of high temperature and rainfall• Hardwoods that are durable and valuable (e.g. meranti, mahogany, ebony)• Lianas which are woody vines that use tree trunks to get sunlight (e.g. rattan)• Epiphytes that grow on trees branches to get sunlight (e.g. Bird’s Nest fern)
  • 32. How big is a hectare (ha.)?• Q: How big is a hectare?• A: 10 000 square metres.• Q: How big is that?• A: It is the equivalent of a square, each side having a length of 100 m.• Q: What does that look like?• A: Many sports fields have an area that is comparable to a hectare.
  • 33. Liana windingarounda tree trunk
  • 34. Epiphyte growingon tree branch
  • 35. Parasitic or Non-parasitic?• Both lianas and epiphytes are not parasitic – they do not cause death to their host plants• Unlike the STRANGLER FIG…..
  • 36. A strangler fig strangles its host tree… Till it dies…leaving only the fig.
  • 37. Structure of Tropical Rainforest 1 2 3 4 Shrub Layer 5 Forest Floor Pg 38
  • 38. Structure of Tropical RainforestEmergent• Emergent layer of very tall trees of 50 m to reach for sunlight• Thick and straight trunks
  • 39. Structure of Tropical RainforestCanopy• Canopy layer consists of trees that grow close together to form continuous canopy to capture sunlight• Ht between 15m and 30m.• Lianas, epiphytes and parasitic plants are common
  • 40. Interlocking/Continuous Canopy
  • 41. Structure of Tropical RainforestUnderstorey layer• Understorey layer consists of shorter trees 6m- 10m• Young trees of the Emergent and Canopy layer are found here• Palms and tree ferns are common• Leaves are much larger at this layer compared to other layers
  • 42. Structure of Tropical RainforestShrub layer• Shrub layer consists of shrubs, ferns and young trees below 5m• Have to adapt to the lack of sunlight.
  • 43. Structure of Tropical RainforestUndergrowth Layer• Thinner leaf litter because of faster decomposition rate• Dark ground layer consist of small fungi, mosses and ferns• Decomposers work actively here!
  • 44. Fungi, Mosses, Ferns
  • 45. Decomposers @ Ground Layer Chiron Beetle
  • 46. Ants
  • 47. Dead Leaf Mantid
  • 48. Asian Scorpion
  • 49. Special CharacteristicsLeaves• Leaves are evergreen• Leathery leaves to prevent excessive transpiration (There may be lots of rain, but its still really warm! High evapotranspiration.)• Drip tip leaves to allow rainwater to flow off easily (Prevents harmful bacteria from growing.)
  • 50. Special CharacteristicsFlowers and fruits• Colourful and sweet-smelling flowers to attract birds and bees (Still air prevents pollination by wind.)Branches• Branches only at top one-third of the trunk (Strong competition for sunlight.)
  • 51. Special CharacteristicsBark• Thin and smooth bark – no need for protection against cold or dry conditions• Common misunderstanding – High temp  Frequent forest fires  Thick barksRoots• Buttress roots to support tall trees• Shallow roots to get nutrients from the soil
  • 52. Tropical Rainforest:Thin barks
  • 53. Tropical Rainforest:Buttress roots
  • 54. Video: Man vs. Wild (Structure of Tropical Rainforest• As you watch this video, identify the various parts of the canopy that Bear Grylls encounters.