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Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
Signal Conditioning
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Signal Conditioning

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  • 1. Sistem InstrumentasiSistem Instrumentasi (Sensor, Transducer, Signal Conditioning)(Sensor, Transducer, Signal Conditioning) Presented byPresented by Muhammad FadlyMuhammad Fadly Muhammad ArmanMuhammad Arman
  • 2. Blok Diagram Sistem instrumentasiBlok Diagram Sistem instrumentasi Measured medium Primary Sensing Element Variable Conversion Element Variabel Manipulated Element Data Transmission Element Data Storage / Playback Element Data Presentation Element Observer Measured Quantity Presented Data Sensor / Transducer Signal Conditioning - DAQ - Indicator - Controller - Computer Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 A B A B
  • 3. Sistem InstrumentasiSistem Instrumentasi • Sensor / Transducer • Signal Conditioning • Data Logging (DAQ system)
  • 4. Definisi :Definisi : • Primary Sensing Element (sensor/transducer) Sensor : Segala elemen yang memiliki perubahan nilai variable tertentu terhadap varibel fisik tertentu dan merupakan elemen pertama yang menerima energi dari media yang diukur dan menghasilkan sebuah keluaran yang bergantung pada kuantitas yang diukur. Transducer : Suatu alat/komponen yang dapat merubah dari suatu bentuk besaran ke bentuk besaran lain yang berbeda. • Variable Conversion Element Merubah variabel yang diukur dari satu bentuk ke bentuk lain yang lebih sesuai dengan keperluan. Pressure VoltageTransducer
  • 5. Definisi (Continued)Definisi (Continued) • Variable Manipulated Element Melakukan penyesuaian nilai variabel agar dapat digunakan secara langsung oleh elemen-elemen selanjutnya. • Data Transmission Element Mengirim data dari satu elemen ke elemen lainnya. • Data Storage / Playback Element Melakukan penyimpanan data pengukuran dan data tersebut dapat ditampilkankan kembali setiap saat. • Data Presentation Element Memberikan informasi tentang besar nilai variabel yang diukur dalam bentuk yang dapat dimengerti oleh manusia.
  • 6. Contoh:Contoh: Measured medium Primary Sensing Element Variable Conversion Element Observer Pressure Pressure Data Data Transmission Element Variable Conversion Element Fluida Gaya Piston Piston rod Gaya A A Spring Variable Manipulated Element Gerak Linkage Data Presentation Element Gerak Pointer dan Skala
  • 7. Sistem InstrumentasiSistem Instrumentasi
  • 8. Sensor (Transducer)Sensor (Transducer) Segala elemen yang berubah terhadap varibel fisik tertentu dan merupakan elemen pertama yang menerima energi dari media yang diukur dan menghasilkan sebuah keluaran yang bergantung pada kuantitas yang diukur. Contoh :  Temperature Transducer  Pressure Transducer  Flow Transducer  Humidity Transducer  dll
  • 9. Temperature Sensor/TransducerTemperature Sensor/Transducer • Thermometer Bimetal • Thermometer Gelas • Resistance Temperature Detector
  • 10. Temperature Sensor/TransducerTemperature Sensor/Transducer • Thermistor • Thermocouple • Infrared Phyrometer
  • 11. Pressure Sensor/TransducerPressure Sensor/Transducer • Manometer • Bourdone Tube
  • 12. Pressure Sensor/TransducerPressure Sensor/Transducer • Inductive Type • Piezoresistive P R
  • 13. Flow Sensor/TransducerFlow Sensor/Transducer • Differential Pressure • Tube vane (putaran baling-baling)
  • 14. Flow Sensor/TransducerFlow Sensor/Transducer • Magnetic • Ultrasonic
  • 15. Signal ConditioningSignal Conditioning • Merubah dari satu bentuk sinyal ke bentuk sinyal yang lain disesuai dengan kebutuhan: - Amplification - Isolation - Filtering - Excitation - Linearization - Conversion
  • 16. Signal ConditioningSignal Conditioning • Sistem Mekanik • Sistem Elektrik (Elektronik) • Sistem Hidraulik • Sistem Pneumatic
  • 17. Signal ConditioningSignal Conditioning • Sistem Mekanik – Bell crank – Gear – Rod – Spring – Linkage mekanik – Piston – Dll
  • 18. Sistem Elektrik (Elektronik)Sistem Elektrik (Elektronik) • Memperbesar atau memperkecil sinyal AmplificationAmplification
  • 19. AmplificationAmplification • Inverting Amplifier • Non-inverting Amplifier Vin R R Vout F 1 − = Vin R R Vout       += 2 1 1
  • 20. AmplificationAmplification • Summing and Subtracting • Difference Amplifier ( )321 1 VVV R R Vout F ++ − = ( )12 1 VV R R Vout F −=
  • 21. IsolationIsolation • Melindungi data akuisisi atau komputer dari transducer/alat ukur untuk tujuan keamanan • Efek drop tegangan pada pemacaan data akibat masuknya resistansi data akuisisi atau komputer
  • 22. Isolated ItemIsolated Item • High voltage transient • Grounding (beda tegangan antara dua ground) • Load Resistance -> voltage follower
  • 23. FilteringFiltering • Menghilangkan sinyal-sinyal yang tidak diinginkan dari sinyal yang ingin diukur, terutama noise dan gangguan FILTER
  • 24. FilterFilter • Low-pass Filter • High-pass Filter
  • 25. ExitationExitation • Signal conditioning terkadang memberikan sinyal eksitasi kepada transducer agar transduser mengeluarkan data pengukurannya Seperti: − Sumber tegangan (RTD, Thermistor, dll) − Eksitasi arus − Eksitasi pulsa
  • 26. LinearizationLinearization • Banyak transduser yang menghasilkan keluaran berupa sinyal nonlinier. Seperti : − Thermocouple yang memiliki respon nonlinier terhadap perubahan temperatur • Proses linierisasi ini dapat dilakukan secara hardware maupun secara software
  • 27. ConvertionConvertion • Terkadang data/ sinyal keluaran transducer tidak sesuai dengan masukan data akuisisi yang ada. Sehingga signal conditioning yang melakukan konversi terhadap sinyal tersebut. − Current to Voltage − Resistance to Voltage − Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)
  • 28. ConverterConverter • Current to Voltage Converter • Resistance to Voltage Converter
  • 29. • Resistance to Voltage Converter
  • 30. Analog to Digital ConverterAnalog to Digital Converter Merubah sinyal analog menjadi sinyal digital • Voltage resolution • Full scale measurement range = 0 to 10 volts • ADC resolution is 12 bits: 2^12 = 4096 • ADC voltage resolution is: (10-0)/(4096-1) = 0.00244 volts = 2.44 mV sinyal masuk
  • 31. Digital to Analog ConverterDigital to Analog Converter • Merubah sinyal digital menjadi sinyal analog − Full scale measurement range = 0 to 10 volts − DAC resolution is 12 bits: 212 = 4096 = 10V − DAC voltage resolution is: (10-0)/(4096-1) = 0.00244 volts = 2.44 mV sinyal keluar
  • 32. Transducer OutputTransducer Output Analog Signal Digital Signal
  • 33. Sensor, Signal Conditioning, ADCSensor, Signal Conditioning, ADC
  • 34. SEKIANSEKIAN TERIMA KASIHTERIMA KASIH

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