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KA6564 Assignment 4 - Urban Public Transport Report

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  • 1. URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY FOR:KAJANG - BANDAR BARU BANGI – PUTRAJAYA – BANDAR SERI PUTRA - NILAI 3 PREPARED BY: MUSS CONSULTING ENGINEERS SDN BHD MUHAMMAD BIN RAMLAN P57600 SUZILAWATIE BT ABDUL GHANI P60832 SYAHDATUL ISNAIN BINTI NAAM P60872 PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 1
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENT1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 1.2 Objective of the Study 1.3 The Study Area 1.4 The Existing Road Networks 1.5 The Public Transport Networks 1.5.1 Bus Services 1.5.2 Railway Services 1.5.3 Taxi Services 1.6 Current Public Transport Issue2.0 THE STUDY METHODOLOGY FOR TRAFFIC DEMAND IN 2020 2.1 Transport Modeling 2.2 Trip Generation 2.3 Trip Distribution 2.4 Modal Split 2.5 Trip Assignment3.0 PROPOSAL TO CATER FOR TRAFFIC DEMAND IN 2020 3.1 Physical Development 3.1.1 Proposal for Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line 3.1.2 Proposal for Enhanced Bus and Taxi Services PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 2
  • 3. 3.2 Policy Development 3.3 Traffic Management Development4.0 COST ESTIMATION 4.1 Cost Breakdown 4.2 Cost Summary 4.3 Return on Investment5.0 CONCLUSIONREFERENCES PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 3
  • 4. LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.1 Location of the study areaFigure 1.2 Map of existing road networkFigure 1.3 Public Transport Systems in Study AreaFigure 1.4 Bus Coverage NetworkFigure 1.5 Bus ScheduleFigure 1.6 RapidKL Bus Route for Cheras - Kajang - Sg.Besi – Putrajaya networkFigure 1.7 KLIA Transit and KTM Commuter TrainFigure 1.8 KTM Commuter Rail NetworkFigure 1.9 Taxi station at KajangFigure 1.10 Taxi station at Pusat Hentian Kajang, Jalan RekoFigure 1.11 Taxi spot in Bandar Baru BangiFigure 1.12 Unsuitable location of bus stop and taxi stationFigure 1.13 Shortage of parking and poor parking management systemFigure 1.14 Unsuitable size of bus stopFigure 1.15 No public transport available hereFigure 2.1 Study MethodologyFigure 2.2 Model DevelopmentFigure 2.3 Trip Distribution DiagramFigure 2.4 Factors influencing the mode choiceFigure 2.5 Decision StructureFigure 3.1 Light Rail TransitFigure 3.2 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Kajang PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 4
  • 5. Figure 3.3 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Bandar Baru BangiFigure 3.4 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in PutrajayaFigure 3.5 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Bandar Seri PutraFigure 3.6 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Nilai 3Figure 3.7 Bus lane proposedFigure 3.8 Nadi Putra feeder busFigure 3.9 Upgrade Buses and Taxi StandFigure 3.10 Electronic Information SystemsFigure 3.11 Park and Ride PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 5
  • 6. LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1 Distribution of the PopulationTable 2.2 Production and Attraction RateTable 2.3 Production and Attraction RateTable 2.4 Production and AttractionTable 2.5 Adjusted Productions and AttractionTable 2.6 Matrix BalancingTable 2.7 Trip Pattern (O – D Matrix)Table 3.1 Characteristic of the Light Rail Transit (LRT)Table 3.2 Proposal for Bus Terminal and Bus StandTable 4.1 Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line CostTable 4.2 Bus and Taxi Services CostTable 4.3 Intelligent Traffic Information System (ITIS)Table 4.4 Summary Cost PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 6
  • 7. 1.0 INTRODUCTIONThe Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi - Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3 town is a rapidlydeveloping and growing city. It is place for residential, administration and business centre forall walks of life. With three hubs of purposes, it is definitely an area with rapid growth ofpopulation. The rapid growth in population will definitely increase the use of vehicles on that areaand contribute to future road congestion. Besides that, ineffective public transportationsystem is also one of the causes of traffic congestion in town. Therefore, a successful andeffective implementation of a public transport system must be done to cater this problem.. The proposal of the sustainable public transport system is hoped to improve thissituation, providing better productivity, giving better transport options and enhancing shortertravel times for its user.1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDYThe objectives of this study are: • To study public transport demand and requirement in 2020 for Kajang - Bangi - Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra – Nilai 3 • To propose a new public transportation system in Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra – Nilai 3 for year 2020. • To identify problems in the existing transportation system and method to overcome this problems. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 7
  • 8. 1.2 THE STUDY AREA Kajang Bandar Baru Bangi Putrajaya Bandar Seri Putra Nilai 3 Figure 1.1 Location of the study areaThe study area comprises of town Kajang, Bandar Baru Bangi, Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putraand Nilai 3.Kajang is a town situated in Hulu Langat, Selangor and is located 21 km south of KualaLumpur. The total population of Kajang has grown rapidly in the past few years, withestimated population growth of 9% per annum due to its function of residential and businessarea.Bandar Baru Bangi is named after the small town of Bangi and situated in the district ofHulu Langat. It is located between Kajang and Putrajaya and is about 25 km away from theKuala Lumpur. This town is a vast residential area and growing business hub centre. It alsohouses a number of higher institutions, training centres, research centers and also governmentagency. It was crowned as Knowledge City on 22 June 2008. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 8
  • 9. Putrajaya is a planned city, located 25km south of Kuala Lumpur. It serves as the federaladministrative centre of Malaysia. Putrajaya became Malaysias third Federal Territory afterKuala Lumpur and Labuan. It comprises a total area of 49 km2. In 2007, the population ofPutrajaya was estimated to be over 30,000, which comprised mainly government servants.Bandar Seri Putra – A new rapid growing township in Bangi, Selangor. It is function as thenew residential center which supports the development of Bandar Baru Bangi.Nilai 3 – A town located in Negeri Sembilan and is a rapidly growing town due to its locationthat near to Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). Nilai3 has become a popular area for housing area and shopping town with the establishment ofseveral major shopping malls.1.3 THE EXISTING ROAD NETWORKS Kajang Bandar Baru Bangi Putrajaya Bandar Seri Putra Nilai 3 Figure 1.2 Map of existing road network PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 9
  • 10. Currently, Kajang, Bangi, Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3 town are connected by anumber of highways such as:(a) North-South Expressway (PLUS) - managed by PLUS Expressway Berhad. PLUS link Expressway is the main expressway in Malaysia which connecting the town of Kajang, Bangi, Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3.(b) Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway (Kajang Silk) - managed by SILK Holdings Berhad. Kajang SILK Highway is an expressway built to disperse and regulate the traffic flow in Kajang, Selangor. The huge traffic jams that clogged traffic flow in Kajang town centre were the main reason behind the construction of this highway.(c) Kajang- Seremban Highway (LEKAS) - managed by Lebuhraya Kajang Seremban Sdn Bhd. The LEKAS Highway is an expressway in Malaysia that connecting Kajang, Selangor to Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. It serves as effective traffic dispersal for the highly congested Kajang to Seremban besides the PLUS Highway and the Kuala Lumpur-Seremban Expressway.(d) Cheras-Kajang Highway (CKE) - managed by Grand Saga Sdn Bhd. The Cheras- Kajang Expressway is an expressway in Klang Valley that links the incorporated township of Cheras, Kuala Lumpur to the town of Kajang in Selangor.For internal areas, it is linked by local roads networks.1.4 THE EXISTING PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMPublic transport system is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for useby the general public. Most public transport runs to a scheduled timetable with the mostfrequent services running to headway. An effective public transportation system veryimportant in developing urban area such as Kajang, Bangi, Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putra andNilai 3 to avoid traffic congestion from happen. Currently, public transports that wereavailable in this town are bus, taxi and commuter train. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 10
  • 11. Figure 1.3 Public Transport Systems in Study Area1.4.1 Bus ServicesRangkaian Pengangkutan Integrasi Deras Sdn Bhd. or RapidKL is the one of the operator forthe buses between Kajang and Bangi area. Kajang town to Bandar Baru Bangi is connectedwith bus number T431 RapidKL. Besides RapidKL, mini buses are also available in this area.For Putrajaya area, NadiPutra is the trade name of Putrajaya intra-city bus services thatprovide the feeder bus services for commuting within Putrajaya and Cyberjaya’s PersiaranMultimedia. The buses belong to Perbadanan Putrajaya and the day to day operation byPengangkutan Awam Putrajaya Sdn. Bhd. (PAPSB). As for Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3,currently there is no bus services provided to get there.Figure 1.4 to 1.6 below shows the schedule and the bus coverage networks within the studyarea: PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 11
  • 12. Figure 1.4 Bus Coverage Network PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 12
  • 13. Figure 1.5 Bus Schedule PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 13
  • 14. Routes: Area 4Networks: Cheras - Kajang - Sg.Besi – Putrajaya Figure 1.6 RapidKL Bus Route for Cheras - Kajang - Sg.Besi – Putrajaya network PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 14
  • 15. 1.4.2 Train ServicesKTM Komuter is an electrified commuter train service introduced by Keretapi Tanah MelayuBerhad (KTMB). KTM Commuter is a heavily utilized mode of transportation that is mostlyused by passengers who work in Kuala Lumpur as an alternative service for road travel toavoid from facing the traffic congestion. Plus, the train fares are generally reasonable andaffordable for any user kind. The train network consists of three lines: Rawang-SerembanRoute, Sentul-Port Klang Route and the Rawang-Kuala Kubu Bharu shuttle route. The townof Kajang, Bangi, and Nilai 3 are located in Rawang-Seremban Route (shown in Red Box).KTM commuter train runs at 15 minutes frequency during peak hours and 20 minutesfrequency during off-peak hours. Figure shows railway coverage networks for Kajang,Bandar Baru Bangi and Nilai area. For Putrajaya area, the fastest choice to get there using the train is by using KLIATransit connecting Kuala Lumpur Central train station to KLIA airport, which stops halfwayin between at Putrajaya. As for Bandar Seri Putra, currently there still no train services available in that area. Figure 1.7 KLIA Transit and KTM Commuter Train PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 15
  • 16. Figure 1.8 KTM Commuter Rail Network1.4.3 Taxi ServicesTaxi services are also one of the public transport facilities that can be used to travel along thestudy area. However, since taxi fares are quite expensive compared to other public transportservices, it is not very popular among the passengers. There are two taxi stations located atKajang. The condition of the first taxi station is not strategic and contributes to roadcongestion. It is located at the heart of Kajang. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 16
  • 17. Figure 1.9 Taxi station at Kajang Another taxi station at Kajang is at the Pusat Hentian Kajang, Jalan Reko. This taxistation is shared with the bus terminal area. Since there is no centralized waiting area inBandar Baru Bangi, many of the taxi drivers gather and pick their passengers at shoppingcomplexes area such as at Warta complex near Seksyen 1. Figure 1.10 Taxi station at Pusat Hentian Kajang, Jalan Reko In Putrajaya, there is a taxi station at Precint 1. Other taxi stations in Putrajaya are theunofficial spot like at the shopping complex and school area.For other places within the study area, there is no proper taxi station available. There is anonly unofficial taxi spot especially located near bus stands, KTM commuter and shoppingcomplex. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 17
  • 18. Figure 1.11 Taxi spot in Bandar Baru Bangi1.5 Current Public Transport IssueThere are several issues regarding the public transportation system in the study area as shownin the pictures below: 1. Unsuitable location of bus stop and taxi station which located at crowded area creating traffic congestion. Figure 1.12 Unsuitable location of bus stop and taxi station PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 18
  • 19. 2. Shortage of parking and poor parking management system at public transport area Figure 1.13 Shortage of parking and poor parking management system3. Unsuitable size for bus stop station which cannot cater for waiting passenger Figure 1.14 Unsuitable size of bus stop4. No bus or taxi terminal5. No public transport services PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 19
  • 20. Figure 1.15 No public transport available hereThere is also other general issue regarding the public transport which includes:(a) Limited inter-city bus trips.(b) The counting of trips is low and cannot cater for peak hour’s capacity.(c) Bad time management. There is no punctuality for arrival and departure time.(d) Cramp-packed condition of public transports facility (especially the busses and KTM commuters).(e) Poor public customer relationship service.(f) Uncomfortable condition of public transport facilities (e.g. from weather and surroundings). PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 20
  • 21. 2.0 THE STUDY METHODOLOGY FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT DEMAND IN2020Considering of the methodology that should be followed is important in implementation anytypes of study. Figure 2.0.1 is shown the procedure that is carried out for forecast the futuretransport demand both for action planning and long term planning. Data from”RancanganTempatan Kajang Jilid I dan Jilid II”, ”Rancangan Tempatan Nilai” and Department ofStatistics Malaysia are used to evaluate the trips. Trip Production and Attraction Trip Pattern (O – D) Modal Choice Model Forecast future demand of public transport Determine suitable public transport Proposal for physical development and policy changes Figure 2.1 Study Methodology PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 21
  • 22. 2.1 TRANSPORT MODELINGThere are four steps should be followed in order to produce the Trip Pattern (O – D matrix).The steps consist of Trip Generation, followed by Trip Distribution, Modal Split and TripAssignment. The development model is displayed in the Figure 2.1.1 below. Trip Generation Trip Distribution Modal Split Trip Assignment Figure 2.2 Model Development2.2 TRIP GENERATIONTrip generation is the first step in the conventional four-step transportation forecastingprocess, widely used for forecasting travel demands. It predicts the number of tripsoriginating in or destined for a particular traffic analysis zone. Typically, trip generationanalysis focuses on residences, and residential trip generation is thought of as a function ofthe social and economic attributes of households. At the level of the traffic analysis zone,residential land uses "produce" or generate trips. Ratio of the distribution of population andaverage household size in every zone are used to assigning the production and attraction.Table 2.1 to Table 2.4 is presented the population of every zone and production and attractionfor each zone. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 22
  • 23. Table 2.1 Distribution of the Population Residential Zone Unit (unit) Bandar Baru Bangi 97708 Bandar Seri Putra 24862 Kajang 55721 Nilai 3 24017 Putrajaya 84488Sources:”Rancangan Tempatan Kajang Jilid I dan Jilid II”, ”Rancangan Tempatan Nilai” and Department of Statistics Malaysia Table 2.2 Production and Attraction Rate Attraction per 100 sq.m Production per 100 sq.m floor Land use floor area (morning) area (afternoon) Office 3.7 person / hr 4.05 person / hr Hospital 1.52 person / hr 1.32 person / hr Shopping Centre 0.45 person / hr 0.95 person / hr Primary school 2.5 person / hr 2.5 person / hr High School 2.5 person / hr 2.5 person / hr College / University 2.0 person / hr 1.8 person / hr PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 23
  • 24. Table 2.3 Production and Attraction Rate Production per unit Attraction per unit Land use (morning) (afternoon) Apartment 2.11 person / hr 1.79 person / hr Condominium 2.05 person / hr 1.73 person / hr Flat / low cost house 2.51 person / hr 2.10 person / hr Single story link house 2.21 person / hr 1.81 person / hr Double story link house 2.52 person / hr 2.15 person / hr Semi-detached house 2.55 person / hr 2.17 person / hr Bungalow house 2.65 person / hr 2.25 person / hr Table 2.4 Production and Attraction Commercial Production Attraction of Residential Zone premises Residential Unit commercial premises Unit (unit) (m2) (trips/hour) (trips/100m2) Bandar Baru 97708 14332500 246224 64496 BangiBandar Seri Putra 24862 1783600 62652 8026 Kajang 55721 45560200 140417 205021 Nilai 3 24017 2744000 60523 12348 Putrajaya 84488 24010000 212910 108045 TOTAL 722,726 397,936 2.3 TRIP DISTRIBUTION Trip distribution is the second component in the four-step transportation forecasting model. It also identified as destination choice or zonal interchange analysis. This step matches trip PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 24
  • 25. makers’ origins and destinations to develop a “trip table”, a matrix that displays the number of trips going from each origin to each destination. Table 2.5 to Table 2.7 are shown how to assign the trip pattern (O–D Matrix) and has produce the distribution diagram as presented in Figure 2.3 below. Table 2.5 Adjusted Productions and Attraction Commercial Production Attraction of Residential Zone premises Residential Unit commercial premises Unit (unit) (m2) (trips/hour) (trips/100m2) Bandar Baru 97708 14332500 246224 64496 BangiBandar Seri Putra 24862 1783600 62652 8026 Kajang 55721 45560200 140417 205021 Nilai 3 24017 2744000 60523 12348 Putrajaya 84488 24010000 212910 108045 TOTAL 722,726 397,936 BALANCED 560,331 Table 2.6 Matrix Balancing Production Attraction of Balanced Residential commercial Production Attraction of Zone Unit premises Residential Unit commercial premises (trips/hour) (trips/100m2) (trips/hour) (trips/100m2) Bandar Baru 246224 64496 190898 90817 BangiBandar Seri Putra 62652 8026 48574 11302 Kajang 140417 205021 108866 288688 Nilai 3 60523 12348 46924 17387 Putrajaya 212910 108045 165069 152137 TOTAL 722726 397936 560331 560331 AVERAGE 560331 TOTAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 25
  • 26. Table 2.7 Trip Pattern (O – D Matrix) Destination Bandar Bandar TOTAL Zone Baru Seri Kajang Nilai 3 Putrajaya Bangi Putra Bandar Baru 30940 3850 98353 5922 51831 190897 Bangi Bandar Seri 7873 980 25026 1507 13189 48574Origin Putra Kajang 17645 2196 56089 3377 29558 108865 Nilai 3 7605 946 24175 1456 12740 46923 Putrajaya 26754 3329 85045 5121 44818 165068 TOTAL 90817 11302 288688 17383 152137 560327 PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 26
  • 27. 24175 Kajang 2196 3377 25026 98353 17645 29558 85045 26754 Putrajaya Bangi 51831 3329 3850 13189 7873 7605 Bandar Seri Putra 5922 12740 5121 946 1507 Nilai 3 Figure 2.3 Trip Distribution Diagram2.4 MODAL SPLITModal split is a traffic or transport term that describes the number of trips or (more common)percentage of travellers using a particular type of transportation. The term is often used whenanalysing the sustainability of transport within a city or region. In recent years, many citieshave set modal share targets for balanced and sustainable transport modes, particularly 60%of using private transport and 40% of public transport. There are factors influencing the choice of mode and may be listed under the twogroup. The following features are found to be important as presented in Figure 2.4. Figure 2.5is shown the structure on how the decision is made. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 27
  • 28. Car availability and/or car ownershipCharacteristic of Possession of the a driving license the trip maker Household structure Household incomeCharacteristic of Distance to the transport facilitiesthe journey Travel time Travel cost ( fares and fuel )Characteristic of Car park availability and cost the transport facilities Comfort and convenience Reliability and regularity Protection and security Figure 2.4 Factors influencing the mode choice PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 28
  • 29. All Trips Choice Non-motorized Motorized trip Choice Public Private Choice Choice Bus Rail based M / Cycle Car Figure 2.5 Decision Structure2.5 TRIP ASSIGNMENTOnce determined the number of trips that will enter and leave each zone, as well as thetransportation modes that the travellers will use, the exact roadways or routes that will beselected for each trip have to be identified. Trip assignment involves assigning traffic to atransportation network such as roads and streets or a transit network. Traffic is assigned to available transit or roadway routes using a mathematicalalgorithm that determines the amount of traffic as a function of time, volume, capacity, orimpedance factor. There are three common methods for trip assignment: all or nothing,diversion, and capacity restraint PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 29
  • 30. 3.0 PROPOSAL TO CATER FOR TRAFFIC DEMAND IN 2020In determination of suitable mode of transport for the Kajang-Bandar Baru Bangi-Putrajaya-Bandar Seri Putra-Nilai 3, some of the aspect should be considered. Aspect of considerationcover physical development enhanced bus and taxi services and enhanced terminal facilitiesto accelerate modal shift.3.1 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTBased on the calculation and diagrammatic of O – D matrix, we proposed the Light RailTransit (LRT) as public transport network in Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi – Putrajaya -Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3. LRT is able to support the rapid growth and spread developmentin the study area.3.1.1 Proposal for LRT LineLight rail or light rail transit (LRT) is a form of urban rail public transportation that generallyhas a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacityand higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems. Figure 3.1 Light Rail Transit PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 30
  • 31. LRT as shown in Figure 3.1 is suitable for radial movement. It can be used for highdensity and high plot ratio area. The characteristics of the LRT are stated in Table 3.1.1.1below: Table 3.1 Characteristic of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) Characteristic Description Speed Up to 40 km/hr Couch 2 -6 couches per train Up to 40,000 Capacity passengers/hr/direction Acceleration/deceleration ~ 1.2 m/s2 1000 or 1435mm Rail gauge Headway > 120s Power Supply 750 V dc Sub-station 3-5 km spacing Proposing LRT as the public transport network is due to the advantages as indicatedbelow: i. LRT can provide ample passenger capacity for most corridors in the study area. It has a high capacity and would be able to carry up to 40,000 passengers / hr / direction ii. Minimal passenger waiting times because service is frequent and predictable; ideally, service at least during peak periods is so frequent that passengers feel no need to refer to timetables or to time their arrival at stations. At other times of day, service should be on time and preferably at easily remembered. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 31
  • 32. iii. Reducing the road or surface congestion because it has vehicle floors level with station platforms. Therefore travel times of passenger are reduced greatly as compared to those who travel by taking road-based public transport. iv. The consumption energy required is as low as possible to maintain motion due to the small friction generated by the LRT’s steel wheels rolling on the steel track by using the normal technology. v. On the other hand, LRT also minimal the stopped time. It stops only at dedicated stations, more widely spaced than local bus stops. It will lead to reduction of travel time. As little time as possible is lost due to stopped time at stations, traffic signals, or other traffic conflicts. Stopped time at stations can be minimized by collecting fares on station platforms rather than as passengers enter vehicles, by providing station platforms level with car floors, for rapid entry and exit vi. Uses traffic signal priority or preemption and other traffic and operations management methods and technologies to provide on-time, predictable arrival times with minimal delay; vii. Provides a smooth, quiet ride at average speeds often competitive with travel by private car; viii. No air pollution are produced since LRT operated by using DC electrical power source. There are 5 LRT stations are proposed in the transport network in Kajang - BandarBaru Bangi – Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3. A station is proposed for each area asrevealed in Figure 3.1.1.1 to Figure 3.1.1.5. The proposed station is located by consideringthe land use of the area. The location should be nearby to the commercial area, shopping areaand residential area. It also closes with other mode of public transport such as bus, taxi andcommuter. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 32
  • 33. LEGEND : Proposed LRT Station Proposed LRT Line Figure 3.2 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Kajang LEGEND : Proposed LRT Station Proposed LRT LineFigure 3.3 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Bandar Baru Bangi PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 33
  • 34. LEGEND : Proposed LRT Station Proposed LRT Line Figure 3.4 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in PutrajayaLEGEND : Proposed LRT Station Proposed LRT Line Figure 3.5 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Bandar Seri Putra PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 34
  • 35. LEGEND : Proposed LRT Station Proposed LRT Line Figure 3.6 Proposed LRT Station and LRT Line in Nilai 33.1.2 Proposal for Enhanced Bus and Taxi ServicesTo enhanced bus and taxi services to accelerate modal shift, following are the service toupgrade and comfort the user:a) Increase the Number of Buses and TaxisMore buses and taxis have to be provided to overcome the rapid growth of development.b) Increase the Trip FrequencyThe routes provide access to and between many rail stations for thousands of passengerseveryday should have to cover more area. The trip frequency rate has to be increased in orderto reduce their travel time.c) Location of the Bus Stand and Taxis StandLocation of the terminal must be easy to access by passenger. For example, recommended tonearby the commercial area, shopping centre and institution area. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 35
  • 36. d) Bus LaneWe proposed lane restricted to buses. Generally, it is use to speed up public transport thatwould be otherwise held up by traffic congestion. Often taxis and high occupancy vehicles ormotorcycles may use bus lane as well, though these uses can be controversial since they canreduce the capacity of the bus lane for its originally intended function. Bus lanes are a centralpart of bus rapid transit. Some area in Kuala Lumpur already has the bus lane. However, theroad marking is not effective and certain road users did not aware the existence of the lane.Therefore, we recommend proposing better road marking bus lane as indicate in Figure 3.7. Figure 3.7 Bus lane proposede) Bus and Taxis FacilitiesBus and taxis should provide with air-conditioner in order to comfort the user.f) Feeder BusFeeder bus services and taxi are required in each LRT terminal to picks up and deliverspassengers to a rail rapid transit station or express-bus stop or terminal to others area. Purposeof the feeder bus services and taxi service is for the convenience of passengers using LRT railnetworks. The integrated fare system should be offered to allow passengers who useintegrated smart ticketing management to enjoy the free feeder bus. For example, theNadiPutra buses as shown in Figure 3.8 provide the feeder bus services for commuting within PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 36
  • 37. Putrajaya and Cyberjaya’s Persiaran Multimedia. Therefore, we proposed to apply the sameservice in Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3. Figure 3.8 Nadi Putra feeder busg) Upgrade Design of the Bus Stand and Taxi StandFrom our observation, both of the bus services and taxi service in the study area have to beupgraded. However, we proposed to build a new bus and taxi terminal in certain area likeBandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3 because this area did not have any public transport terminal.Table 3.2 below indicated our proposal. A proper design has to be suggested to provide acomfortable and safe environment to the waiting passenger. The bus and taxi stand should beable to protect passenger from weather and unexpected incident like proposing coveredwalkway and rail as shown in Figure 3.9. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 37
  • 38. Table 3.2 Proposal for Bus Terminal and Bus Stand Zone Bus Stand Bus Terminal Kajang Upgrade Upgrade (1 number of bus terminal) Bandar Baru Bangi Upgrade - Bandar Seri Putra - Proposed new (1 number of bus terminal) Proposed new (1 number of bus Nilai 3 - terminal) Figure 3.9 Upgrade Buses and Taxi Standh) Electronic Information of Signage and TimetableTo upgrade the signage visibility size in order to ease the user like propose electronicinformation system as shown in Figure 3.10. Furthermore, information board must providemore information regarding the time table and location of the bus or taxi. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 38
  • 39. Figure 3.10 Electronic Information Systemsi) Park and RidePark and facilities are car parks with connections to public transport that allow commutersand other people wishing to travel into city centre to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus,rail system (rapid transit, light rail or commuter rail) for the rest of their trip. The vehicle isstored in the car park during the day and retrieved when the owner returns. From our observation, all rail station should offers park and ride facilities as shown inFigure 3.11. However, their service can be upgraded by accommodate with a ticket machineoffering integrated fare. Most facilities provide services such as passenger waiting areas andtoilets. Travel information, such as leaflets and posters, may be provided. At larger facilities,extra services such as a travel office, food shop, car wash, cafeteria, other shops and servicesmay be provided. These are often encouraged by municipal operators to improve theattraction of using park and ride. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 39
  • 40. Figure 3.11 Park and Ride Park and ride schemes are often marketed as a way to avoid the difficulties and cost ofparking within the city centre and it is assumed impact in reducing congestion. It also allowscommuters to avoid the stress of driving a congested part of their journey. Park and ridefacilities may suit commuters with alternative fuel vehicles, which often have reduced range.3.2 POLICY DEVELOPMENTThere are several proposal policy update that we would like to suggest for the interest of thepublic transport in the Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi - Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3corridor and also to the public transport fraternity as a whole which includes as per below:(a) Public transport to be given great priority for the benefit of the economy, environment, health, education and welfare of the Malaysian citizen.(b) Strong financial and law support from the government for public transport usage. Encourage citizen to use public transport by providing excellent public transport facility.(c) Limit and discourage public vehicles dependency (e.g. via increasing parking fare, limit parking area).(d) Provide performance incentives to outstanding and efficient public transport operators.(e) Make special lane for the public transport operation to provide for efficient operation. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 40
  • 41. 3.3 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENTWe would like to propose for several traffic management plan in which can assist to :(a) Shorten travel time.(b) Reduce traffic congestion.(c) Promote uniform traffic flow.(d) Manage matters on traffic safety problems.(e) Increase efficiency of overall traffic management operation.(f) Better disseminate of traffic information.(g) Assist to organize on better travel planning (e.g. choice of routes, modes and schedules).(h) Improve emergency assistance for motorists and commuters.(i) Improves utilization of available road capacity.(j) Manage safety and security along construction zone areas and special occasion events.(k) Long term transport planning.(l) Improve quality of life.By that, we would therefore like to suggest on the followings traffic managementdevelopment which includes:(a) Utilizing Intelligent Traffic Information System (ITIS) for the Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi - Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3 corridor. This includes adaptation of the traffic management system and traveler’s information system. Traffic management system detects traffic congestion whilst the traveler’s information system provide real time travel database. This includes Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) surveillance cameras to monitor traffic situation and Variable Message Signs (VMS) boards for traffic information dissemination along major roads.(b) Deployment of traffic management officers at certain areas for a certain time of period. This can be use to manage traffic conflicts at certain situations and fend of traffic offenders where necessary. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 41
  • 42. 4.0 COST ESTIMATION4.1 COST BREAKDOWNBelow is the cost breakdown of the cost estimation for every proposed public transportenhancement. All cost is estimate figures only. Table 4.1 Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line CostNo. Items Quantity Base price Cost 1 Land Acquisition LS RM 50 mil RM 50 mil 2 Construction of LRT Lines 30 km RM 60 mil/km RM 1.8 bil 3 Construction of LRT Stations 5 nos RM 5 mil/station RM 25 mil 4 Relocation of public amenities LS RM 20 mil RM 20 mil 5 Advertisement LS RM 5 mil RM 5 mil SUB TOTAL RM 1.9 bil 6 Professional Cost (5%) LS 5% x RM 1.9 bil RM 95 mil SUB TOTAL RM 1.995 bil 7 Contingencies (10%) LS 10% x RM 1.995 RM 199.5 mil bilTotal Cost For Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line RM 2.1945 bil PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 42
  • 43. Table 4.2 Bus and Taxi Services CostNo. Items Quantity Base price Cost1 Land Acquisition LS RM 20 mil RM 20 mil2 Construction of bus terminal 2 nos RM 7 mil/station RM 14 mil3 Upgrading of bus terminal 1 nos RM 2 mil/station RM 2 mil4 Upgrading of bus stops 50 RM 0.02 mil RM 1 mil5 Relocation of public amenities LS RM 20 mil RM 8 mil6 Advertisement LS RM 1 mil RM 1 mil SUB TOTAL RM 46 mil7 Professional Cost (5%) LS 5% x RM 2.3 mil RM 2.3 mil SUB TOTAL RM 48.3 mil8 Contingencies (10%) LS 10% x RM 48.3 RM 4.83 mil mil Total Cost For Bus And Taxi Services RM 53.13 mil Table 4.3 Intelligent Traffic Information System (ITIS)No. Items Quantity Base price Cost1 Land Acquisition LS RM 10 mil RM 10 mil2 Construction of ITIS building 1 RM 7 mil RM 7 mil3 Traffic Management System LS RM 5 mil RM 5 mil4 Traveler’s Information System LS RM 1 mil RM 1 mil5 Relocation of public amenities LS RM 1 mil RM 1 mil6 Advertisement LS RM 1 mil RM 1 mil SUB TOTAL RM 25 mil7 Professional Cost (5%) LS 5% x RM 1.25mil RM 1.25mil SUB TOTAL RM 26.25mil8 Contingencies (10%) LS 10% x RM RM 2.625 mil 26.25mil Total Cost For Intelligent Traffic Information System (ITIS) RM 28.875 mil PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 43
  • 44. 4.2 Cost SummaryBelow is the cost summary of all the proposed works to be done. Table 4.4 Summary CostNo. Items Cost 1 Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line RM 2.1945 bil 2 Bus And Taxi Services RM 53.13 mil 3 Intelligent Traffic Information System (ITIS) RM 28.875 mil GRAND TOTAL RM 2.2765 bil4.3 RETURN ON INVESTMENTIt is assumed that the return on investment will be as per below:Light Rail Transit (LRT) LineAssume:Total trips : 560327 trip/hrTotal hours : 8 hoursTicket price : RM 2/dayUsage : 40% of total trips per dayRevenue per year : 560327trips x 40% usage x RM2/day x 365days = RM 163.615 mil PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 44
  • 45. Bus and Taxi ServicesAssume:Total trips : 560327 trip/hrTotal hours : 8 hoursTicket price : RM 2/dayUsage : 30% of total trips per dayRevenue per year : 560327trips x 30% usage x RM2/day x 365days = RM 122.712 milSo therefore, total years to obtain back investment are 8 years. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 45
  • 46. 5.0 CONCLUSIONThis report is prepared to study the public transport demand and requirement for the town ofKajang, Bandar Baru Bangi, Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3. From the study, wehave identified some problems that occurred in the existing public transport system such asunsuitable location of bus stop and taxi station, limited inter-city bus trips and bad timemanagement where there is no punctuality for arrival and departure of public transport.Besides, some of the area such as Bandar Seri Putra still does not have the public transport toreach there. Thus, in order to solve this problem a new public transportation system was proposedfor this area of study. We are proposing the implementation of Light Rail Transit (LRT) asanother modal transport in this area of study in order to reduce the traffic congestion and tohelp facilitate the passengers to go there. We can also upgrading the existing publictransportation system to attract more users to use the system. By using the publictransportation efficiently, it may give good impact to road capacity and thus can reducingtraffic congestion. As a conclusion, a good public transportation is important to support the achievementof economic development, urban regeneration and social inclusion. It can also contributetowards improvements to health and fitness and raising educational standards. These factorscan contribute to improve the quality of life for the people in Kajang, Bandar Baru Bangi,Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3 town. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY 2011/2012: PAGE 46

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