considered as one of the founders of philosophy of history
first to create a political science based on the studying of historical actions
“ Machiavellian” and “Machiavellianism”
- suggesting the principles of conduct laid down by Machiavelli
What is The Prince all about? What is Machiavelli’s intention for writing it?
Chapter 15 Concerning things for which men, and especially princes, are praised or blamed Chapter 16 Concerning liberality and meanness Chapter 17 Concerning cruelty and clemency, and whether it is better to be loved than feared Chapter 18 Concerning the way in which princes should keep faith Chapter 19 That one should avoid being despised and hated Chapter 21 HOW A PRINCE SHOULD CONDUCT HIMSELF SO AS TO GAIN RENOWN Chapter 22 Concerning the secretaries of princes Chapter 23 How flatterers should be avoided Chapter 24 WHY THE PRINCES OF ITALY HAVE LOST THEIR STATES Chapter 23 WHAT FORTUNE CAN EFFECT IN HUMAN AFFAIRS AND HOW TO WITHSTAND HER
Chapter 15 Concerning things for which men, and especially princes, are praised or blamed
REALIST vs. IDEALIST
“… because how one lives is so far distant from how one ought to live, that he who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin that his preservation; WHAT IS YOUR IDEAL MAN/WOMAN?
A PRINCE SHOULD KNOW HOW TO BEHAVE BADLY.
“ It is necessary for a prince wishing to hold his own to know how to do wrong, and to make use of it or not according to necessity.” ` “… for human conditions don’t permit it, it is necessary for him to be sufficiently prudent that he may know how to avoid the reproach of those vices which would lose him his state.”
+ = Chapter 15 Concerning things for which men, and especially princes, are praised or blamed
Chapter 16 Concerning LIBERALITY AND MEANNESS “ Liberality exercised in a way that does not bring you the reputation for it, injures you.” WHAT IS THE PITFALL OF GENEROSITY? A prince should not mind having a reputation of being mean as long as he can keep his resources enough, he can defend himself against all attacks, and he does not burden his people by engaging in enterprises. Pope Julius the Second vs. King of France King of Spain and his conquests
Chapter 16 Concerning LIBERALITY AND MEANNESS 2. A prince must not neglect any opportunity of having a reputation for liberality. 3. A prince must be generous to his army.
Chapter 17 Concerning CRUELTY AND CLEMENCY, AND WHETHER IT IS BETTER TO BE LOVED THAN FEARED “ A prince, so long as he keeps his subjects united and loyal, ought not to mind the reproach of cruelty; because with a few examples he will be more merciful than those who, through too much mercy, allow disorders to arise, from which follow murders and robberies; for these won’t injure the whole people, whilst those executions which originate with a prince offend the individual only.
Chapter 17 Concerning CRUELTY AND CLEMENCY, AND WHETHER IT IS BETTER TO BE LOVED THAN FEARED Cesare Borgia Effect: Romagna was unified and was restored peace and loyalty. Hannibal Effect: Every conquest and war he and his people had went victorious. iFear iLove If you cannot be both loved and feared, then it is better to be feared than loved.
Chapter 18 Concerning THE WAY IN WHICH PRINCES SHOULD KEEP FAITH According to Machiavelli, there are two ways of fighting: by law (proper for men) by force (proper for animals) A prince must know how to fight both ways in order to be keep his power. (Example: Achilles with Chiron) A prince must have the qualities of both the fox and the lion; one is useless without the other. Like a cunning fox, a wise prince should be willing to break his pledge if it serves his interests.
Chapter 18 Concerning THE WAY IN WHICH PRINCES SHOULD KEEP FAITH “ Therefore a prince will not actually need to have all the qualities previously mentioned, but he must surely seem to have them. Indeed, I would go so far as to say that having them all and always conforming to them would be harmful, while appearing to have them would be useful.” History shows that leaders who practiced deceit overcame those that lived by their pledges.
Chapter 19 That one should avoid being despised and hated Being hated or despised = conspiracy and assassination Two main groups the prince must court: 1) the nobles 2) the people Ex. 1445 assassination of Annibale Bentivoglio (ruler of Bologna) -> Sante Bentivoglio was supported by the Sforza family
Chapter 21 How a prince should conduct himself as to gain renown Conquests and daring deeds are the first ways to enhance one’s reputation. Ex. King Ferdinand of Spain attacked Granada, Italy, France, and Africa. With regard to internal affairs, a prince should always find sensible ways to punish and reward extraordinary actions. He should not remain neutral.
On being neutral: If neighboring rulers fight, a prince should always take sides. If he does not, the winner will threaten him and the loser will not befriend him. On giving merits: A prince should reward merit and encourage prosperity, because achievements by the citizens improve the state. Chapter 21 How a prince should conduct himself as to gain renown
Chapter 22 Concerning the secretaries of princes A prince’s wisdom will be judged by the quality of his ministers and civil servants.
Three (3) types of minds (intelligence):
capable of thinking for itself (best)
capable of understanding the thinking of others (good)
capable of thinking neither the first nor the second
A prince must honor and entrust duties to the loyal and most trusted minister generously.
Chapter 23 How flatterers should be avoided A prince should be careful in choosing who he listens to. He should have a group of wise counselors from whom he would seek truthful advice on matters he asks about. However, the decisions should be made by the prince. Ex. Maximilian II – never consulted and kept changing his mind. fickle-mindedness = bad reputation
Chapter 24 WHY THE PRINCES OF ITALY HAVE LOST THEIR STATES a hereditary prince VS. a new prince The princes of Italy have lost their kingdoms due to: - their reliance on mercenary armies. - failure of keeping the favor of the people and nobles Only those methods that come from one’s own resourcefulness are good, certain, and enduring.
Chapter 25 WHAT FORTUNE CAN EFFECT ON HUMAN AFFAIRS AND HOW TO WITHSTAND HER FORTUNE ALONE = BIG RISK OF FAILING There’s nothing that we do that does not involve any risk. FORTUNE + EFFORT = BIGGER RISK OF SUCCEEDING The greatest princes in history tend to be ones who take more risks, and rise to power through their own labor, virtue, prudence, and particularly by their ability to adapt to changing circumstances.
DOES MACHIAVELLI MAKE SENSE? DOES THE END JUSTIFY THE MEANS?
Font: Times New Roman Verdana Calibri Font Size: 11/12 DOES THE END JUSTIFY THE MEANS? Explain your answer by putting into context the Philippines’ political situation. Paper Size: 11” x 8.5” Margin: 1” all sides Single Spacing 450 – 750 words Deadline: December 5, 2011 (Monday) 4:30 PM