Learning a language is like
fragrance of a flower…
Time is Money
“I’m tearing blood”
My love is like fire
• Metaphors are widely used in the English language. Its
popularity has never ceased since its debut in the
ancient days of Aristotle, and even beyond.
• Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD):
“Metaphors” is defined as “A word or phrase used to
describe somebody/something else, in a way that is
quite different from its normal use, in order to show
that the two things have the same qualities and to
make the description more powerful.
Categories of metaphors
• Linguistically, metaphors can be categorized into three
main areas, which are:-
• Metaphors as style in speech and writing
a metaphor qualifies as an analogical style of writing. This
enables an expression, which can be either words or
phrases, to suggest the similarities of an entity to another.
• Metaphors as foundational to our conceptual system
metaphors serve to facilitate the understanding of an
abstract conceptual domain to a more familiar one.
Types of Metaphors
1. Extended Metaphor (Telescoping Metaphor)
• used to extend or amplify the degree of a pre-existing metaphor
• a new, original metaphor which is used to replace a rather clichéd one.
3. Mixed Metaphors
• Metaphors which do not have anything to do with one another and are
4. Absolute Metaphor
• a metaphor, as an image, overshadows its original situation.
5. Implied Metaphor
• indirectly mean something, and this is usually, easily guessed.
6. Dead Metaphor
• overused and has lacked its lustre in its language, it is coined
7. Dormant Metaphor
• formed when a sentence is incomplete.
8. Synecdoche Metaphor
• rather similar to implied metaphors. Unlike the implied metaphor
which uses certain terms to indirectly represent something, a
synecdoche metaphor is one which uses only a part of an object
used to represent the whole.
9. Root Metaphor
• enable other metaphors to take birth from them.
• can be used as a form of generalization.
10. Active Metaphor
• often used in poetries and eloquent speeches to stimulate readers
or listeners. It is new and not established.
11. Submerged Metaphor
• first part of the metaphor is implied
12. Dying Metaphor
• are too familiar to the extent that they are no longer used, but are
13. Conceptual Metaphor
• has many metaphoric meanings in them. The underlying
meaning brings us a universal concept.
• are exaggerated to the extent where it is often illogical.
15. Simple Metaphor (Tight Metaphor)
• have only one meaning and one linkage.
16. Implicit Metaphor
• are used to show implications of one to another.
17. Compound Metaphor (Loose Metaphor)
• In certain situations or cases, an author might need the help of more than
one similar metaphor to bring volume to the existing meaning.
Therefore, a compound metaphor is made up of more than one similarity.
18. Complex Metaphor
• is a multi-layered metaphor.
19. Primary Metaphor
• associate concepts that are equally basic in the sense that they are both
directly experienced and perceived.
20. Conventional Metaphor
• commonly used in everyday language
• We hardly noticed them as we do not know they are metaphors.
• In Literature, or any other writings for that
matter, do rely on the use of figurative writing.
• Figurative writing encompasses a wide area
of subjects such as similes and metaphors.
• Through observation, it is found that there are
similarities between similes and metaphors.
• However, their differences exist too.
• For similes, words or links such as “as” and “like” are used.
For metaphors, these two links are not used at all.
Metaphors use “is”, “are”, or “am”.
• This makes metaphors more intimate and more